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Applying Dale's Cone of Experience to increase learning and retention: A study of student learning in a foundational leadership course

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OPEN ACCESS World Congress on Engineering Education 2014
Applying Dale’s Cone of Experience
to increase learning and retention:
A study of student learning in a
foundational leadership course
Beverly Davis, Michele Summers
ABSTRACT
The goal of this study will be to examine how Edger Dale’s Cone of Experience is employed to positively
impact student learning in a foundational leadership course. To accomplish this we will examine
student projects in a foundational leadership course at Purdue in which students interactively evaluate
leadership by creating surveys, summarizing the results and developing a leadership guidebook with
practical recommendations. In addition, the authors will survey students who have completed this
project and measure student achievement of learning outcomes as defined as what the student should
know and realistically be able to do by the end of the course. This approach will focus on a self-
assessment survey to gather in-depth understanding of learning and the reasons that student learning
occurred as a result application of Edger Dale’s Cone of Experience. The results will be the why and how
of learning and retention, not just what. This method will produce information only on this particular
course but general conclusions about the application of student projects in any course or discipline
will be inferred.
Our study will show that in the foundational leadership course effective learning was achieved by
applying strategies at the bottom of the pyramid using direct, purposeful learning experiences that
simulates “doing the real thing,” and represents reality or the closest things to real, every-day life.
Cite this article as: Davis B, Summers M. Applying Dale’s Cone of Experience to increase learning
and retention: A study of student learning in a foundational leadership course, QScience
Proceedings (World Congress on Engineering Education 2014) 2015:6
http://dx.doi.org/10.5339/qproc.2015.wcee2014.6
http://dx.doi.org/
10.5339/qproc.2015.wcee2014.6
ª2015 Davis, Summers, licensee
Bloomsbury Qatar Foundation
Journals. This is an open access
article distributed under the terms
of the Creative Commons
Attribution license CC BY 4.0, which
permits unrestricted use,
distribution and reproduction in any
medium, provided the original work
is properly cited.
Purdue University, West Lafayette,
IN 47907, USA
INTRODUCTION
The goal of this study will be to examine how Edger Dale’s Cone of Experience (Figure 1) is employed to
positively impact student learning in a foundational leadership course. To accomplish this we will
examine student projects in a foundational leadership course at Purdue in which students interactively
evaluate leadership by creating surveys, summarizing the results and developing a leadership
guidebook with practical recommendations. In addition, the authors will survey students who have
completed this project and measure student achievement of learning outcomes as defined as what the
student should know and realistically be able to do by the end of the course. This approach will focus
on a self-assessment survey to gather in-depth understanding of learning and the reasons that student
learning occurred as a result application of Edger Dale’s Cone of Experience. The results will be the why
and how of learning and retention, not just what. This method will produce information only on this
particular course but general conclusions about the application of student projects in any course or
discipline will be inferred.
Our study will show that in the foundational leadership course effective learning was
achieved by applying strategies at the bottom of the pyramid using direct, purposeful learning
experiences that simulates “doing the real thing,” and represents reality or the closest things to
reality, everyday life.
BACKGROUND
In 1946, Edgar Dale, introduced the Cone of Experience which shows the progression of experiences
from the most concrete (at the bottom of the cone) to the most abstract (at the top of the cone). The
Cone of Experience purports to inform readers of how much people remember based on how they
encounter the information.
According to Dale’s Cone of Experience (1946) (Figure 2), the base of the cone is characterized by
more concrete experiences, such as direct experiences (real-life experiences), contrived experiences
(interactive models), and dramatic participation (role plays). Direct purposeful experiences represents
reality or the closet things to real, everyday life. The common theme among these levels is learners are
“doing.” The middle of the cone is slightly more abstract and is characterized by learners realistically
Tell
Show
Do
Figure 2. Simple Model of Dale’s Cone of Experience (1946).
People generally
Remember:
10% of what they read
20% of what they hear
30% of what they see
50% of what they hear
and see
70% of what they
say and weite
Analyze
Design
Create
Evaluate
Demonstrate
Apply
Practice
Define
List
Read
Hear
View images
Watch video
Attend exibit/sites
Watch A demonstration
Participate in hands-on workshop
Design collaborative lessons
Simulate or model a reat experience
Design/perfrom a presentation - do the real thing
Describe
Explain
People are able to:
(learning outcomes)
90% of what
they do
Figure 1. Dale’s Cone of Experience.
