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Tamarind (Tamarindus indica L.) research - a review

  • Indian Cardamom Research Institute, Idukki, Kerala 685553


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© Woodhead Publishing Limited, 2012
Y. Saideswara Rao and K. Mary Mathew, Spices Board of India, India
Abstract: Tamarindus indica L., commonly known as the tamarind tree, is one of the most
important leguminous tree species. This chapter describes the origin, classifi cation, chemical
composition, production, sources, main uses, health aspects and quality issues associated
with this crop. The tamarind tree originates from Madagascar. The most valuable and
commonly used part is the fruit. The pulp constitutes 30–50 % of the ripe fruit, the shell
and fi bre account for 11–30 % and the seed about 25–40 %. Tamarind is commonly used as
a health remedy throughout Asia, Africa and the Americas. Tamarind products, leaves,
fruits and seeds have been extensively used in Indian Ayurvedic medicine and traditional
African medicine. Tamarind is reported to have been adulterated with foreign matter
which is both organic and inorganic in nature, due to poor post-harvest management
practices including processing.
Key words: tamarind, pulp, concentrate, medicinal uses, production.
26.1 Introduction
Tamarind (Tamarindus indica L.) is one of the most widespread trees of the Indian
subcontinent. It is a large evergreen tree with an exceptionally beautiful spreading
crown, and is cultivated throughout the whole of India, except in the Himalayas and
western dry regions (ICFRE, 1993; Rao et al., 1999). Tamarind is a multipurpose
plant. The pulp of the fruit has been used as a spice in Asian cuisine, especially in
the southern part of India, for a long time. Almost all parts of the tree fi nd a use in
the food, chemical, pharmaceutical or textile industries, or as fodder, timber and
fuel (Dagar et al., 1995; George and Rao, 1997; Rao and Mary, 2001; Pugalenthi
et al., 2004).
26.1.1 Origin
Several authors have proposed various geographical areas as the origin of the tama-
rind tree. Tamarind fruit was at fi rst thought to be produced by an Indian palm, as
the name tamarind comes from a Persian word ‘tamar-i-hind’, meaning ‘date of
India’. Its name ‘amlika’ in Sanskrit indicates its ancient presence in the country
(Mishra, 1997). As reported by El-Siddig et al. (2006), it was mentioned in the Indian
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Brahmasamhita scriptures between 1200 and 200 BC. Morton (1987) placed its
origin in India, but others considered it indigenous to the drier savannahs of tropical
Africa, from Sudan, Ethiopia, Kenya and Tanzania, westward through sub-Sahelian
Africa to Senegal (Brandis, 1921; Ridley, 1922; Dalziel, 1937; Dale and Greenway,
1961; Irvine, 1961; NAS, 1979). The tamarind tree is now considered to have origi-
nated in Madagascar (Von Maydell, 1986; Hockin, 1993). It is thought to have been
introduced to South and Southeast Asia and to have become naturalized in many
areas to which it was introduced (Simmonds, 1984; Purseglove, 1987; Coronel, 1991).
It is now cultivated throughout semi-arid Africa and South Asia and has been
planted extensively in Bangladesh, India, Myanmar, Malaysia, Sri Lanka, Thailand
and several African, Australian, Central American and South American countries
(Troup, 1921; Sharma and Bhardwaj, 1997).
26.1.2 Classifi cation
The genus Tamarindus is a monotypic genus containing the sole species T. indicus
and belongs to the sub-family Caesalpinioideae of the family Fabaceae (Legumino-
sae). Tamarind is a large, evergreen tree, up to 24 m in height and 7 m in girth. The
morphology of the tree in detail has been described by several authors (Singh, 1982;
Prakash and Drake, 1985; George and Radhakrishna, 1993; ICFRE, 1993; Dubey
et al., 1997). The most useful part is the pod (also called the fruit). Pods are 7.5–20 cm
long, 2.5 cm broad and 1 cm thick, more or less constricted between the seeds,
slightly curved, brownish-ash coloured, scurfy. The outermost covering of the pod
is fragile and easily separable (Cowan, 1970; Duke, 1981; 1CFRE, 1993; Dubey
et al., 1997; Choudhary and Choudhary, 1997; Rao et al., 1999).
