Article

Correlation of Citrus Leaf miner (Phyllocnistis citrella: Stainton) with snail population in district Sargodha Punjab, Pakistan

Article

Correlation of Citrus Leaf miner (Phyllocnistis citrella: Stainton) with snail population in district Sargodha Punjab, Pakistan

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Abstract

From January 2010 to December 2011, samples of leaves from Kinno, Musambi and Feutral were taken from the five tehsils of district Sargodha including Sargodha, Bahalwal, Silanwalli, Sahiwal and kotmomin to study the population trends in citrus leafminer (CLM), Phyllocnistis citrella Stainton (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae) and its correlation with snail population. The present study also shows the population density of citrus leaf miner in different seasons of Sargodha district, Pakistan. Population of snails on leaves was recorded as 1.322, 1.083, and 1.342 in Feutral, Kinno and Masambi, respectively in its mean values. The statistical analysis shows that there is strong correlation in the seasonal fluctuation in the population density of snails and of snail's population with citrus leaf miner (Phyllocnistis citrella, Stainton).

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... Citrus fruits are important in Pakistan and account for more than 40% of the total production of fruits in the country. Pakistan is ranked in the top 10 countries for citrus production (Mustafa et al., 2013). Kinnow, Citrus reticulata Blanco, has a distinctive position among various citrus cultivars in Pakistan and makes up more than 70% of the citrus fruits produced in the country (Arshad et al., 2018). ...
... During 1990, this pest was described as a serious pest of citrus in hilly areas of the country (Taher, 1996). To date it has been reported in various localities of Pakistan, namely Sargodha, Faisalabad, Layyah, Multan, Toba Tek Singh, Swabi, Malakand Agency and Haripur (Zeb et al., 2011;Ahmed et al., 2013;Mustafa et al., 2013Mustafa et al., , 2014. ...
Article
In order to identify the parasitoids of Phyllocnistis citrella, an important pest of Citrus, the larvae and pupae of this pest were collected from Citrus reticulata Blanco orchards in the Sargodha region of Pakistan. The parasitoid species were identified, and their abundance was recorded. A total of two species were identified: Citrostichus phyllocnistoides (Narayan) (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) and Cirrospilus ingenuus Gahan (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae). Out of a total of 409 P. citrella larvae and pupae collected, 73 C. phyllocnistoides and 39 C. ingenuus adults emerged. This paper documents the species and the abundance of the parasitoids associated with P. citrella in the Sargodha region of Pakistan.
... Citrus leafminer (CLM), Phyllocnistis citrella Stainton, (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae) is one of the most important insect pests of citrus, and mostly attacks on young flushes. 1 It causes direct and indirect damage to citrus crops and is widely distributed in all citrus producing areas of Pakistan. 2,3 Larvae generate serpentine mines on newly emerged leaves due to which curling, necrosis, and drop of leaves occur. ...
Article
Full-text available
Citrus leafminer (CLM), Phyllocnistis citrella Stainton (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae), is one of the most important insect pests of Pakistan’s citrus nursery stock and caused extensive damage to young flushes. The organic compost is a widespread technique used to manage insect pests and plant diseases. Different composts (biofert, tara root and vermicompost) at 0.5 and 0.25 kg/plant concentration in comparison to NPK fertilizer at 0.4 and 0.2 g/plant were evaluated for CLM infestation and the associated citrus canker disease in nursery plantations of Citrus reticulata Blanco. Application of biofert at 0.5 kg/plant reduced the CLM infestation up to 54.5% during Fall-2016 and 39.1% during Summer-2017 in comparison to control treatment. The CLM larval density was also found lower by the application of biofert followed by vermicompost during both seasons. Both concentrations of biofert followed by vermicompost at 0.5 kg/plant resulted in remarkable protection against citrus canker disease in both flushes. The incidence of canker associated with CLM infested leaves was also studied and found lower by the application of biofert and vermicompost compared with control treatment. Conclusively, the soil amendment using biofert and vermicompost affects the CLM population and canker infection in nursery plantations. These organic fertilizers can be used in future citrus IPM programs as a tool to suppress the CLM population and citrus canker disease.
... Because of the extensive mining of young shoots caused by this pest it is considered a serious threat to citriculture. The pest not only causes direct damage to the leaves of new sprouts, but also infect the twigs and fruits (Clausen, 1931;Heppner, 1995;Mustafa et al., 2013). Under typical Mediterranean conditions, CLM damage is of economic importance only on young and top-grafted trees, and is considered to be merely an aesthetic factor for mature trees (Gonzalez, 1997). ...
... Because of the extensive mining of young shoots caused by this pest it is considered a serious threat to citriculture. The pest not only causes direct damage to the leaves of new sprouts, but also infect the twigs and fruits (Clausen, 1931;Heppner, 1995;Mustafa et al., 2013). Under typical Mediterranean conditions, CLM damage is of economic importance only on young and top-grafted trees, and is considered to be merely an aesthetic factor for mature trees (Gonzalez, 1997). ...
Article
Full-text available
The effect of constant temperatures on developmental time and parasitization rate of Citrostichus phyllocnistoides was evaluated on Phyllocnistis citrella at nine constant temperatures ranging from 15°Cμ1 to 35°Cμ1 in 2.5°C increments in the laboratory. Developmental periods of immature stages ranged from 34.98 days at 15°C to 9.15 days at 35°C. The lower developmental threshold for C. phyllocnistoides estimated was 8.93°C. Mortality rate of immature stages decreased as the temperature increased, ranged from 27% at 15°C to 8% at 35°C. Longevity of both sexes were different at all temperatures studied (except 30 and 32.5°C), ranged from 22.1 days at 15°C to 8.0 days at 35°C for males and 23.8 days at 15°C to 8.3 days at 35°C for females. Parasitization rate of C. phyllocnistoides on Phyllocnistis citrella increased with the temperature up to 32.5°C being 49%, then decreased at 35°C.
