Article

Effects of peppermint and cinnamon odor administration on simulated driving alertness, mood and workload

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Abstract

Past research indicates the odors of peppermint and cinnamon (1) enhance motivation, performance, and alertness, (2) decrease fatigue, and (3) serve as central nervous system stimulants. Given these results, it is reasonable to expect that the presentation of peppermint or cinnamon odor while driving may produce a more alert and conscientious driver, and minimize the fatigue associated with prolonged driving. In the present study, participants were monitored during simulated driving under three odor conditions (peppermint, cinnamon, non-odor control). Odors were added to low flow oxygen (1.3L/min) via an oxygen concentrator and presented at the rate of 30 seconds every 15 minutes. Measures of cognitive performance, wakefulness, mood, and workload were also assessed. Both cinnamon and peppermint administration led to increased ratings of alertness, decreased temporal demand, and decreased frustration over the course of the driving scenario. In addition, peppermint scent reduced anxiety and fatigue. Periodic administration of these odors over prolonged driving may prove beneficial in maintaining alertness and decreasing highway accidents and fatalities.

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... Olfactory cues can enhance performance, such as improving one's ability to detect targets presented intermittently (Gould & Martin, 2001;Ho & Spence, 2005;Warm et al., 1991). Olfactory cues in the form of peppermint scent can improve simulated driving performance (Martin & Cooper, 2007) and reduce perceived fatigue (Raudenbush et al., 2009). However, it is not clear if the favorable effect of scent can be sustained over a long period due to scent habituation (Johnson, 2011), leading to the suggestion for scent to be emitted intermittently to prevent scent habituation (Dalton & Wysocki, 1996). ...
... Vigilance is defined as "the sustainment of attention over longer periods" (Ilmberger et al., 2001, p. 240). Growing research interest in scent has led to numerous studies examining the role of scents on behaviors, physiological and psychological changes, and control toward cognitive abilities (e.g., Diego et al., 1998;Moss et al., 2003), including its impact on alertness and vigilance (Morrin & Ratneshwar, 2000;Raudenbush et al., 2009;Warm et al., 1991). Johnson (2011) argued that cognition facilitation is related to hedonic qualities of specific odors, in which bergamot and lavender reduced alertness, while peppermint had the opposite effect. ...
... Scent can enhance performance, such as in the contexts of driving, gameplay, and athletics (e.g., Baron & Thomley, 1994;Raudenbush et al., 2002Raudenbush et al., , 2009. Coffee scent significantly improved typing speed and accuracy among participants (Schmitt et al., 2008). ...
Article
Extant studies have revealed enhancing effects of scent on performance. The role of scent, and emission method, in the context of performing repetitive tasks over prolonged duration in promoting alertness, vigilance, and memory was examined. Seventy-three participants were randomly assigned to one of three conditions (no scent, peppermint scent emitted continuously, or peppermint scent emitted intermittently) while tasked to monitor and identify suspicious cues for close to 2 hr. Pre- and post-intervention surveys, psychomotor vigilance test, and eye tracker were used as study instruments. Results showed that scent directly enhanced information recall and mitigated the deterioration of alertness, especially as subjects became fatigued. Intermittent emission showed stronger effects over continuous emission in marginally enhancing alertness and memory. Scent did not appear to promote greater vigilance. Suggestions for future studies and implications for management of employees in fatigue situations are discussed.
... Nevertheless, the choice of scents, the elicitation of specific emotions, and the impact of olfactory stimulation on the driving behaviour in these products are unknown. Also, the academic research offers only very few insights on the influence of scents on emotions in the driving process [4,53]. This issue may lead to designers choosing the wrong scent for a specific type of driving behaviour. ...
... Prior studies have revealed that scents can improve drivers' braking performance [43] and have a positive impact on the alertness and emotions of the driver [4,53]. Moreover, olfactory stimulation has been proven to have a positive effect on keeping drowsy drivers awake [66,24,30,51,65]. ...
... Initial findings on the effect of scents on drivers' emotions suggest that the scent of lemon results in a significant increment of participants' positive affect [4], and scents of peppermint and cinnamon reduce frustration [53]. Thus far, there are no studies that aim to determine if olfactory displays can be used to reduce negative emotional states while driving. ...
Conference Paper
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Driving is a task that is often affected by emotions. The effect of emotions on driving has been extensively studied. Anger is an emotion that dominates in such investigations. Despite the knowledge on strong links between scents and emotions, few studies have explored the effect of olfactory stimulation in a context of driving. Such an outcome provides HCI practitioners very little knowledge on how to design for emotions using olfactory stimulation in the car. We carried out three studies to select scents of different valence and arousal levels (i.e. rose, peppermint, and civet) and anger eliciting stimuli (i.e. affective pictures and on-road events). We used this knowledge to conduct the fourth user study investigating how the selected scents change the emotional state, well-being, and driving behaviour of drivers in an induced angry state. Our findings enable better decisions on what scents to choose when designing interactions for angry drivers.
... The positive effect of smell on driving has been evidenced by a number of studies [30,5,39,49,36,16]. In fact, in 2013 Ford has patented the in-vehicle smell notification system [26], while Mercedes-Benz and BMW have already installed the olfactory interfaces in their S-Class 1 and 7 Series 2 vehicles. ...
... This is especially important since congruency between visual and olfactory information mediates the activation of crossmodal semantic representations much stronger than each sensory modality on its own [43]. Previous findings in psychology also showed the arousing [5,39,23] and relaxing [31,28,20,15] effects of different scents on humans, which is very important to consider in the design of interactive olfactory interfaces in HCI. This prior work indicates the potential to convey basic, but yet informative messages, to a person (i.e. ...
... Despite the growing amount of such works in HCI, there have been only a few works tackling olfactory stimulation in the automotive context. The main contributions are targeting drowsiness while driving [50,16,36], alertness and mood of the driver [5,39], and driving performance task [30]. All these previous studies demonstrate the potential of smell to enhance users' experiences, and in particular, introduce a new way of in-car interaction. ...
Conference Paper
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The sense of smell is well known to provide very vivid experiences and to mediate a strong activation of crossmodal semantic representations. Despite a growing number of olfactory HCI prototypes, there have been only a few attempts to study the sense of smell as an interaction modality. Here, we focus on the exploration of olfaction for in-car interaction design by establishing a mapping between three different driving-related messages ("Slow down", "Fill gas", "Passing by a point of interest") and four scents (lemon, lavender, peppermint, rose). The results of our first study demonstrate strong associations between, for instance, the "Slow down" message and the scent of lemon, the "Fill gas" message and the scent of peppermint, the "Passing by a point of interest" message and the scent of rose. These findings have been confirmed in our second study, where participants expressed their mapping preferences while performing a simulated driving task.
... For the user study, we selected peppermint as the olfactory stimulus. Peppermint scent has been proven to have an arousing effect on the central nervous system and has been used in a previous study on attention (Warm et al., 1991;Dember et al., 2001), as well as on workload, work efficiency, and alertness, for example in driving tasks (Raudenbush et al., 2009). To ensure semantic congruency between visual and olfactory stimuli, based on a prior study (Raudenbush et al., 2009), we replaced the traditional "bells" in the Bells Test with a new target symbol (i.e., two small mint leaves, see Figure 2). ...
... Peppermint scent has been proven to have an arousing effect on the central nervous system and has been used in a previous study on attention (Warm et al., 1991;Dember et al., 2001), as well as on workload, work efficiency, and alertness, for example in driving tasks (Raudenbush et al., 2009). To ensure semantic congruency between visual and olfactory stimuli, based on a prior study (Raudenbush et al., 2009), we replaced the traditional "bells" in the Bells Test with a new target symbol (i.e., two small mint leaves, see Figure 2). ...
Article
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When interacting with technology, our attention is mainly driven by audio-visual and increasingly haptic stimulation. Olfactory stimuli are widely neglected, although our sense of smell influences many of our daily life choices, affects our behavior, and can catch and direct our attention. In this paper, we investigated the effect of smell and sound on visuospatial attention in a virtual environment. We implemented the Bells Test, an established neuropsychological test to assess attentional and visuospatial disorders, in Virtual Reality (VR). We conducted an experiment with 24 participants comparing users’ performance in three experimental conditions (smell, sound, smell and sound). Our results show that multisensory stimuli play a key role in driving participants’ attention and highlight asymmetries in directing spatial attention. We discuss the relevance of our results within and beyond Human-Computer Interaction (HCI), particularly with regards to the opportunity of using VR for rehabilitation and assessment procedures for patients with spatial attention deficits.