26.1.3 Chemical composition
The tamarind fruit consists mainly of pulp and seeds. The fruit, both ripe and dry,
contains mainly tartaric acid, reducing sugars, pectin, tannin, fi bre and cellulose. The
whole seeds also contain protein, fat, sugars and carbohydrates. Both pulp and seeds
are good sources of potassium, calcium and phosphorous and contain other minerals
like sodium, zinc and iron (Feungchan et al., 1996 a, b; Coronel, 1991; Pino et al.,
2004; Soong and Barlow, 2004). The various components of tamarind are detailed
in the following sections.
The most valuable and commonly used part of the tamarind tree is the fruit. The
pulp constitutes 30–50 % of the ripe fruit (Purseglove, 1987; Shankaracharya, 1998),
the shell and fi bre account for 11–30 % and the seed about 25–40 % (Chapman,
1984; Shankaracharya, 1998). The dried tamarind pulp of commerce contains 8–18 %
tartaric acid (2, 3-dihydroxy butanedioic acid–C4H6O6, a dihydroxy carboxylic acid)
and 25–45 % reducing sugars, of which 70 % is glucose and 30 % fructose (Meillon,
1974; Anon, 1976; Duke, 1981; Ishola et al., 1990; Parvez et al., 2003). The tender
fruits contain most of the tartaric acid in free form (up to 16 %). The sweetness of
ripe tamarind fruit is, however, outweighed by tartaric acid which has an intensively
acidic taste. The tartaric acid and the sugar contents reportedly vary from place to
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place. In Thailand, the tartaric acid content varied from 2.5–11.3 % and the sugar
from 5.0–40.0 %. The former in sweet tamarind was as low as 2.0–3.2 % and the
latter as high as 39.1–47.7 % (Feungchan et al., 1966a). In Pakistan, Hasan and Ijaz
(1972) found that in sour tamarind the tartaric acid content varied from 8.4–12.4 %
and the sugar from 21.4–30.9 %. Tamarind contains other organic acids, such as
oxalic acid, succinic acid, citric acid and quinic acid (Lewis and Neelakantan, 1964;
Singh, 1973; Anon., 1976). The ascorbic acid content in tamarind is reportedly very
low and varies from 2–20 mg/100 g (Lefevre, 1971; Ishola et al., 1990). Free amino
acids, such as proline, serine, β-alanine, phenylalanine and leucine, were identifi ed
in the pulp (Lakshminarayan et al., 1954).
Tamarind pulp is rich in minerals such as potassium (62–570 mg/100 g); phospho-
rus (86–190 mg/100 g); and calcium (81–466 mg/100 g), and iron (1.3–10.9 mg/100 g).
According to Parvez et al. (2003), magnesium content is high (25.6–30.2 mg/100 g),
as is sodium (23.8–28.9 mg/100 g), whereas copper (0.8–1.2 mg/100 g) and zinc (0.8–
0.9 mg/100 g) are low. It also excels in ribofl avin and is a good source of thiamin
and niacin, but is poor in vitamin A and vitamin C (Leung and Flores, 1961; Caluwé
et al., 2009). The major volatile constituents of tamarind were reported by Pino et
al. (2004), Askar et al. (1987), Zhang and Ho (1990), Sagrero et al. (1994) and Wong
et al. (1998). A review on traditional uses, phytochemistry and pharmacology of
tamarind has been published by Caluwé et al. (2009).
As mentioned earlier, the most outstanding characteristic of the tamarind fruit
is that it is one of the most acidic of all fruits, because of its tartaric acid content
which imparts the sour taste and outweighs the high total sugar content. Lee et al.