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Davis and Summers, QScience Proceedings 2015.wcee2014:6
“observing” the experience. These levels are differentiated from the lower levels of the cone because
students do not interact directly with the phenomenon. Levels in this section of the cone include
demonstrations, field trips, exhibits, motion pictures, and audio recordings or still pictures. The peak of
the cone is the most abstract where the experiences are represented non-realistically by symbols,
either visual or verbal i.e. listening to the spoken word.
The cone charts the average information retention rate for various methods of teaching. The further
you progress down the cone, the greater the learning and the more information is likely to be retained.
It also suggests that when choosing an instructional method it is important to remember that involving
students in the process strengthens knowledge retention.
It reveals that “action-learning” techniques result in up to 90% retention. People learn best when
they use perceptual learning styles. Perceptual learning styles are sensory based. The more sensory
channels possible in interacting with a resource, the better chance that many students can learn from
it (Diamond, 1989).
1
According to Dale (1969),
2
instructors should design instructional activities that
build upon more real-life experiences. Dale’s Cone of Experience is a tool to help instructors make
decisions about resources and activities.
RESEARCH PROBLEM
The purpose of this study was to identify the effects of experiential learning on transferability to the
workplace. In education literature, it is well understood that teaching effectiveness is enhanced in
many academic areas if experiential components are integrated in the course. The study identified the
relationship between projects, learning and Dale’s Cone of Experience and investigated the
relationship between student activities and collaboration approaches to learning.
RESEARCH METHODS
In a foundational leadership course, the experiential learning activity was designed using Dale’s
Cone of Experience. The experiential activity was designed to help students construct a model for
effective leadership skills and characteristics by the use of survey instruments. In detail, students
interactively evaluated effective leadership skills/characteristics by creating surveys, interview
practitioners, summarizing the results and developing a leadership guidebook with practical
recommendations.
WHY STUDENT QUESTIONS/INTERVIEWS?
Students’ interview question development played a crucial role inthe learning process since “questioning
lies at the heart of scientific inquiry and meaningful learning” (Chin et al., 2004, p. 521).
3
As Dillon (1988)
4
has stated: No other event better portends learning than a question arising to the mind.
To design the experiential activity, the instructor addressed the following concerns:
.Where will the student’s experience with this instructional resource fit on the cone? How far is it
removed from real-life?
.What kind of learning experience will this provide in the classroom?
.How does this instructional resource enhance the information supplied by the textbook?
By addressing, these issues, the experiential activity helped the student to develop a deep
understanding of complex information and the underlying principles of effective leadership. The
technique actively encouraged group research and collaboration into specific areas of effective
leadership skills.
The study was conducted using the following steps:
.A Qualtrics survey was developed and administered to students enrolled in this course for the
three prior years
.Created survey items:
WI believe that learning experiences that simulates “doing the real thing,” are more effective
than traditional methodologies.
WI would like to have more courses taught using the learning experiences that simulates “doing
the real thing,” and represents reality or the closest things to real, every-day life methodology.
WIn the Applied Leadership course (OLS 274), the experiential Leadership Survey Project
enhanced my learning.
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Davis and Summers, QScience Proceedings 2015.wcee2014:6
WI believe that I achieve learning outcomes more effectively in an experiential based course than
in a traditional course.
WThe learning outcomes in Applied Leadership (OLS 274) experiential Leadership Survey Project
are transferrable to the workplace.
WThe Applied Leadership (OLS 274) experiential Leadership Survey Project improved my
leadership skills and understanding.
WThe survey employed a 5-point Likert scale:
BScale 1 – Strongly Disagree
BScale 2 – Disagree
BScale 3 Neither Agree or Disagree
BScale 4 Agree
BScale 5 – Strongly Agree
DISCUSSION
The study included twenty-one respondents. All respondents had completed OLS 274, Applied
Leadership, taught by the same instructor, utilizing the Leadership Survey project to enhance learning
and transferability to the workplace. These respondents completed the course within the past 3 years.