... Severe infestation occurs in late spring, summer and early fall (Cardwell et al., 2008).citrus leaf miner also enhance the attack of other pests on infected leaves such as it support the attack of snails on citrus leaves which further cause severe damage to the leaves by sucking the fluids (Mustafa et al., 2013). Citrus plants require large amount of minerals such as Ca ++ , K + and Mg ++ which play an important role in their development. ...
Article
Leaf samples of kinnow were taken from November 2012 to April 2013 from three different orchards (with different ages) of district Sargodha for the study of correlation of citrus leaf miner (CLM) with leaf biochemical factors (Ca, K, Mg). Damage due to CLM ranged from 32-58%. Maximum damage (58%) was observed in the month of December with a decline in percentage damage from January to March (32%) but again an increase in April. One year old orchard showed negative correlation of citrus leafminer with potassium, while two and three year old orchards showed positive correlation of CLM with potassium and calcium. In one year old and three year old orchard CLM was positively correlated with magnesium, while two year old orchard showed negative correlation of CLM with magnesium.
... Severe infestation occurs in late spring, summer and early fall (Cardwell et al., 2008).citrus leaf miner also enhance the attack of other pests on infected leaves such as it support the attack of snails on citrus leaves which further cause severe damage to the leaves by sucking the fluids (Mustafa et al., 2013). ...
Article
Full-text available
Leaf samples of kinnow were taken from November 2012 to April 2013 from three different orchards (with different ages) of district Sargodha for the study of correlation of citrus leaf miner (CLM) with leaf biochemical factors (Ca, K, Mg). Damage due to CLM ranged from 32-58%. Maximum damage (58%) was observed in the month of December with a decline in percentage damage from January to March (32%) but again an increase in April. One year old orchard showed negative correlation of citrus leafminer with potassium, while two and three year old orchards showed positive correlation of CLM with potassium and calcium. In one year old and three year old orchard CLM was positively correlated with magnesium, while two year old orchard showed negative correlation of CLM with magnesium.
Article
Full-text available
The relationship of the citrus canker bacterium Xanthomonas axonopodis pv citri with the citrus leafminer (CLM), Phyllocnistis citrella Stainton was investigated. The experiment was conducted under laboratory conditions at 28±2ºC, 70±10% RH and 14h photophase and in a greenhouse. Sweet orange (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck) "Caipira"cv was used to rear CLM. Plants inoculated with 2nd and 3rd instar larvae or pupae showed high percentages (94.3, 98.3 and 100%, respectively) of bacterium-infected leaves. The damage caused by this insect was responsible for the increase in citrus canker infestation. The leaf infection rate by X. axonopodis pv citri on pre-injured leaves was similar to that observed on mechanically damaged leaves inoculated with the bacterium, with 94.1% to 97.0% of the leaves presenting bacterial pustules. The bacterium can also penetrate through the stomata. An 11-fold lower infection rate was observed as compared to the leaves injured by the insect seven days after inoculation. Under such conditions the percentage of cankered leaves increased to 41.2% at 14 days, a value corresponding to about 50% of the leaves attacked by the insect. In this paper it is also pointed out the significance of the damages caused by CLM in terms of the increase of citrus canker, since the favorable microclimatic conditions of temperature and relative humidity inside the mines built by the larvae account for an improved development of the bacterium.
Article
Bacterial canker, Asiatic form, was introduced into Yemen with a shipment of citrus plants from India. Some infected trees were distributed before the disease was detected, and an experimental farm used as a nursery for production of budded citrus seedlings eventually became contaminated. Inspection of varieties there before their destruction, and subsequently of several other plantings, revealed many leaf infections associated with tunnels made by larvae of the leaf miner Phyllocnistis citrella Staint. Pustules often developed en masse over and along the entire length of tunnels but on one leaf surface only (more often the lower). The leaf miners showed no obvious preference for specific citrus varieties, and many varieties in addition to the popular and susceptible Mexican lime were infected. The seasonal rainfall, often with high winds, blowing sand, and temperatures conducive to canker infection, can account for some spread of the disease, but the extended host range and the fact that pustules often were found nowhere else on the leaf except in association with tunnels suggest that leaf miners can disseminate and facilitate infection by the canker bacterium.
Article
Seasonal abundace and parasitism of the leafminer Phyllocnistis citrella Stainton were investigated from summer 1993 through spring 1995 on `Tahiti' limes in Dade County, Florida. P. citrella population density increased from spring through fall and declined during winter 1994 and 1995. Eight species of parasitoids attacked P. citrella immatures in commercial and experimental lime orchards. The Eulophid Pnigalio minio (Walker), a primary ectoparasitoid, comprised ≍80% of the parasitoids that emerged from parasitized P. citrella. Species and abundance of adult parasitoids varied considerably between leafminer generations. Overall percentage of parasitism was higher on unsprayed than sprayed trees.
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