(1975) reported that several pyrazines and thiazoles were found in tamarind and
that the overall aroma of tamarind is characterized by its warm, citrus-like notes
and some roasted undertones. Non-volatile fl avour components in the pulp have
been identifi ed and analysed by using high-performance liquid chromatography
(Khurana and Ho, 1989). Pino et al. (2004) reported that major components of the
volatiles were 2-phenyl acetaldehyde with a fruity and honey-like odour, 2-furfuryl
with a caramel-like fl avour and hexadecanoic acid and limonene having a citrus
avour. Volatile components of tamarind fruits were isolated by simultaneous steam
distillation/solvent extraction as well (Carter et al., 2001; Pino et al., 2004; Carasek
and Pawliszyn, 2006).
The seed consists of the seed coat or testa (20–30 %) and the kernel or endosperm
(70–75 %) (Coronel, 1991; Shankaracharyan, 1998). Unlike the pulp, tamarind seed
is rich in protein (13–20 %) and oil (4.5–16.2 %). The seed coat is rich in fi bre (20 %)
and tannins (20 %) as well. Panigrahi et al. (1989) reported that whole tamarind
seed contains 131.3 g/kg crude protein, 67.1 g/kg crude fi bre, 48.2 g/kg crude fat,
56.2 g/kg tannins and trypsin inhibitor activity (TIA) of 10.8, with most of the car-
bohydrate in the form of sugars. The trypsin inhibitor activity is higher in the pulp
than in the seed, but both are heat labile. According to Purseglove (1987), the seeds
contain 63 % starch and 4.5–6.5 % of semi-drying oil. According to Ishola et al.
(1990), the seed also contains 47 mg/100 g of phytic acid, which has minimal effect
on its nutritive value. It also contains 14–18 % albuminoid tannins located in the
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testa. Following the estimation of the composition of seeds and evaluation of its
properties, Marangoni et al. (1988), Sano et al. (1996), Patil and Nadagouder (1997)
and El-Siddig et al. (2006) opined that tamarind seeds are potential sources of food
or food ingredients.
The chemical composition and nutritive value of tamarind seeds and kernels was
determined by several workers (Bose et al., 1954; Anon., 1976; Morad et al., 1978;
Ishola et al., 1990; Bhattacharyya et al., 1993, 1994a,b; Siddhuraju et al., 1995; Patil
and Nadagouder, 1997). Fatty acid composition of tamarind kernel oil was reported
by several workers (Pitke et al., 1977, 1979; Reddy et al., 1979; Andriamanantena
et al., 1983). Among fatty acids, linoleic acid, oleic acid and palmitic acid were the
major constituents. Dehusked tamarind seeds have been found to be a rich source
of pectin, the jelly-forming constituent of many fruits, vegetables, seeds, etc. (Kumar,
1997; Rao, 1948, 1956).
According to Glicksman (1986), Gidley et al. (1991) and Reid and Edwards
(1995), tamarind seed polysaccharide (TSP) is the purifi ed product as well as major
component of tamarind kernel powder (TKP). Glicksman (1986) reported that TSP
had different specifi cations to TKP. There have been numerous publications in the
past 25–30 years concerning the primary structure of TSP (Srivastava and Singh,
1967; Nagaraja et al., 1975; Glicksman, 1986; Gidley et al., 1991; Manjunath et al.,
1991; Marry et al., 2003; Nitta and Nishinari, 2005; Mishra and Malhothra, 2009).
The functional properties of tamarind, such as nitrogen solubility index, water-
absorption capacity, emulsifying capacity, foaming capacity and foam stability, were
analysed Bhattacharyaa et al. (1994 a, b; 1997) and Kumar and Bhattacharya (2008).