This unique experiential projects includes activities both inside and outside the classroom. Students
create surveys, administer surveys in the workplace, evaluate results, develop a leadership guidebook,
and share findings with both students and management in the workplace.
The majority of the participants in this course are non-traditional students which is a significant factor
because statistics have shown that non-traditional (adult) students are a growing presence on college
campuses. For the purpose of this paper, a non-traditional student is defined as: a student over the age
of 24 who has family and work responsibilities and other life issues that often interfere with degree
completion. Furthermore, financial constraints including have children being a single parent, or being
financially independent from parents have the potential to inhibit completion of educational goals.
Delayed enrollment by not enrolling in postsecondary education in the same year as high school
graduation further defines non-traditional students.
In addition, these students are enrolled in a satellite campus located at a large mid-western automotive
facility. Students typically work full-time in a variety of work environments including manufacturing,
healthcare, administration, non-profit, retail, etc. which results in an eclectic student body.
The purpose of the study was to determine, the attitude of non-traditional students toward
experiential learning activities as a part of a foundational leadership course. To date, research on
experiential learning and the achievement of learning outcomes has focused on the traditional
students enrolled in an on-campus program. In this course, experiential learning activities are designed
to challenge adult students’ view of the workplace and force them to reflect critically on what happens
in their work setting on a daily basis. Key question: Although experiential learning assignments often
add to the workload of a class including a more substantial time commitment (a valuable commodity
to non-traditional students), do non-traditional student prefer this teaching strategy?
It should be mentioned that immediate responses from the student while enrolled in the course were
positive and enthusiastic. Although the project was demanding, student feedback indicated that this
was a meaningful assignment which added value to the course. As a matter of fact, the students stated
that the most meaningful part of this experiential learning activity was sharing their results with
management in their work settings - a significant step in transferability of knowledge to the workplace.
RESULTS
The first survey question asked: “I believe that learning experiences that simulates “doing the real
thing,” are more effective than traditional methodologies.” The results strongly indicated that 90%
believed that this is a true statement. 50% of the respondents selected agree and 40% selected
strongly agree. Figure 3 below gives an illustration of the option chosen by the respondents. This
response strongly indicates student support for experiential learning in the classroom regardless of
the discipline.
The second survey question: “I would liketo have more courses taught using the learning experiences that
simulates “doing the real thing,” and represents reality or the closest things to real, every-day life
methodology.” The purpose of the question was to measure student response and attitude toward
Page 4 of 7
Davis and Summers, QScience Proceedings 2015.wcee2014:6
incorporating experiential learning into other courses as well as in other disciplines. Figure 4 graphically
represents student support of inclusion of experiential activities with 48% selecting agree and 43% sele ction
strongly agreed. These results were consistent with the response to Question #1 “doing the real thing.”
The third survey question: “In the Applied Leadership course (OLS 274), the experiential Leadership
Survey Project enhanced my learning.” The questions was designed to measure the attitude toward the
specific OLS 274 Leadership assignment. Figure 2 give a graphical interpretation of the selected
options. In general, the respondents believed that this learning activity positively impacted learning in
the course. However, there was a slight shift in the response with 70% agreed and 25% strongly agreed.
The fourth survey question asked: “I believe that I achieve learning outcomes more effectively in an
experiential based course than in a traditional course.” Question # 4 attempts to understand students’
perception of learning outcome when experiential activities are included in the course. Figure 6 below
interprets the selected options. A majority of the respondents indicated that agreed or strongly agreed
that learning outcomes were achieved more effectively by the inclusion of experiential activities. 45% of
the respondents agreed and another 40% strongly agreed.
The fifth survey question asked: “The learning outcomes in Applied Leadership (OLS 274) experiential
Leadership Survey Project are transferrable to the workplace. This question asked respondents to
60%
50%
40%
30%
20%
10%
0%
Strongly
disagree
Disagree Neither agree
nor disagree
Agree Strongly
agree
Figure 3. Responses to Question 1.
60%
50%
40%
30%
20%
10%
0%
Strongly
disagree
Disagree Neither agree
nor disagree
Agree Strongly
agree
Figure 4. Reponses to Question 2.
80%
60%
40%
20%
0%
Strongly
disagree
Disagree Neither agree
nor disagree
Agree Strongly
agree
Figure 5. Responses to Question 3.