... Odors have been conrmed being able to trigger automatic and implicit retrieval of mental information representation related to an object a scent is coming from [235] and enable automated access to terms semantically related to scents [236]. Scents are especially ecient in activating the central neural system [237,238,239], what can be important to keep drivers alert and more attentive to the road environment [240]. Scents in human-computer interaction can both act as arousing (e.g., when the driver is tired or inattentive [241,242]) and calming (e.g., when the driver is stressed [243,244]). ...
... These scents have been selected as they have been proven being able to convey driving-relevant information [250,251]. Lemon was chosen for the change to low reliability, because it is known to keep the driver alert [248,240] and to have an arousing eect on users [263]. In contrast, lavender was chosen for the switch to the high reliability level because it is known to help drivers become aware of information they could have missed [251], and as it is one of the most commonly used relaxing stimuli in olfactory research [243,239,264]. ...
Thesis
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Automated vehicles are gradually entering the market and the technology promises to increase road safety and comfort, amongst other advantages. An important construct guiding humans' interaction with safety-critical systems is trust, which is especially relevant as most drivers are consumers rather than domain experts, such as pilots in aviation. The successful introduction of automated vehicles on the market requires to raise the trust of technology skeptics, but at the same time prevent overtrust. Overtrust is already suspected of having contributed to a couple of - even fatal - accidents with existing driving automation systems. Consequently, there is a need to investigate the topic of trust in the context of automated vehicles and design systems which maintain safety by preventing both distrust and overtrust, a process also called "trust calibration". As the possibility to engage in non-driving related tasks is an important consumer desire, this work proposes to consider drivers' multitasking demands already in the vehicle design process to prevent emerging trust issues. Therefore, a framework integrating theoretical considerations from the domains of trust, human-machine cooperation, and multitasking is proposed. By aligning overall goals between the operator and the system whilst supporting drivers in tasks at the strategical, tactical, and operation level of control, a more trustworthy cooperation should be achieved. A series of studies was conducted to identify important dimensions of trust in driving automation as well as scenarios leading to distrust and overtrust. Those scenarios were then used to demonstrate how the structured approach provided by the framework allows for designing in-vehicle interfaces. Three interaction concepts aiming to support drivers in the different levels of automation were designed and evaluated in driving simulator studies. Results highlight the potential of multimodal as well as attentive user interfaces (interruption management) to deal with overtrust, and augmented reality visualizations to raise acceptance of drivers distrusting the automation. All approaches confirmed to improve the subjective trust of the operator and demonstrate the structured approach provided by the framework can assist to design more trustworthy in-vehicle interfaces, which is important for a successful and safe implementation of driving automation systems.
... Norrish and Dwyer [6] investigated the effects of peppermint aroma on an objective measure of daytime sleepiness-the Pupillary Unrest Index-and found a very large effect (d = 1.6) in favour of peppermint aroma when compared to no aroma over an 11-minute recording period. This has been further reinforced by the measurement of subjective state during driving simulations where peppermint produced increases in alertness and reductions in perceptions of demand and fatigue [25]. ...
... Other studies have often implied changes in arousal or alertness to underpin improvements in performance without actually measuring physiological state or subjective mood e.g. Barker et al. [23], or taken a subjective proxy of performance when mood is measured [25]. As a consequence further avenues need to be explored. ...
... For example, it has been shown that odors trigger automatic and implicit retrieval of mental representations of information related to the object the scent is coming from [11], and enable automatic access to terms semantically related to odors [30]. Moreover, scents can be very efficient in activating the central neural system [3,37,65], which is essential to keep the driver alert and more attentive on the road [56]. Scents can also act as an arousing (e.g., when the driver is tired or inattentive [23,73]) or as a calming (e.g., when the driver is stressed [31,46]) stimulus. ...
... We used these two scents as both of them have been used to convey driving-relevant information in the past [16,17]. Lemon was chosen for the change to low reliability, because it is known to keep the driver alert [5,56] and to have an arousing effect on users [34]. Lavender was chosen for the switch to the high reliability level, because it is known to help drivers become aware of information they could have missed when relying only on visual stimuli [16], and as it is one of the most commonly used relaxing stimuli in olfactory research [3,43,46]. ...
Conference Paper
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Overreliance in technology is safety-critical and it is assumed that this could have been a main cause of severe accidents with automated vehicles. To ease the complex task of permanently monitoring vehicle behavior in the driving environment, researchers have proposed to implement reliability/uncertainty displays. Such displays allow to estimate whether or not an upcoming intervention is likely. However, presenting uncertainty just adds more visual workload on drivers, who might also be engaged in secondary tasks. We suggest to use olfactory displays as a potential solution to communicate system uncertainty and conducted a user study (N=25) in a high-fidelity driving simulator. Results of the experiment (conditions: no reliability display, purely visual reliability display, and visual-olfactory reliability display) comping both objective (task performance) and subjective (technology acceptance model, trust scales, semi-structured interviews) measures suggest that olfactory notifications could become a valuable extension for calibrating trust in automated vehicles.
... Specifically, Meamarbashi [18] demonstrated that peppermint odor improves the physiological and exercise performance. Raudenbush et al. [19] found that both cinnamon and peppermint odors improved participants' scores on tasks related to attentional processes, visual-motor response speed, virtual recognition and working memory. In the driving context, Yoshida et al. [20] found out that peppermint enables driver to be in full alert state for 9 minutes on average. ...
... In the experiments the peppermint scent has been used as olfactory stimulus. The reason is that this scent has proven to enhance motivation, performance, and alertness in driving [19] and to stimulate arousal [27]. Each olfactory stimulus has been delivered for 5 seconds, which is an average time sufficient for reaching humans' olfactory apparatus. ...
Conference Paper
More than one million people die per year on world’s road. Researches have identified drivers’ cognitive aspects as the major cause of human errors in 80% of crash events. Driver-Assistance Systems (DAS) have been developed to detect data about vehicle, environment and driver, and to communicate information usually through the senses of vision and hearing. But, the growth of in-vehicle devices increases the visual and auditory demand of the driver. This research aims at investigating whether olfactory stimuli can be used to elicit drivers’ cognitive aspects. An experimental framework has been set up, and testing sessions have been organised. The analysis of the data collected from tests shows that olfactory stimuli are more effective in increasing some subjects’ physiological parameters than the auditory ones. Therefore, smells may be used as a DAS, for increasing drivers’ attention.
... Results of the two aromatics surveys are presented above in Section 1. Key differences between the results show increase in calm, refreshed, and rested for lavender as opposed to increase in energetic and stimulated for peppermint. These results are consistent with the literature in that peppermint tends to be perceived as stimulating while lavender tends to be perceived as calming (Lehrner et al., 2005; Lim, Seo, Lee, Pyo, & Lee, 2005; Moss et al., 2008; Raudenbush et al., 2009). ...
... Peppermint produced an expected increase in terms like energetic and invigorated and a decrease in fatigued and stressed. The internet survey results are consistent with the literature in that, compared to a baseline score, peppermint tends to be perceived as stimulating while lavender tends to be perceived as calming (Lehrner et al., 2005; Moss et al., 2008; Raudenbush et al., 2009). In addition, the responses are consistent with the traditional understanding of these plants and their aromas that likely affect consumer expectations of related products. ...
Article
This paper presents the development of a questionnaire to measure consumer wellness associated with food. The paper describes the selection of the questionnaire items, the validation of the questionnaire content, and the stability of the results. This new questionnaire, consisting of 5 dimensions (emotional, intellectual, physical, social and spiritual), and a total of 45 items, measures expected or perceived wellness response to food names or consumed food. The questionnaire was tested using internet surveys (names of aromatics, peppermint and lavender), and central location tests (different recipes of meatloaf and vegetables). The construct of this questionnaire and data analyses provide not only an overall (calculated) wellness score, but also insights into the dimensions that drive the wellness response and specific foods or ingredient characteristics that drive the wellness response.