26.2 Production and cultivation
At present, tamarind is cultivated in 54 countries of the world: 18 in its native range,
including central African countries, and 36 other countries including India and
Thailand where it was introduced (El-Siddig et al., 2006), and it has become natural-
ized in several regions. In the American continent, commercial plantations were
reported in Belize, Central American countries and in north Brazil (Sharma and
Bharadwaj, 1997). The major producing countries are Brazil, Bahamas, Costa Rica,
Bangladesh, Cuba, Burma, Egypt, Cambodia, Guatemala, Dominican, Republic,
India, Fiji, Indonesia, Gambia, Mexico, Kenya, Nicaragua, Pakistan, Puerto Rico,
Senegal, Philippines, Tanzania, Sri Lanka, Vietnam, Thailand, Zambia, Venezuela
and Zanzibar. However, tamarind is grown as a major plantation only in a few
countries such as India and Thailand.
India is the world’s largest producer of tamarind products. Tamarind is abun-
dantly available in the Indian states of Madhya Pradesh, Bihar, Andhra Pradesh,
Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, West Bengal, Orissa and Kerala (Jambulingam and Fer-
nandes, 1986; Rao, 1995; Anon., 1997; George and Rao, 1997; Vennila and Kingsley,
2000; Figures available for the production of tamarind
in India for the years 2007-8 and 2008-9 indicated yields of 188 278 tonnes and
193 873 tonnes from 55 682 ha and 54 222 ha, respectively (Spice Board, 2011a). India
exports processed tamarind pulp to western countries, mainly the European and
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Arab countries and, more recently, the USA. During the year 2009–10 India exported
12 200 tonnes of different tamarind products valued at Rs 4705.50, lakhs (Spice
Buded, 2011b). Tamarind products are exported to around 60 countries (http://www.
Thailand has become a major producer of tamarind, with its sweet and sour
cultivars, particularly the sweet tamarind types, grown there. The total planted area
of tamarind in Thailand is 105 785 ha with the area in production being 60 451 ha
and the non-production area 45 335 ha as per the reports of Department of Agri-
cultural Extension in 1998. Documents show that Mexico also produced tamarind
commercially, with over 4400 ha producing over 37 000 tons of pulp. It exported a
small amount of processed pulp to Central and South American countries and to
the USA (Hernandez-Unzon and Lakshiminarayana, 1982). Costa Rica, another
Central American country, has shown a potential for expansion by producing 200
tonnes annually.
26.2.1 Sources, processing and preservation
A full-grown tamarind tree is reported to yield about 180–225 kg of fruits per season
(FAO, 1998). In India, the average production of tamarind pods per tree is 175 kg
and of processed pulp is 70 kg/tree, as reported by Kulkarni et al. (1993). However,
Rao (1997) reported that Periyakulam 1 (PKM1), an improved cultivar in Tamil
Nadu, yields about 263 kg/tree.
Tamarind fruits begin to ripen during the months of February–March (Cowan,
1970; Duke, 1981; 1CFRE, 1993; Choudhary and Choudhary, 1997; Dubey et al., 1997;
Rao et al., 1999). Lewis and Neelakantan (1964) reported that by mixing the shelled
tamarind fruits with a small amount of water and passing them through a pulper,
the residual seeds, bre and other extraneous materials can be removed. Mechanical
methods of extracting pulp have been reported (Benero et al., 1972), and a tamarind
dehuller has also been designed and developed in UAS, Bangalore, India. The
machine has a hulling capacity of 500 kg/hour, with hulling effi ciency of 80 % for
large fruits and 58 % for small fruits (Ramkumar et al., 1997). Based on observations
on post-harvest physiological and chemical changes in tamarind fruit, Lakshmina-
rayana and Hernandez-Urzon (1983) suggested that maximum yield from tamarind
might be achieved by processing within one week of harvest.