Page 5 of 7
Davis and Summers, QScience Proceedings 2015.wcee2014:6
address the challenge of transferring knowledge to the job. According to Figure 7, 50% of the
respondents agreed that experiential activities would improve transferability to the workplace. Another
45% of the respondents strongly agreed with the increased transferability.
The sixth survey question asked: “The Applied Leadership (OLS 274) experiential Leadership Survey
Project improved my leadership skills and understanding. This question was designed to assess the
student perspective on the skill development. The results varied showing less agreement with the
transferability directly to leadership skills. In response to this question 67% indicated agree while
another 19% strongly agreed.
IMPLICATIONS
This study intended to build a bridge between Dale’s Cone of Experience and learning as it relates to
non-traditional students. In the past, research has been focused on traditional students. Instructor
appreciation of experiential approaches to learning can enhance the possibilities of improving the
quality of teaching in any course or discipline regardless of the demographics of the students.
RESEARCH LIMITATIONS/IMPLICATIONS
Generalization of the overall study is limited because of the number of students who responded to the
survey. However, there are some clear pointers here about the relationship between experiential
50%
40%
30%
20%
10%
0%
Strongly
disagree
Disagree Neither agree
not disagree
Agree Strongly
agree
Figure 6. Responses to Question 4.
60%
50%
40%
30%
20%
10%
0%
Strongly
disa
g
ree
Disagree Agree Strongly
a
g
ree
Neither agree
nor disa
g
ree
Figure 7. Responses to Question 5.
80%
60%
40%
20%
0%
Strongly
disa
g
ree
Disagree Neither agree
nor disa
g
ree
Agree Strongly
a
g
ree
Figure 8. Responses to Question 6.
Page 6 of 7
Davis and Summers, QScience Proceedings 2015.wcee2014:6
learning activities and the transferability to the workplace as well as and retention of academic
knowledge as it relates to the growing non-traditional student.
Experiential activities studies place the responsibility of learning onto students rather than their
teachers, and indicate that this benefits student learning and retention (King, 1994; Pedrosa de Jesus
et al, 2003).
5
Active student participation in learning can play a significant role in achieving meaningful
learning and retention. These activities can include answers to unexpected puzzles, and filling a
knowledge gap (Biddulph and Osborne, 1982).
6
Active participation can assist learners to develop a
deeper understanding of the discipline in which they are studying as well as increase the interaction
between the student and the instructor. (Pedrosa de Jesus et al, 2003)
7
and other students. In the
Student Leadership project developing interview questions is also an essential aspect of problem
solving (Chin and Chia, 2004).
3
This skill is transferable to any discipline.
Besides helping students learn, experiential activities can also guide teachers in their work. Some
researchers (Crawford et al., 2000)
8
have explored the potential for using student input to influence the
curriculum. Results indicate that knowing what students are thinking about the ideas presented, how
they link these ideas with other things they already know, and the quality of student thinking and
understanding (Watts et al., 1997)
9
lead the instructor to know what it is they want to know
(Elstgeest, 1985).
10
With innovation for improvement in mind, this study has expanded the knowledge base about the
use of student-centered approaches and established a link between experiential learning activities and
enhanced student learning.
CONCLUSION
In summarizing the results, three significant issues should be noted:
1. As past research has shown, from a traditional student perspective in an on-campus environment,
experiential activities increase the learning outcomes of a course as well as the ability to transfer
knowledge to the workplace. This survey has expanded this research and demonstrates that the
same results can be replicated in studies with non-traditional students. Although non-traditional
students typically have the real life, everyday work experience already, results of the survey
established that these students confirmed that experiential activities significantly enhanced the
learning outcomes of this foundational leadership course. This experiential learning activities
encouraged these students to reflect critically on ways to apply leadership theory in the workplace.
The survey results were consistent across survey questions with a significant level of support.
2. Non-traditional students as well as traditional students support the use of experiential learning in
various courses and disciplines.
3. Further research is needed with respect to the variation in response to the questions about
transferability to workplace compared to improvement to leadership skills.
REFERENCES
[1] Diamond RM. Designing and Improving Courses and Curricula in Higher Education. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass; 1989.
[2] Dale E. Audio-Visual Methods in Teaching.3
rd
Ed. New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston; 1969:p.108.