... Among these factors, ambient odors (i.e., aromas) have been found to bias an individual's attention towards either global or local representational levels (for reviews, see Herz, 2009;Johnson, 2011). Specifically, it has been suggested that stimulating aromas, such as peppermint (Barker et al., 2003;Colzato et al., 2014;Ho & Spence, 2005;Kovar et al., 1987;Moss et al., 2008;Warm et al., 1991;Raudenbush et al., 2001;Raudenbush et al., 2009;Warm and Dember, 1990), lead to a more focused, exclusive attentional state, whereas relaxing aromas, such as lavender (Basevitch et al., 2011;Diego et al., 1998;Field et al., 2005;Lehrner et al., 2005;Grimes, 1999;Guéguen & Petr, 2006;Moss, Cook, Wesnes, & Duckett, 2003;Sakamoto et al., 2005;Sellaro et al., 2015b) induce a broader, inclusive attentional state. For instance, research has found that being exposed to peppermint aroma improves memory (Moss et al., 2008), sustained visual attention (Warm et al., 1991), dual-task performance (Ho & Spence, 2005), athletic task performance (Raudenbush et al., 2001), and alertness in a driving simulator task (Raudenbush et al., 2009), and affects the allocation of attention in time . ...
... Specifically, it has been suggested that stimulating aromas, such as peppermint (Barker et al., 2003;Colzato et al., 2014;Ho & Spence, 2005;Kovar et al., 1987;Moss et al., 2008;Warm et al., 1991;Raudenbush et al., 2001;Raudenbush et al., 2009;Warm and Dember, 1990), lead to a more focused, exclusive attentional state, whereas relaxing aromas, such as lavender (Basevitch et al., 2011;Diego et al., 1998;Field et al., 2005;Lehrner et al., 2005;Grimes, 1999;Guéguen & Petr, 2006;Moss, Cook, Wesnes, & Duckett, 2003;Sakamoto et al., 2005;Sellaro et al., 2015b) induce a broader, inclusive attentional state. For instance, research has found that being exposed to peppermint aroma improves memory (Moss et al., 2008), sustained visual attention (Warm et al., 1991), dual-task performance (Ho & Spence, 2005), athletic task performance (Raudenbush et al., 2001), and alertness in a driving simulator task (Raudenbush et al., 2009), and affects the allocation of attention in time . In contrast, being exposed to lavender aroma has been found to lessen fatigue (Sakamoto et al., 2005), to promote behavior commitment (Grimes, 1999), to increase the amount of time customers spend in a restaurant and the amount of purchasing (Guéguen & Petr, 2006), and to enhance interpersonal trust (Sellaro et al., 2015b). ...
Article
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Recent studies showed that self-other integration, as indexed by the joint Simon effect (JSE), can be modulated by biasing participants towards particular (integrative vs. exclusive) cognitive-control states. Interestingly, there is evidence suggesting that such control states can be induced by particular odors: stimulating odors (e.g., peppermint aroma) seem to induce a more focused, exclusive state; relaxing odors (e.g., lavender aroma) are thought to induce a broader, more integrative state. In the present study, we tested the possible impact of peppermint and lavender aromas on self-other integration. Pairs of participants performed the joint Simon task in an either peppermint- or lavender-scented testing room. Results showed that both aromas modulated the size of the JSE, although they had a dissociable effect on reaction times (RTs) and percentage of errors (PEs). Whilst the JSE in RTs was found to be less pronounced in the peppermint group, compared to the lavender and no-aroma groups, the JSE in PEs was significantly more pronounced in the lavender group, compared to the peppermint and no-aroma group. These results are consistent with the emerging literature suggesting that the degree of self-other integration does not reflect a trait but a particular cognitive state, which can be biased towards excluding or integrating the other in one's self-representation.
... In addition, other studies showed that mint and cinnamon scents increased driver alertness. Raudenbush B, et al. [48] showed that the vanilla scent helped drivers feel calmer, more concentrated, and more comfortable. The olfactory stimulation could lessen the driver's fatigue, and recent research on releasing this stimulation at the right time is described later. ...
Article
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Paper Published in Ergonomics International Journal: Online communication until now has involved only two of our senses: sight and hearing. However, research is emerging to communicate smell in numerous human-based applications. This paper reviews several general applications of smell, discusses the status of implementing smell to improve road safety, and presents other vital considerations. The general applications include smelling screens, mobile notifications, virtual reality, highway landscaping, outdoor environments, video games, and presentation technology. The road safety implementation addresses driver performance, smell effects on driver performance (cognitive and psychological), and two emerging in-vehicle smell systems (empathetic-car system and CO2 filtration system). Based on this review, can smell be used to improve road safety? The answer is Yes and No since some smell scents positively affect drivers, while others adversely affect them. Other considerations include digital smell technology (DST), driving simulator studies, and online resources. In particular, with the DST, it is possible to sense, transmit, and receive smell through the internet.
... The lemon aroma is known to have high acceptability [60] and it also yielded the lowest percentage of dissatisfaction among all oils in our preliminary experiment. The peppermint aroma was chosen because it has been used in several studies [52,61], and it had neither high nor low acceptability compared to other oils. The control condition was adopted to serve as a comparison to other aroma conditions. ...
Article
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Indoor environment has an appreciable impact on occupants' mood, health and performance. Among numerous indoor environmental components, indoor air quality is often considered to be one of the most crucial ones. While odor is a decisive factor for evaluating perceived indoor air quality, its effects - particularly the positive effects of pleasant aromas - on human responses and performance have yet to be revealed. In this study, experiments were conducted to investigate the effect of indoor aroma on students' mood and learning performance. Participants comprised 76 university students and they performed two learning tasks under one of the four odor conditions: “control (aromaless)”, “rosemary”, “lemon”, and “peppermint.” First, the way in which students sense the indoor aroma in a study space was investigated using several mood scales, including odor intensity, pleasantness, preference, acceptability, and impression. Second, the influence of indoor aroma on learning and memory performance was quantitatively assessed using a reading task and a verbal memory task. Lastly, the impacts of odor preference on subjective evaluation and performance were explored. This experiment showed that subjective evaluations were significantly different before and after olfactory adaptation, particularly in the rosemary condition. Of all three aroma conditions, the lemon aroma had the highest preference and led to the highest scores in the memory task. Although the significant impact of indoor aroma on learning performance was not detected, our results indicated that pleasant aroma has the potential to enhance students’ mood and learning performance.
... Besides the prehistoric and primordial aspects, odor perception has an enormous impact on human development; in fact, recent studies have demonstrated that the cortical areas related to olfactory sense have significant connections with memory, speech and neurovegetative areas. In addition, the role of olfactory signals appears to influence tastes, personality and cognitive functions, such as attentional processes [4], generating memories and emotions and modulating behavior and interpersonal relationships. In this regard, researchers are investigating the characterization of the chemicals signals that cause happiness and fear [5]; the goal is to develop an odor delivery system able to drive the social-emotional state of the subjects, in both a social and clinical scenario, for the treatment of anxiety and depression. ...
Article
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The human sense of smell is important for many vital functions, but with the current state of the art, there is a lack of objective and non-invasive methods for smell disorder diagnostics. In recent years, increasing attention is being paid to olfactory event-related potentials (OERPs) of the brain, as a viable tool for the objective assessment of olfactory dysfunctions. The aim of this review is to describe the main features of OERPs signals, the most widely used recording and processing techniques, and the scientific progress and relevance in the use of OERPs in many important application fields. In particular, the innovative role of OERPs is exploited in olfactory disorders that can influence emotions and personality or can be potential indicators of the onset or progression of neurological disorders. For all these reasons, this review presents and analyzes the latest scientific results and future challenges in the use of OERPs signals as an attractive solution for the objective monitoring technique of olfactory disorders.
... (Raudenbush, 2002;Raudenbush et al., 2001). Relatedly, scents help reduce feelings of fatigue and improve performance when undergoing tiring or difficult cognitive tasks (Ho & Spence, 2005;Raudenbush et al., 2009;Saito et al., 2018). The US military has even reported that introducing a scent during training exercises improved later performance when the scent was present again during subsequent tests (Vergun, 2016). ...