Tamarind pulp/concentrate is one of the essential components in Indian culinary
habits. It is a common article of trade and is preserved and stored for marketing in
a number of ways (Lewis et al., 1957; Lewis and Neelakantan, 1959, 1964; Benero
et al., 1972; Patil and Nadagouder, 1997). In most of the tamarind-growing countries,
pulp is pressed and preserved in large masses and sold in small shops and markets
by weight. Patil and Nadagouder (1997) reported that, the pulp, freed from fi bre
and seed, is commonly mixed with 10 % salt and beaten down with mallets so as to
exclude air and packed in gunny bags, lined with palm leaf matting. In India, the
pulp is covered with salt, rolled into balls, exposed to dew and stored in earthenware
jars (Chapman, 1984; Morton, 1987, Shankaracharyan, 1998), whereas in Java, the
salted pulp is rolled into balls, steamed and sun dried, then exposed to dew for a
week before packing in stone jars. In Thailand, the pulp is mixed with salt and com-
pressed and packed in plastic bags to exclude air for storage. In Sri Lanka, the
Tamarind 517
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harvested pods are dried in the sun for 5–7 days to bring all fruits, including the
half-mature fruit, to the fully ripe stage. The separated pulp along with the seed is
dried in the sun for 3–4 days to remove excess moisture and prevent the growth of
moulds, mixed with salt and packed in clay pots for storage (El-Siddig et al., 2006).
The freshly prepared pulp is light brown in colour. According to the research
ndings of CFTRI (Central Food Technological Research Institute), Mysore, India,
pulp can be preserved well for 6–8 months, without any treatment, if it is packed in
airtight containers and stored in a cool dry place (Shankaracharya, 1997). According
to FAO (1989), continuous storage for long periods under extremes of temperature
and humidity is a problem because of changes in colour which take place from
brown or yellowish brown to black. In the Sri Lankan storage method outlined
above, for example, the tamarind could be stored for about a year; however, the
colour changed to dark brown or black and changes in fl avour occurred (El-Siddig
et al., 2006). Feungchan et al. (1996b) conducted studies on factors related to colour
change of tamarind pulp from brown to black to yellow in storage and recom-
mended mixing of 10 % powdered salt and cold storage to prevent this. According
to Ramkumar et al. (1997), pulp loss during storage was very low in black polyeth-
ylene (0.18 %) and plastic (0.17 %) compared to phoenix mat (1.35 %) and metal
(1.53 %).
CFTRI developed an improved process for preparation of tamarind paste from
good-quality tamarind, free from seeds, fi brous and extraneous matter. The cleaned
pulp was subjected to heat processing followed by coarse grinding and was repro-
cessed to reduce the moisture level to obtain optimum quality tamarind paste
(Anon., 2003a). Preservation methods of sweet tamarind fruits and pulp in Thailand
have been documented by Chumsai-Silavanich et al. (1991) wherein tamarind fruits
were steamed for fi ve minutes, followed by drying in a hot air oven at 80 °C for 2
hours and storing in plastic bags at room temperature. Using this method, the fruits
were stored for four months without any deterioration in quality. Feungchan et al.
(1966b), Puranaik et al. (2004), Anon. (2003b), Kotecha and Kadami (2003) and
Nagalakshmi and Chezhian (2004) found that cold storage of tamarind pulp at
various temperatures increased shelf-life. It was reported that the freshly harvested
deseeded tamarind pulp can be stored for up to 330 days under refrigeration at 4 ±
2 °C when vacuum packed in 800 gauge poly bags without any colour change in the
pulp right from the initial stage of storage (Nagalakshmi and Chezhian, 2004).
26.3 Main uses of tamarind products
26.3.1 Pulp
Tamarind is used in India mainly in the form of pulp. The fruit pulp is the chief
agent for souring curries, sauces, chutneys and certain beverages throughout the
greater part of India. In India, the immature green pods are often eaten by children
and adults dipped in salt as a snack. It is also used in India to make ‘tamarind fi sh’,
a seafood pickle, which is considered a great delicacy. Immature tender pods are
used as seasoning for cooked rice, meat and fi sh and delicious sauces for duck,
waterfowl and geese (El-Siddig et al., 2006). Tamarind fruit is also reported to be
used as a raw material for the preparation of wine-like beverages (Giridhari et al.,
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1958; Sanchez, 1985; Latino and Vega, 1986; Benk, 1987; Grollier et al., 1998). Whilst
it is found mainly in Indian regional food, the spice is used in Asian, Latin American
and South African dishes extensively. A review on traditional uses of tamarind with
reference to sub-saharan Africa has been published by Caluwé et al. (2009).