[3] Chin C, Chia L. Problem-based learning: using students questions to drive knowledge construction. Science Education.
2004;88(5):707– 27.
[4] Dillon JT. The remedial status of student questioning. Journal of Curriculum Studies. 1988;20(3):197–210.
[5] King A. Guiding knowledge construction in the classroom: effects of teaching children how to question and how to
explain. American Educational Research Journal. 1994;31(2):338–68.
[6] Biddulph F, Osborne R. Some issues relating to children’s questions and explanations. LISP(P) working paper, No. 106.
Hamilton: University of Waikato; 1982.
[7] Pedrosa de Jesus MH, Teixeira-Dias JJC, Watts M. Questions of chemistry. International Journal of Science Education.
2003;2, 5(8):1015– 34.
[8] Crawford T, Kelly GJ, Brown C. Ways of knowing beyond facts and laws of science: an ethnographic investigation of
student engagement in scientific practices. Journal of Research in Science Teaching. 2000;37(3):237–58.
[9] Watts M, Gould G, Alsop S. Questions of understanding: categorizing pupils questions in science. School Science
Review. 1997;79(286):57– 63.
[10] Elstgeest J. The right question at the right time. In: Harlen W, ed. Primary Science: Taking the Plunge. London:
Heinemann; 1985.
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In this research, it was aimed to develop a model for associating 6th grade Turkish lessons with caricature literacy education. Action research design was used in the research. Throughout the research, data were collected through scales, activity papers, student diaries, semi-structured interview form, researcher diary and observation form developed by the researcher. In the research, a study group of 21 students was formed from the sixth grade students of a secondary school in the city center of Afyonkarahisar. Prior to the application studies identified in the literature and related curriculums were examined in order to create a caricature literacy module. As a result of the content analysis of these studies and curriculums, caricature literacy module was created, in which the findings of the 151 acquisitions associated with caricature literacy education are divided into two categories as "reading caricature messages" and "creating caricatures". The implementation process of the created caricature literacy module took 11 weeks (22 sessions). After measuring the level of students ' caricature literacy skills and their attitude to the Turkish lesson, the application phase was started. While sometimes using induction, deduction and analogy from reasoning methods to gain caricature literacy skills, mainly direct teaching of skills has been adopted. The application process was carried out in six stages: presentation, modeling, guided vii application, feedback and correction, independent application and evaluation. In the process, the activities in the student workbook prepared in line with the model developed by the researcher were used. The arithmetic averages and standard deviations of the scores obtained by the students in the study group as a result of the pre-test, post-test and retention test were calculated, and in-group comparisons were made depending on the research questions. “T-test (paired sample test) was used in intra-group comparisons. Activity papers, student diaries, semi-structured interview form, researcher diary and observation forms were analyzed with the qualitative data analysis program named Maxqda ©. Between the pretest and posttest scores of the achievement test developed for the skill of reading caicature messages 21,81; a difference of 1.82 points between posttest and retention test; Between the pretest and posttest scores of the rubric developed for the skill of creating caricatures 22,29; A difference of 0.38 points was found between the posttest and retention test. According to these results, it is possible to say that the practice carried out contributed to the caricature literacy of students. Caricature literacy supported lessons had a positive effect on students' attitudes towards Turkish lesson and ensured that students had a more positive attitude towards Turkish lessons. The activities carried out on the axis of caricature literacy add a new extent to basic language skills, enable the transition of Turkish lessons from alphabet-based single literacy to new literacy based on 21st century skills, enrich the lessons with visual literacy skills, contribute to the creative and critical thinking skills of students, It has been understood that it facilitates the transition to the text, gives the opportunity to compare, exhibit a critical approach, analyze and synthesize, develop the skills of producing products, and increase the motivation of the students. It was understood that caricature-supported Turkish lessons will positively affect the solution of skill-based questions and achievements of LGS, and students with visual-spatial intelligence can be supported through caricatures. Caricature can be used in the transfer of knowledge and skills in other lessons other than Turkish lesson, caricature can be used as an important and effective lesson material because it facilitates remembering and supports permanent learning, caricatures can be used in viii activities and practices within the scope of values education and certain days and weeks, caricature is an abstract subject that is difficult to understand and It has been observed that the caricature in which the concepts materialized feeds the students' sense of achievement, the students who are pacified in the classroom environment, the students who are excluded by their friends have the opportunity to express themselves through caricatures, and the humor and fun in the caricature contributes to the motivation of the students. As a result, it can be said that the applications made in the research process contributed to the development of students' caricature literacy skills.