Article
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Humans have deliberately scented their environment for purpose or pleasure for millennia. In the contemporary marketplace most consumers prefer and purchase scented versions of common household products. However, the drivers of this consumer preference have not been elucidated. To explain the attraction to scent in household products we propose a novel three-factor framework, comprising functional benefits (malodor mitigation, base odor coverage, freshening), in -use experience benefits (cleanliness, efficacy, pleasure), and emotional benefits (increasing in confidence, mood and nostalgia). To support this framework, we present new data from a market research survey on US consumer purchasing habits and attitudes towards home cleaning, laundry, and air freshening products. Further substantiating our framework, a focused review of olfactory psychological science illustrating the central role of scent in cognition, wellbeing, motivated behavior, and social behavior, as well as sensory marketing research highlights the benefits and implications of scent in consumer household products. Based on our three-factor framework we go on to discuss the potential for scent to influence health and raise issues to consider (such as potential negative responding to fragranced products). We conclude by showcasing new opportunities for future research in olfactory science and on scented household products that can advance the positive impacts of scent.
... As an olfactory stimulus, the peppermint essential oil (Mentha piperita, produced by Pranarom), was applied for its potential in helping to reduce mental exhaustion and stress (Wildwood, 2002). This essential oil may also stimulate affective and cognitive responses of an individual, that is, encourage the individual's alertness (Raudenbush, Grayhem, Sears & Wilson, 2009). ...
Article
Purpose – The purpose of this research is to determine the way functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), as a research tool in neuromarketing, is used and to analyze important elements of conducting such research, as well as defining all relevant terms regarding neuromarketing and consumer neuroscience. Design/Methodology/Approach – The research study focused on conducting an fMRI experiment, using the observation method, survey, and interview methods. Findings and implications – By analyzing all steps in the fMRI experiment procedure and determining how to conduct fMRI research, obstacles in this kind of research were identified to establish what needs to be overcome for proceeding with further studies. Limitations – Numerous limitations included lack of adequate equipment and software, huge administrative barriers, and finding experts capable of conducting this kind of research. Originality – This research study combined the topics of sensory marketing, neuromarketing, and social marketing. Furthermore, it contributes to clearing the path for this kind of research approach in the future, representing a new trend that is here to stay.
... Ambient in-car fragrance can help to mask malodour and hence potentially (functionally) improve the driver's mood Spence, 2008, 2013), and possibly resulting in their driving more safely too (Baron and Kalsher, 1998). Another functional use of scent in the context of driving is to help alert the sleepy motorist (Martin and Cooper, 2007;Raudenbush et al., 2009;Yoshida et al., 2011;Fruhata et al., 2013). At the same time, however, it should be stressed that the higher visual perceptual load of the driver means that their awareness of ambient scent while on the road is likely to be markedly reduced due to what has been termed "inattentional amnesia" (Forster and Spence, 2018). ...
Article
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There is undoubtedly growing interest in the role of scent in the design of multisensory experiences. However, to date, the majority of the research has focused on its use in the (static) built environment. As highlighted by this narrative review, somewhat different challenges and opportunities arise just as soon as one starts to consider olfaction in the case of transportation–what might be called “scent in motion.” For instance, levels of anxiety/stress while traveling are often higher (especially in the case of air travel), while, at the same time, the passenger's personal space is frequently compromised. Four key functional roles for scent in the context of passenger transportation are outlined. They include the masking of malodour, the introduction of branded signature scents, short-term olfactory marketing interventions, and the functional use of scent to enhance the experience of travel. In the latter case, one might consider the use of scent to help reduce the stress/anxiety amongst airplane passengers or to give the impression of cleanliness. Meanwhile, in the case of driving, scents have been suggested as an inoffensive means of alerting/relaxing the driver and may also help tackle the problem of motion sickness. The specific challenges associated with scent in motion are reviewed and a number of future opportunities highlighted.
... A significant antinociceptive activity associated with relieving of headache pain was produced when topically applying peppermint oil combined with ethanol to the forehead and temples areas. Raudenbush et al. (2009) investigated the effect of the scent of peppermint on alertness and mood of drivers and found that and peppermint in combination with cinnamon odor decreased frustration and perceived time pressures and increased alertness of drivers. The peppermint odor was also found to reduced fatigue and anxiety in this situation. ...
Article
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Context: Stress, sleep disorders, and anxiety are common mental health problems affecting many university students. Peppermint, as a traditional herb, may be used as an alternative to stimulant drugs with less adverse effects to deal with mental health problems of the students. Aims: To evaluate the impact of oral Mentha piperita (peppermint) on self-reported memory performance, anxiety, stress, and the quality of sleep in science students at Taibah University. Methods: Eligible participating students were allocated either to the experimental group or the control group. The experimental group was asked to drink either an infusion of fresh aerial parts of peppermint once a day for four weeks, and the control group asked not to drink any peppermint or any other herbs during the study (no treatment). Anxiety, stress, memory performance, and sleep quality of the participating student were assessed by self-reported questionnaires before and after the peppermint treatment. Anxiety in the students was assessed by the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, memory performance was evaluated using the Prospective and Retrospective Memory questionnaire and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index was used to assess the sleep quality and patterns in students. Results: The scores of all the scales and subscales of the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, Prospective and Retrospective Memory, and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index were significantly decreased in the peppermint group in comparison with the control group after four weeks. Conclusions: Peppermint appears to significantly enhance memory, reduce anxiety and stress, and improve the sleep quality of university students.
... A significant antinociceptive activity associated with relieving of headache pain was produced when topically applying peppermint oil combined with ethanol to the forehead and temples areas. Raudenbush et al. (2009) investigated the effect of the scent of peppermint on alertness and mood of drivers and found that and peppermint in combination with cinnamon odor decreased frustration and perceived time pressures and increased alertness of drivers. The peppermint odor was also found to reduced fatigue and anxiety in this situation. ...
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Context: Stress, sleep disorders, and anxiety are common mental health problems affecting many university students. Peppermint, as a traditional herb, may be used as an alternative to stimulant drugs with less adverse effects to deal with mental health problems of the students. Aims: To evaluate the impact of oral Mentha piperita (peppermint) on self-reported memory performance, anxiety, stress, and the quality of sleep in science students at Taibah University. Methods: Eligible participating students were allocated either to the experimental group or the control group. The experimental group was asked to drink either an infusion of fresh aerial parts of peppermint once a day for four weeks, and the control group asked not to drink any peppermint or any other herbs during the study (no treatment). Anxiety, stress, memory performance, and sleep quality of the participating student were assessed by self-reported questionnaires before and after the peppermint treatment. Anxiety in the students was assessed by the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, memory performance was evaluated using the Prospective and Retrospective Memory questionnaire and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index was used to assess the sleep quality and patterns in students. Results: The scores of all the scales and subscales of the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, Prospective and Retrospective Memory, and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index were significantly decreased in the peppermint group in comparison with the control group after four weeks. Conclusions: Peppermint appears to significantly enhance memory, reduce anxiety and stress, and improve the sleep quality of university students.
... Furthermore, we limited the study to two scents, while related research mentions a whole plethora of potentially beneficial odors like rosemary, peppermint, lemon, and many more. For example, vanillin and menthol were shown to have a positive effect on the emotional state of users [1,43] and might thus also be beneficial for motion sickness mitigation, similar to pleasant music [28]. ...
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While automated vehicles are supposed to become places for purposes beyond transportation, motion sickness is still a largely unsolved issue that may be critical for this transformation. Due to its previously shown positive impact on the gastric and central nervous system, we hypothesize that olfaction (in particular the scents of lavender and ginger) may be able to reduce motion sickness symptoms in a non-invasive manner. We investigate the effects of these scents on the driver-passenger in chauffeured drives in a test track study with a reading-span non-driving related task. Evaluation of self-rated (Simulator Sickness Questionnaire, UX Curves) and physiologically measured motion sickness (Electrogastrogra-phy, Electrocardiography), and observations are presented and discussed. Results indicate that the issued scents were detrimental to the well-being of participants in the comparisons between post-task (baseline, scented) and pre-test measurements, with symptoms in the lavender-scented group being perceived as slightly less harsh than in the ginger-scented group. CCS CONCEPTS • Human-centered computing → Empirical studies in HCI; • Applied computing → Computers in other domains.