In Sri Lanka, tamarind is widely used in cuisine as an alternative to lime and also
in pickles and chutneys (Jayaweera, 1981). In the Bahamas, fully grown but still
unripe fruits are roasted in coal, the skin is then peeled back and the sizzling pulp
is dipped in wood ash and eaten (Morton, 1987). In Egypt, tamarind is used to make
a sour drink during the summer period, and it is also added to a similar lemon-
avoured drink, popular in the Middle East. It is also used for this purpose in
Mexico, where the drink is known as well as agua fresca (refreshing water) or agua
de tamrindo, which is sometimes turned into frozen fruit ices. Mexicans also use
tamarind as a snack, dried, salted or candied (e.g. Pulparindo). In the Philippines, it
is also used to make sweets, but the leaves of the plant are also utilized in the recipe
for the famous sinigang soup. In Guadeloupe, the fruit is used to make jam and
syrup, whilst in northern Nigeria tamarind is used during breakfast, as it is added
to the traditional porridge known as pap or kunun tsamiya. Tamarind is also widely
used in sauces to give a sour fl avour, for example in the popular pad thai from
Thailand, or in gravy for assam fi sh in Singapore and Malaya.
26.3.2 Concentrate
Juice concentrate of tamarind is produced and marketed in India and abroad
(Raghuveer, 1997). The product is promoted as being very convenient for culinary
purposes and the food industry. The CFTRI, Mysore, has developed processes for
the manufacture of juice concentrate and powder of the pulp (Shankaracharya,
1998). All the water solubles were extracted from the fruit pulp by boiling with
water then concentrated to about 65–70 % solids and packed in suitable containers.
The fi nal product was viscous and set to a jam-like consistency on cooling. Tamarind
juice concentrate was found to be more viscous than sucrose solutions (Manohar
et al., 1991). Formulae for preparing spiced sauces and beverages from the pulp
have also been reported (Patil and Nadagouder, 1997). The approximate com-
position of the concentrate according to a CFTRI report is as follows: total tartaric
acid 13 %; invert sugars 50 %; pectin 2 %; protein 3 %; cellulosic material 2 %; and
moisture 30 %.
26.3.3 Seeds
Tamarind seed is the raw material used in the manufacture of (TKP), polysaccha-
ride, adhesive, oil and tannin. Tamarind seed used to be an under-utilized by-product
of the tamarind pulp industry. However, recent reports (Mishra and Malhothra,
2009) involving utilization of these in the textile, food and pharmaceutical industries
show that its potential has been increasingly explored. Tamarind seeds are reported
to give amber-coloured oil, free of smell and sweet to taste, which resembles linseed
oil. It is reported to be useful in the preparation of paints and varnishes and for
burning lamps (Lewis and Neelakantan, 1964; Rao, 1975; Anon., 1976; Salim et al.,
Tamarind 519
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1998). The oil is said to be palatable and of culinary quality (Morton, 1987). Tama-
rind jellose – a pectin-like substance extracted from tamarind seeds – has not been
fully exploited but, due to its abundance and cheapness, jellose has great potential
for replacing fruit pectins in many industries (El-Siddig et al., 2006).