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The research reported here derives from the general field of learner-centred teaching and learning, with specific reference to undergraduate chemistry. It documents the use of student-generated questions as diagnostic of their willingness to engage in classroom interactions. It explores four ways of gathering students' written questions and their relative effectiveness. It examines students' capacity to design and present 'quality questions' during phases of their learning and the extent to which these questions are indicative of particular styles of interaction in the classroom, both with tutors and with other students. The results are drawn from data collected through written questions posted into a question box, the 'hits' recorded on a computer software system, and through one-to-one interviews with a sample of 32 students. The results provide an opportunity to discuss the quality of interactions within fairly formalized systems of teaching and learning of chemistry in a university setting and to suggest further research required in this field.
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Following teacher-presented science lessons, pairs of fourth and fifth graders studied the material by asking and answering each others’ self-generated questions. In one condition students’ discussion was guided by questions designed to promote connections among ideas within a lesson. In a second condition discussion was guided by similar lesson-based questions as well as ones intended to access prior knowledge/experience and promote connections between the lesson and that knowledge. All students were trained to generate explanations (one manifestation of complex knowledge construction). Analysis of post-lesson knowledge maps and verbal interaction during study showed that students trained to ask both kinds of questions engaged in more complex knowledge construction than those trained in lesson-based questioning only and controls. These findings, together with performance on comprehension tests for material studied, support the conclusion that, although both kinds of questions induce complex knowledge construction, questions designed to access prior knowledge/experience are more effective in enhancing learning.
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Addresses two empirical issues: (1) what are the observed characteristics of student question-asking? and (2) under what conditions do students exhibit questioning behavior? Reports the results of a study of question-asking in 27 classrooms and examines the conditions of student questioning which are related to student training, curriculum materials, pedagogical dispositions, and systemic conditions. (GEA)
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In this study, an anthropological perspective informed by sociolinguistic discourse analysis was used to examine how teachers, students, and scientists constructed ways of investigating and knowing in science. Events in a combined fourth- and fifth-grade elementary class were studied to document how the participating teacher provided opportunities for students to diverge from the intended curriculum to pursue their questions concerning the behavior of sea animals in a marine science observation tank. Analysis of the classroom discourse identified ways that particular teaching strategies provided opportunities for student engagement in scientific practices. Implications of this study for the teaching of science in elementary classrooms include the value of student-initiated science explorations under the conditions of uncertainty and for topics in which the teacher lacked relevant disciplinary knowledge. © 2000 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. J Res Sci Teach 37: 237–258, 2000.
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This study employed problem-based learning for project work in a year 9 biology class. The purpose of the study was to investigate (a) students' inspirations for their self-generated problems and questions, (b) the kinds of questions that students asked individually and collaboratively, and (c) how students' questions guided them in knowledge construction. Data sources included observation and field notes, students' written documents, audiotapes and videotapes of students working in groups, and student interviews. Sources of inspiration for students' problems and questions included cultural beliefs and folklore; wonderment about information propagated by advertisements and the media; curiosity arising from personal encounters, family members' concerns, or observations of others; and issues arising from previous lessons in the school curriculum. Questions asked individually pertained to validation of common beliefs and misconceptions, basic information, explanations, and imagined scenarios. The findings regarding questions asked collaboratively are presented as two assertions. Assertion 1 maintained that students' course of learning were driven by their questions. Assertion 2 was that the ability to ask the right'' questions and the extent to which these could be answered, were important in sustaining students' interest in the project. Implications of the findings for instructional practice are discussed.
Some issues relating to children's questions and explanations. LISP(P) working paper
  • F Biddulph
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Biddulph F, Osborne R. Some issues relating to children's questions and explanations. LISP(P) working paper, No. 106. Hamilton: University of Waikato; 1982.
The right question at the right time
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Elstgeest J. The right question at the right time. In: Harlen W, ed. Primary Science: Taking the Plunge. London: Heinemann; 1985.