... Peppermint is one of the mentha species and it's major components are menthol (29%) and menthone (20-30%) (6). Previous research suggests that peppermint aroma can dramatically influence motivation, task activity and alertness (7)(8)(9)(10)(11). The objective of this study was to determine the effect of peppermint aroma on short term DOI Number: 10.5958/2320-608X.2020.00004.9 ...
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Introduction: Aroma therapy is one of the method used to improve alertness, memory and mood enhancements. The previous study conducted on patients suffering from dementia has shown positive effect sleep and improvement in behavior. This pilot study was conducted with Peppermint aroma to see the effect on psychomotor skill and cognitive function.
... Studies have reported that introducing certain type of fragrance can improve attention, vigilance performance and reduce stress [32][33][34][35][36][37][38]. Administering high-valence odors of peppermint and cinnamon showed improvements in vigilance and reaction time to stimuli [39,40]. Several studies have investigated the effects of olfaction on human behavior while doing cognitive vigilance tasks. ...
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This paper presents a review on vigilance enhancement using traditional methods and discusses their contradictory findings. The review highlights the key differences between research findings and argues that individual differences could be a significant contributing factor to the controversial results. In this paper, we found that, traditional enhancement methods are reliable and have significant effects on reducing vigilance decrement. The paper discusses the challenges toward the enhancement techniques and provides evidence to use the traditional enhancement on vigilance studies, regardless of their variations with individual differences.
... Multiple studies have reported that introducing certain types of fragrance can improve attention and vigilance performance, while reducing stress [183][184][185][186][187][188][189]. The administration of high-valence odors like peppermint and cinnamon has particularly shown improvements in vigilance and reaction time to stimuli [190,191]. Furthermore, looking into the effects of olfaction (Olfaction is a chemoreception that forms the sense of smell) on human behavior while doing cognitive vigilance tasks has resulted in various works. A study [192] investigated the effects of ambient scents that are administered while doing vigilance task of anagram and word completion tests. ...
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This paper presents the first comprehensive review on vigilance enhancement using both conventional and unconventional means, and further discusses the resulting contradictory findings. It highlights the key differences observed between the research findings and argues that variations of the experimental protocol could be a significant contributing factor towards such contradictory results. Furthermore, the paper reveals the effectiveness of unconventional means of enhancement in significant reduction of vigilance decrement compared to conventional means. Meanwhile, a discussion on the challenges of enhancement techniques is presented, with several suggested recommendations and alternative strategies to maintain an adequate level of vigilance for the task at hand. Additionally, this review provides evidence in support of the use of unconventional means of enhancement on vigilance studies, regardless of their practical challenges.
... Olfactory stimulation is the most challenging communication channel to apply in the car, due to scent lingering and interpersonal differences [7]. It has been proven to have a positive impact on the alertness and mood of the driver [3,19], drivers' braking performance [13], and on keeping drowsy drivers awake [9,15,24]. Nevertheless, there are still only very few investigations of using smell as a communication channel [5,6]. ...
Conference Paper
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Olfactory notifications have been proven to have a positive impact on drivers. This has motivated the use of scents to convey driving-relevant information. Research has proposed the use of such scents as lemon, peppermint, lavender and rose for in-car notifications. However, there is no framework to identify which scent is the most suitable for every application scenario. In this paper, we propose an approach for validating a matching between scents and driving-relevant notifications. We suggest a study in which the olfactory modality is compared with a puff of clean air, visual, auditory, and tactile stimuli while performing the same driving task. For the data analysis, we suggest recording the lane deviation, speed, time required to recover from the error, as well as the perceived liking and comfort ratings. Our approach aims to help automotive UI designers make better decisions about choosing the most suitable scent, as well as possible alternative modalities.
... Secondly, we need to choose the right scents. Previous work has shown the arousing effect of the scents of peppermint and lemon [6,51] and the calming effect of the scent of lavender [22,41]. Since events like short inter-vehicle distance and lane departure can be classified as highly alerting [13], we decided to assign them to the scents of peppermint and lemon respectively. ...
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Cars provide drivers with task-related information (e.g. "Fill gas") mainly using visual and auditory stimuli. However, those stimuli may distract or overwhelm the driver, causing unnecessary stress. Here, we propose olfactory stimulation as a novel feedback modality to support the perception of visual notifications, reducing the visual demand of the driver. Based on previous research, we explore the application of the scents of lavender, peppermint, and lemon to convey three driving-relevant messages (i.e. "Slow down", "Short inter-vehicle distance", "Lane departure"). Our paper is the first to demonstrate the application of olfactory conditioning in the context of driving and to explore how multiple olfactory notifications change the driving behaviour. Our findings demonstrate that olfactory notifications are perceived as less distracting, more comfortable, and more helpful than visual notifications. Drivers also make less driving mistakes when exposed to olfactory notifications. We discuss how these findings inform the design of future in-car user interfaces.
... Previous literature has indicated that both peppermint and cinnamon are considered to stimulate central nervous system, and enhance motivation and alertness [15]. Hayder Alkuraishy [16] showed that ginger played a vital role in acceleration of brain function and improved psychomotor performance, leading to significant activation of vigilance, which implied the arousal effect of ginger. ...
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It is widely believed that there is a relationship between scent and music. For example, there is congruence among certain scent, music, and consumers' buying behaviors according to previous study. However, only limited number of scents and music have been analyzed, which is not sufficient to conclude common characteristics of congruence between scent and music in arousal dimension. Consequently, we investigated the effect of scent on the mood evaluation of music by using four kinds of scents and two music samples. Overall, our results showed the arousal quality of scent would effectively modify the perceived arousal level of music, and scent which was congruent with music on arousal could also increase the affirmation of music. These results therefore underline the potential of scent to enhance listening experience, and those working in the music industry may feel progressively further optimistic in adopting appropriate scent to achieve advanced listening experience.
... Commercially available scent products using essentials oils have been proven to positively affect mood, memory, cognitive facilitation, self-perception and confidence as well as having anxiolytic effects (Johnson 2011), whilst pleasurable ambient scents can enhance productivity and promote positive social behaviour (Hertz 2009). Peppermint and cinnamon oil have also been shown to increase alertness and decrease frustration, anxiety and fatigue while driving a car (Raudenbush et al. 2009). ...
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As humans, we are born with no knowledge of odour. Our sense of smell is linked directly to the limbic system, the emotional part of our brain responsible for memory and behaviour, and therefore, our individual sense of smell is based purely on life's deep experiences and impressions. The roots of "Aromatherapy" can be traced back more than 3,500 years, to a time when essential oils were first recorded in human history for their therapeutic and medicinal properties. However, in the 21 st century, it remains one of the most controversial complementary therapies applied in medicine because of its pseudoscience connotations and limited available data on health benefits, despite the importance of smell on human health. Here I introduce the concept of "eScent", an emotionally responsive wearable technology that picks up on your emotions and vital signs and sends a personalisable 'scent bubble' to your nose. It combines sensing and dispensing aromatics for immersive experiences and multiple health benefits. It presents an empowering, sensory intervention and resilience builder that emits mood-enhancing aromas in a controllable way, depending on biofeedback. The advantage of essential oils merged with biometric sensors and intelligent tracking devices (e.g. an Apple Watch), could lead to a new palette of scents that are bio-synchronized to an individual's emotional, mental, and/or physical state and in a real-time manner alleviate high levels of stress, thus preventing the risk of a serious mental ill health relapse. Closure of the loop with wearable scent delivery systems requires an innovative, creative and collaborative approach, crossing many disciplines in psychological related sciences, biotechnology and industrial design. Testing such hypotheses in translational human studies is a matter of future research which could not only lead to valuable "prodromal" interventions for psychiatry, but new stress management tools for people suffering from affective disorders.
... The scents of lemon and peppermint have been employed in a number of olfactory studies [16,4,21,31,37], which supported our choice to apply them. Since both lemon and peppermint are highly arousing, we decided to also include one soothing scent -rose, which has been referred to as relaxing in the related work (see [15]). ...