Purifi ed tamarind seed polysaccharide, xyloglucan, has been found to have
various applications in food technology, drug-delivery technology and the textile
industry (Glicksman 1986; Gidley et al., 1991; Mishra and Malhothra, 2009; Gupta
et al., 2010). Reid and Edwards (1995) pointed out that, even though the tamarind
xyloglucan as a viscosifi er offered no chemical advantage over guar gum, a galacto-
mannan from cluster beans, a bioprocess to upgrade the tamarind polysaccharide,
might be commercially viable as the tamarind fl our is cheaper. Purifi ed, refi ned
tamarind xyloglucan is produced in Japan and is permitted as a thickening, stabiliz-
ing and gelling agent in the food, cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries (Glicks-
man, 1986; Gidley et al., 1991; Nitta and Nishinari, 2005). It is reported to possess
properties like high viscosity, broad pH tolerance and adhesivity. Tamarind xyloglu-
can imparted more viscous, liquid-like rheological properties and heat stability to
gelatinized tapioca starch/xyloglucan mixtures (Pongsawatmanit et al., 2006). A
recent report by Gupta et al., (2010) shows that TSP is a promising polymer in the
pharmaceutical industry as a novel carrier of drugs in various bioadhesive and other
sustained release formulations. Research on xyloglucan has been extensively
reviewed by Mishra and Malhothra (2009).
26.3.4 Kernel powder
TKP was extensively used in the food industry and as a sizing material in the textile
industry as well (Rao and Subramanian, 1984; Bal and Mukherjee, 1994; Patil and
Nadagouder, 1997). TKP used to be recommended in preparing confectionery, as a
stabilizer in ice creams, mayonnaise and cheese (Morton 1987; Patil and Nada-
gouder, 1997). Use of white TKP in food products such as jellies, jams, marmalades,
fortifi ed breads and biscuits was also detailed by Bhattacharya (1997) and
Bhattacharya et al. (1991, 1994b). Other than the food and textile industries it has
been used in cosmetics, pharmaceutical and insecticidal preparations, adhesives,
bookbinding, cardboard and plywood manufacture, and in sizing and weighing
compositions in the leather industry (Daw et al., 1994; Patil and Nadagouder, 1997;
Prabhanzan and Ali, 1995).
26.3.5 Seed testa
The testa is reported to contain 40 % water solubles, 80 % of which is a mixture of
tannin and colouring matter (FRI, 1955). In the production of TKP or the jellose,
large quantities of testa are left as a residual by-product. The use of testa in dyeing
and tanning has been suggested (El-Siddig et al., 2006). The seed testa contains 23 %
tannin which, when suitably blended, is used for tanning leather and imparting
colour-fast shades to wool. In leather tanning tests, tamarind tannin gives a harsh
and highly-coloured leather which could be used for heavy soles, suitcases, etc.
Several authors (Rao and Srivastava, 1974; Glicksman, 1986; Tsuda et al., 1994, 1995;
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Sankaracharya, 1998) have suggested that seed coat, a by-product of the tamarind
gum industries, can be used as a safe and low-cost antioxidant for increasing
the shelf-life of foods by preventing lipid peroxidation. Madhulatha and Pitchai
(1997) carried out studies on the utilization of spent (detanned) tamarind seed testa
as a substrate to grow the edible mushroom Pleurotus fl orida. They claimed that
wattle-tamarind seed testa substrate was effi cient for growing the mushroom and
that the spent mixture was suitable as organic manure as well.
26.3.6 Food colourant
Tamarind brown, the natural food colour from tamarind, is widely used in Japan as
a food colourant (Anon., 2000). Leucoanthocyanidin and anthocyanin are the main
pigments of the tamarind colour (Shankaracharya, 1997, 1998). Kaur et al. (2006)
reported that the red pigment (anthocyanin) from the half-matured red variety
tamarind could be used to impart a natural and attractive red colour to curries, jam,
jelly, etc. and that there is ample scope for red tamarind to be used as a source of
natural red food colourant in the near future.
26.3.7 Other uses
Tamarind fruits and other extracts from the tree have a number of reported miscel-
laneous applications which are still in widespread use. Tamarind pulp mixed with
sea salt has been reported to polish brass, copper and silver in Sri Lanka (Jayaweera,
1981), India (Benthall, 1933; Eggeling and Dale, 1951; Coates-Palgrave, 1988), West
Africa (Morton, 1987), South Africa and Somalia (Mahony, 1990). In West Africa,
an infusion of the whole pod is added to the dye when colouring goat hides. The
fruit pulp is used as a fi xative with turmeric (Curcuma longa) and annatto (Bixa
orellana) in dyeing, and it also serves to coagulate rubber latex (El-Siddig et al.,
2006) and is used for ethanol production (Menon et al., 2010).