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When designing olfactory interfaces, HCI researchers and practitioners have to carefully consider a number of issues related to the scent delivery, detection, and lingering. These are just a few of the problems to deal with. We present OSpace - an approach for designing, building, and exploring an olfactory interaction space. Our paper is the first to explore in detail not only the scent-delivery parameters but also the air extraction issues. We conducted a user study to demonstrate how the scent detection/lingering times can be acquired under different air extraction conditions, and how the impact of scent type, dilution, and intensity can be investigated. Results show that with our setup, the scents can be perceived by the user within ten seconds and it takes less than nine seconds for the scents to disappear, both when the extraction is on and off. We discuss the practical application of these results for HCI.
... There was no significant correlation between odor ratings and performance on the creativity tests (S1 Table). There is evidence that cinnamon odor increases attention and memory [44,45], although conflicting evidence [46] was also reported. Since both groups were equally exposed to the odor, any presumed effect of the odor itself would affect both groups. ...
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The placebo effect is usually studied in clinical settings for decreasing negative symptoms such as pain, depression and anxiety. There is interest in exploring the placebo effect also outside the clinic, for enhancing positive aspects of performance or cognition. Several studies indicate that placebo can enhance cognitive abilities including memory, implicit learning and general knowledge. Here, we ask whether placebo can enhance creativity, an important aspect of human cognition.Subjects were randomly assigned to a control group who smelled and rated an odorant (n = 45), and a placebo group who were treated identically but were also told that the odorant increases creativity and reduces inhibitions (n = 45). Subjects completed a recently developed automated test for creativity, the creative foraging game (CFG), and a randomly chosen subset (n = 57) also completed two manual standardized creativity tests, the alternate uses test (AUT) and the Torrance test (TTCT). In all three tests, participants were asked to create as many original solutions and were scored for originality, flexibility and fluency.The placebo group showed higher originality than the control group both in the CFG (p
... Lemon and jasmine [41] are known to increase attention levels, much as peppermint and cinnamon do. Specifically, Raudenbush et al. [42] found that both cinnamon and peppermint, administered either retro nasally or orthonasally, improved subjects' scores on tasks related to attentional processes, virtual recognition memory, working memory, and visual-motor response speed. In addition, subjects rated their mood and level of vigour higher, and their level of fatigue lower, especially when using peppermint. ...
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Books are the tools used for reading novels and stories, but also for educational purposes. Conventional books have undergone a radical transformation in recent years due to the use of new technologies. However, even today the technological devices used for reading e-books are still poorly exploited, despite the fact that they represent a fundamental tool to make the reading experience more immersive by using a complete multisensory approach. In this perspective, one sense that represents an important element of human perception is the sense of smell. Consequently, authors make the hypothesis that the introduction of odours during reading sessions could increase the user experience and the learning performances. In order to demonstrate these hypotheses, the authors have defined and carried out several experimental testing sessions. The analysis of the collected data proved that the introduction of odour does not disturb the reader during reading activities but, on the contrary, can actually make the experience more immersive. Similarly, odours do not disturb studying activities, but they can instead increase the level of concentration and people's learning performance.
... Baron and Kalsher [1] proved that the scent of lemon increases both alertness and the mood of the driver, while Martin and Cooper [6] showed it to have a positive impact on people's braking performance during a simulated driving task. Moreover, Raudenbush et al. [9] demonstrated Permission to make digital or hard copies of all or part of this work for personal or classroom use is granted without fee provided that copies are not made or distributed for profit or commercial advantage and that copies bear this notice and the full citation on the first page. Copyrights for components of this work owned by others than ACM must be honored. ...
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In the field of Human Computer Interaction (HCI), vision and audition have been the dominating modalities for interacting with users. This is despite the fact that humans are equipped with five basic senses. Because of this, there is a limited number of tools that harness the olfactory system as a communication channel. Recently, several promising scent-delivery devices have been developed, however, there is a lack of guidance on how to use them in a meaningful way for different interactive tasks. In this paper, we propose a three-dimensional framework to compare different scent-delivery devices based on the distance, volume, and speed of the scent-delivery. We discuss how this initial exploration can guide the design of in-car olfactory interfaces beyond previous work on drivers' physical and emotional state.
... Their interesting findings show that stimulating senses such as smelling was found to expand the arousal effect.The findings show an obvious resemblance toour findings where using lavender fragrance in the car improve the driver's feelings towards calming, alertness, comfortable, relaxed and feel fresh. Besides, the findings are also consistent with (Raudenbush et al., 2009) where the present of peppermint and cinnamon fragrance increase the alertness of the driver. Vanilla fragrance was successful in increasing ratings of feel calm, alertness, comfort, more focus but high depression. ...
Article
Previous studies have indicated that certain types of fragrance in the vehicle are useful in keeping the driver alert. This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of lavender or vanilla flavor fragrances toward driving performance. Ten human subjects were tested using the driving simulator in three different conditions; driving with vanilla, lavender flavor fragrance and driving without fragrance. A questionnaire was distributed to examine the emotion states of the driver after driving the simulator. Our results indicate that fragrance did not affect the speed reduction. The emotions of the drivers were calm due to the presence of the fragrance.2398-4279 © 2017 The Authors. Published for AMER ABRA by e-International Publishing House, Ltd., UK. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/). Peer–review under responsibility of AMER (Association of Malaysian Environment-Behaviour Researchers), ABRA (Association of Behavioural Researchers on Asians) and cE-Bs (Centre for Environment-Behaviour Studies), Faculty of Architecture, Planning & Surveying, UniversitiTeknologi MARA, Malaysia.Keywords: driving performance, vehicle fragrance, speed reduction
... The impact of Peppermint on psychological variables has largely been approached from an aroma perspective where it has been shown to alleviate pain and reduce depression in arthritis patients (Kim et al., 2005), whilst studies involving healthy participants have demonstrated the potential for enhancement effects. In a study of prolonged simulated driving peppermint aroma inhalation produced increased ratings of alertness, decreased ratings of task demands, anxiety and fatigue, and lessened frustration over the driving simulation procedure (Raudenbush et al., 2009). An investigation into the possible effects of aromas on cognition in healthy young adults revealed that Peppermint improved subjective alertness and enhanced memory (Moss et al., 2008), an effect that may be a consequence of the inhibition of acetylcholinesterase (Kulišić-Bilušić et al., 2008). ...
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This study aimed to assess the acute effects of Peppermint and Chamomile herbal teas on cognitive performance and mood in healthy young adults. A single factor independent groups design was employed. One hundred and eighty undergraduate students volunteered to take part in the study for which they received course credit. Participants were randomly allocated to one of three treatments: Peppermint tea, Chamomile tea or hot water (Control). Mood scales were completed and participants then consumed their drink over a ten minute period and rested for twenty minutes. Cognitive performance was assessed using a tailored version of The Cognitive Drug Research (CDR) computerised assessment system. Post testing mood scales were then completed. Data were analysed using independent groups ANOVAs followed by Tukey post hoc comparisons. The analysis revealed that Peppermint tea significantly improved long term memory and speed of memory compared to both Chamomile and control treatments. Chamomile tea significantly slowed speed of attention and impaired working memory compared to the Peppermint treatment. Peppermint tea significantly increased subjective alertness compared to the Chamomile and control conditions. Chamomile significantly increased subjective calmness compared to the Peppermint treatment. The data show that acute consumption of Peppermint and Chamomile teas can impact on cognition and mood in healthy adults in contrasting directions. The enhancing and arousing effects of Peppermint and calming/sedative effects of Chamomile observed are in keeping with the purported properties of these herbs and suggest beneficial effects can be drawn from their use.
... Their interesting findings show that stimulating senses such as smelling was found to expand the arousal effect.The findings show an obvious resemblance toour findings where using lavender fragrance in the car improve the driver's feelings towards calming, alertness, comfortable, relaxed and feel fresh. Besides, the findings are also consistent with (Raudenbush et al., 2009) where the present of peppermint and cinnamon fragrance increase the alertness of the driver. Vanilla fragrance was successful in increasing ratings of feel calm, alertness, comfort, more focus but high depression. ...
Article
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Previous studies have indicated that certain types of fragrance in the vehicle is effective in keeping the driver alert. This study was conducted to evaluate theeffect of lavender or vanilla flavour fragrances toward the driving performance. Ten human subjects were tested sing driving simulator in three different conditions; driving with vanilla, lavender flavor fragrance and driving without fragrance. A questionnaire was distributed to examine the emotion states of the driver after driving the simulator. Our results indicate that fragrance didnot affect the speed reduction. The emotions of the drivers were calm due to the presence of the fragrance.
... As for peppermint, evidence for its stimulating properties includes an observation that peppermint aroma caused an increase in electroencephalography (EEG) speed and heart rate during sleep (Badia et al., 1990), an increase in CNV magnitude (Manley, 1993;Torii et al., 1998), a decrease in theta activity (Klemm et al., 1992), and enhanced EEG and behavioral arousal during stage 1 sleep (Carskadon & Herz, 2004). However, arguments against the stimulating properties of peppermint include the finding that peppermint aroma produced a significant decrease in gross speed, net speed, and accuracy in a typing task (Barker et al., 2003); more NREM sleep, less REM sleep, and more slow-wave sleep (Goel & Lao, 2006); and increased alertness, decreased temporal demand, and decreased frustration during simulated driving (Raudenbush et al., 2009). ...
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To elucidate the psychophysiological effect of inhaling essential oils, in this paper, we sought to assess the following 12 essential oils: basil, bergamot, cardamom, cinnamon, juniper, lemon, orange, palmarosa, peppermint, sandalwood, spearmint, and ylang ylang. As these being target odors, we focused on the verbal (semantic) and non-verbal (skin temperature) endpoints of the stimuli. In our experimental design, we managed to assign different behavioral tasks to the participants. The Uchida-Kraepelin test was used as a mental arithmetic task and listening to environmental (natural) sounds as an auditory task. In the verbal study, for an example, we conducted the sensory test twice, once before and once after the task. As a measure of the perceived odor quality in participants after inhalation of a given aroma, we employed a sensory evaluation spectrum. It is a bar graph in which the mean of the difference in score between pre-and post-task inquiry (post minus pre) was plotted against the impression descriptors. Taking into account of the obtained skin temperature changes between pre-and post-task inhalations, the subtle nuances between verbal and non-verbal expressions seen as a function of the two behavioral tasks assigned to the participant suggested that essential oils may have versatile psychophysiological potencies by the nature.
... As for peppermint, evidence for its stimulating properties includes an observation that peppermint aroma caused an increase in electroencephalography (EEG) speed and heart rate during sleep (Badia et al., 1990), an increase in CNV magnitude (Manley, 1993, Torii et al., 1988, a decrease in theta activity (Klemm et al., 1992), and enhanced EEG and behavioral arousal during stage 1 sleep (Carskadon & Herz, 2004). However, arguments against the stimulating properties of peppermint include the finding that peppermint aroma produced a significant decrease in gross speed, net speed, and accuracy in a typing task (Barker et al., 2003); more NREM sleep, less REM sleep, and more slow-wave sleep (Goel & Lao, 2006); and increased alertness, decreased temporal demand, and decreased frustration during simulated driving (Raudenbush et al., 2009). ...
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Fewer and fewer people are reaching physical activity recommendations. Therefore, it seems important to make the practice of physical activity more enjoyable to increase the participation rate. Several environmental factors have been studied to see their impact on sports practice, and some studies investigated the effect of odors. This systematic review aims to provide a thorough view of the literature on the effect of different odors on physical activity. The search strategy consisted of using index terms and keywords in MEDLINE, EMBASE, EBM Reviews - Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, CINAHL, SPORTDiscus, and Web of Science search engine. Data from 19 studies that included 421 participants revealed that the odors had different results on strength, cardiovascular, precision, and postural balance tasks depending on the odors' exposition. Among results, an important distinction was made between pleasant and unpleasant odors. Therefore, pleasant odors had better results on physical activity by improving participants' feeling. Even though this review clarified evidence about the effect of odors on physical activity, better methodological consistency is needed across studies such as the odor administration method to produce more meaningful results.
Article
Odours constitute effective context cues, facilitating memory retrieval. Identifying factors which modulate the effectiveness of olfactory context cues can advance the understanding of processes underlying this effect. We hypothesized that the interplay of subjective stress and semantic relatedness between the odour and the learning material would modulate the effectiveness of an olfactory context cue. We further explored the effect of the odorant Hedione, which is a ligand for a putative human pheromone receptor (VN1R1). To this end, 120 participants watched a video of a stressful episode in which visual objects were present, that were either manipulated in the video (central objects) or not (peripheral objects). Participants rated their subjective stress afterwards. After 24 h, recognition and spatial memory of the objects in the video were tested. Ambient during encoding and recall was an odour related to the episode, an unrelated odour, Hedione or no odour. As a result, we observed a narrowing of recognition memory with increased subjective stress elicited by the video - but only if a semantically related odour was ambient. Moreover, higher subjective stress predicted enhanced spatial memory in the no odour condition, but not in presence of a semantically related or unrelated odour. When exposed to Hedione, higher subjective stress predicted impaired recognition and spatial memory of peripheral objects. Our findings stress the importance of considering semantic relatedness between the olfactory context and the encoded episode when applying odours as context cues for emotional or stressful memories.
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Background Sleepiness during the night shift is a common complaint of shift workers, including the nurses. This study investigated the effects of inhaled rosemary oil on sleepiness and alertness of shift-working nurses. Methods Eighty shift-working nurses were selected and assigned randomly into control (n=40) and intervention (n=40) groups. Both groups completed the Karolinska Sleep Questionnaire and Epworth Sleepiness Survey before the intervention. The intervention group received one drop of rosemary essential oil using a mask. The control group received a drop of distilled water instead, after which the questionnaires were completed for a second time. Results The sleepiness mean score in the intervention group reduced from 12.15 to 8.3, while it increased from 11.41 to 13.76 in the control group (P<0.001). The alertness mean scores changed from 4.45 to 3.25 and from 4.41 to 5.34 in intervention and control groups, respectively (P<0.001). Conclusion Rosemary aroma decreased sleepiness and increased alertness in shift-working nurses.
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The article contains a literature review devoted to research on the influence of odours on physiological, emotional, and cognitive aspects of human health. The following databases were used at literature search execution: Pubmed, Scopus, Web of Science, MedLine, Global Health, Russian Research Citation Index. A total amount of 60 sources was analyzed for 1983-2019. The experimental research results aimed at studying the influence of odours on such physiological indices a: heart rate, heart rate variability, arterial blood pressure, respiratory rate, skin conductibility reaction, sleep, are described, and emotional and cognitive characteristics of the test subjects. The response to odours exposure was shown to depend on their intensity, hedonistic tone, the chemical structure of the odorant, as well as individual peculiarities of the test subjects, including their past experiences with smelling. In most cases, exposure to unpleasant odours activates the sympathetic nervous system, therefore heart rate, respiratory rate, skin blood circulation and its conductivity increase. Attention concentration increases at the deterioration of cognitive functions. Anger and repulsion reactions are noted at the emotional level; a feeling of discomfort with a motivation to escape appears. The exposure of pleasant odours leads to parasympathetic nervous system activation, heart rate, respiratory rate, skin conductibility, and blood circulation decrease. Cognitive functions improve, the quality of problem-solving increases, attention concentration decreases. A person’s mood gets better; the sensation of happiness appears. At that literature analysis has revealed most of the studies on the human to have significant restrictions: standard exposure methods absence, the difficulty of execution blind experiments that were deemed to be ignorant by test subjects as well as the influence of individual preferences and previous personal experience on the effects generated by the odour. The authors proposed recommendations on the current restrictions prevention and optimization of conducting the experimental research on the influence of odours on humans.
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Research suggests that speech-based interventions can mitigate driving anger and enhance road safety. The present study found that both positive and negative comments can reduce anger state and perceived workload, and improve driving performance. In addition, positive comment including description of the driving environment and comment on drivers is more effective than negative comment intervention, which is indicated by larger effect size and higher user satisfaction and acceptance. The research findings could provide practical implications on the design of in-vehicle intelligent agents for driving behavior intervention.
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Objective This study aims to quantify the impact of olfactory stimulation and takeover modality on the performance of takeovers in conditionally automated driving. Background Takeover requests are important for the safety of automated vehicles. The reaction time and subsequent performance of drivers in the takeover process are crucial for safety. In this study, peppermint was adopted as an auxiliary modality to the tactile and auditory design of takeover requests. Methods Sixty participants took part in the experiment, which required participants to avoid a stalled vehicle after they were awoken from a state of light sleep by a takeover request. Takeover modality (tactile, auditory, and combined) was the within-subjects factor. In the between-subjects design, half of the participants received a peppermint odor stimulation when the takeover request occurred, and the other half received a placebo (air). Results The presence of peppermint odor did not influence the reaction time, but participants did show signs of being more alert afterwards. For the moment of takeover, use of the auditory modality had a significant positive effect on reaction time compared to the tactile conditions. Conclusion Peppermint odor had a positive impact on drivers’ takeover quality when engaged in nondriving-related activities such as light sleep, and the takeover request modalities were shown to be crucial for a safe and successful takeover. Application The results will be useful as a reference for developers of automated driving systems to design human–machine interfaces, shorten the driver’s reaction time, and improve takeover quality.
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The present study examined the effect of continuous use of a scented sanitary mask on nasal discomfort due to hay fever. Forty participants who suffer from hay fever wore a mint-scented mask or an unscented control mask for 6 h. Participants were periodically prompted to report their nasal discomfort through mobile devices. The results indicated that the scented mask reduced discomfort immediately upon application. However, the effect of the scent became saturated after 30 min of wear. Reactivating the scent produced no additional reduction in the discomfort level. These results suggest that the effect of the sanitary mask’s scent was volatile and limited to the first 30 min of application.
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Aromas are becoming increasingly popular as a topic for scientific research. In this chapter, we review the available studies investigating whether and to which degree distinctive aromas promote cognitive enhancement. In general, it seems that arousing olfactory fragrances (e.g., peppermint) have an effect on memory, attention and cognitive control, whereas calming olfactory fragrances (e.g., lavender) seem to promote prosocial behavior and consumer behavior. We suggest that aromas may be a useful tool to promote cognitive enhancement, but in order to fully understand their mechanism of action more research is necessary.
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The purpose of the study is to investigate if the effects of chewing cinnamon flavored gum can increase mood, feeling and spelling acquisition. 5th grade students (n=22) at Ilshin elementary school in South Korea served as participants. The same students were required to take 4 spelling tests with 1 given every day over the course of 4 days. For the 1st day, students were required to answer pre-questionnaires pertaining to mood and feeling before studying the spelling words. Students were then given 15 minutes to study while using the rote learning techniques to memorize spelling words; however, they were not given any gum. Afterwards, students were required to take the spelling test to determine memorization achievement. Lastly, students were required to retake the post-questionnaires based on mood and feeling again. On days 2-4 the same protocol was performed, however with 5, 10 or 15 minutes of gum chewing. The results indicated that in terms of the test scores, 15 minutes of chewing resulted in better performance than 5 or 10 minutes of chewing. However, there were no significant outcomes related to the mood and feeling scores. Future research should examine the type of information used for the memorization task, since recall vs. recognition tasks may be differentially affected by chewing.
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Conducted 2 experiments to replicate the finding by G. Kobal and C. Hummel (1988) and T. S. Lorig and G. E. Schwartz (see record 1989-18115-001) that low concentration odors affect central nervous system (CNS) activity even when undetected and to determine the behavioral effects of low concentration odor administration. In Exp 1, EEG data were collected while 12 college students were exposed to the odor of galaxolide. Results indicate significant differences in alpha activity between the undetected odor and no odor control conditions. The time necessary to solve a visual search task doubled. In Exp 2, galaxolide was administered while event-related potential (ERP) data were collected. Amplitude of the P200 and P300 component of the ERP increased. P200 changed during administration of the undetected condition, suggesting that odors may be distracting or produce divided attention even when undetected. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Two experiments examined the relationship between time domain patterns of EEG activity and self-reports for individuals exposed to different odorants. In Exp 1, 3 odorants produced different patterns of EEG theta activity and self reports from 9 adults, suggesting that odor administration is a reliable variable in manipulating neurophysiological response systems and may influence performance and mood. In Exp 2, EEG activity was recorded while 10 adults smelled 5 similar commercial odorous chemicals and an unscented base. Ss also completed questionnaires on odor character and mood. Results indicate that few perceptual or mood differences were produced by the odors. EEG alpha and theta activity in the left and right hemispheres, however, differed depending upon the odor presented and was dissociated from self-reports. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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The assertion, often quoted in the popular literature, that peppermint has invigorating properties has been investigated through objective assessment of daytime sleepiness. Pupillary fatigue oscillations have been used to give an index of pupillary unrest that can be used as a reliable measure of daytime sleepiness. When compared with a no-odour condition, the presence of peppermint oil limited the increase in sleepiness during 11 min spent in a darkened room. This significant difference in sleepiness between the peppermint oil and the no-odour conditions was shown not to be related to differences in subjective ratings of initial sleepiness, from the Stanford Sleepiness Scale (SSS). Neither was it related to differences in initial pupillary unrest or mean pupil size. It seems that in conditions that favour an increase in daytime sleepiness, peppermint oil can indeed reduce sleepiness. However, the mechanisms by which peppermint oil has its effect and the applicability of these findings to situations in everyday life will require further empirical investigation.
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Peppermint, a stimulating odor, increases alertness while awake and therefore may inhibit sleep. This study examined peppermint's effects on polysomnographic (PSG) sleep, alertness, and mood when presented before bedtime. Twenty-one healthy sleepers (mean age +/- S.D., 20.1 +/- 2.0 years) completed three consecutive laboratory sessions (adaptation, control, and stimulus nights). Peppermint reduced fatigue and improved mood and was rated as more pleasant, intense, stimulating, and elating than water. These perceptual qualities associated with sleep measures: subjects rating peppermint as very intense had more total sleep than those rating it as moderately intense, and also showed more slow-wave sleep (SWS) in the peppermint than control session. Furthermore, subjects who found peppermint stimulating showed more NREM and less REM sleep while those rating it as sedating took longer to reach SWS. Peppermint did not affect PSG sleep, however, when these perceptual qualities were not considered. Peppermint also produced gender-differentiated responses: it increased NREM sleep in women, but not men, and alertness in men, but not women, compared with the control. Thus, psychological factors, including individual differences in odor perception play an important role in physiological sleep and self-rated mood and alertness changes.
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This study examines the effects of conversation mode and split-attention communication training on driving performance. The study is based on an experiment where drivers with and without communication training (pilots vs. nonpilots) completed a simulated driving course while involved in one of three conversation modes: no conversation, conversation with passenger, or conversation on a hands-free cellular telephone. Results indicate that cellular telephone conversations consume more attention and interfere more with driving than passenger conversations. Cell phone conversations lack the nonverbal cues available during close-contact conversations and conversation participants expend significant cognitive resources to compensate for the lack of such cues. The results also demonstrate that communication training may reduce the hazardous effects of cell phone conversations on driving performance.
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While concerns about road rage have grown over the past decade, states have made it easier for motorists to carry firearms in their vehicles. Are motorists with guns in the car more or less likely to engage in hostile and aggressive behavior? Data come from a 2004 national random digit dial survey of over 2,400 licensed drivers. Respondents were asked whether, in the past year, they (1) made obscene or rude gestures at another motorist, (2) aggressively followed another vehicle too closely, and (3) were victims of such hostile behaviors. Seventeen percent admitted making obscene or rude gestures, and 9% had aggressively followed too closely. Forty-six percent reported victimization by each of these behaviors in the past year. Males, young adults, binge drinkers, those who do not believe most people can be trusted, those ever arrested for a non-traffic violation, and motorists who had been in a vehicle in which there was a gun were more likely to engage in such forms of road rage. Similar to a survey of Arizona motorists, in our survey, riding with a firearm in the vehicle was a marker for aggressive and dangerous driver behavior.