The seed husk has also been found to be an effective fi sh poison (Roy et al., 1987).
Jena (1991) reported that powdered seed husks added to water, even at low dosages
of 5–10 mg/L, killed several fi sh species, within 2 hours of its application. The treat-
ment of salted dried fi sh by TKP was found to be the best in preserving the quality
of salted fi sh (Shetty et al., 1996).
26.3.8 Minor uses
The tender leaves, fl owers and the young seedlings are eaten as a vegetable and
used in curries, salads, stews and soups in many countries (Benthall, 1933; Coronel,
1991). The leaves are reported to be rich in minerals and vitamin constituents such
as calcium, magnesium, phosphorus, iron, copper, chlorine and sulphur; thiamine,
ribofl avin, niacin and vitamin C (Anon., 1976; Karuppaiah et al., 1997). The fl owers
are considered to be a good source of honey (Ramanujam and Kalpana, 1992) which
is rich golden in colour, but has slight acidity peculiar to its fl owers. The tree also
yields valuable timber and the wood is used mostly for agricultural implements,
tool-handles, wheels, mallets, rice pounders and oil-mills and for turnery (Chaturvedi,
1985; Coates-Palgrave, 1988). Saha et al. (2010) and Abhijit et al. (2010) suggested
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that tamarind fruit shell may be utilized as a low-cost biosorbent for the removal
of malachite green from aqueous solutions.
26.4 Functional properties
26.4.1 Medicinal uses of tamarind
Tamarind products are commonly used as health remedies throughout Asia, Africa
and the Americas (El-Siddig et al., 2006; Anon., 2008). Tamarind products, leaves,
fruits and seeds have been extensively used in Indian Ayurvedic medicine and tra-
ditional African medicine (Jayaweera, 1981; Parrotta, 1990). The medicinal value of
tamarind is mentioned in ancient Sanskrit literature. Tamarind fruits were well
known in Europe for their medicinal properties, having been introduced by Arab
traders from India (Rao, 1975).
Havinga et al. (2009) extensively reviewed the ethnopharmacology of T. indica
in the African context and suggested differences in the ways tamarind is used in
local medicine in different parts of Africa. Anon. (2008) also detailed medicinal uses
for tamarind in Africa which include as an anthelminthic (expels worms), anti-
microbial, antiseptic, antiviral, sunscreen and astringent and to promote wound
healing in the following conditions: asthma, bacterial skin infections, boils, chest
pain, cholesterol metabolism disorders, colds, colic, conjunctivitis, constipation
(chronic or acute), diabetes, diarrhoea, dry eyes, dysentery, eye infl ammation, fever,
gallbladder disorders, gastrointestinal disorders, gingivitis, haemorrhoids, indiges-
tion, jaundice, keratitis, leprosy, liver disorders, nausea and vomiting (pregnancy-
related), saliva production, skin disinfection/sterilization, sore throat, sores, sprains,
swelling (joints) and urinary stones. It was suggested by Sadik (2010) that the con-
sumption of adequate amounts of ‘poha beer’ a popular tamarind fruit drink of
Northern Ghana in Africa, could help reduce the prevalence of iron defi ciency
anaemia. This was based on the vitamin C content in it which enhances bioavail-
ability of non-haem iron.
Tamarind fruit is commonly used throughout Southeast Asia as a poultice applied
to foreheads of fever sufferers (Doughari, 2006). In traditional Thai medicine, the
fruit of the tamarind is used as a digestive aid, carminative, laxative, expectorant
and blood tonic (Komutarin et al., 2004). The laxative properties of the pulp and the
diuretic properties of the leaf sap have been confi rmed by modern medical science
(Bueso, 1980). Tamarind has been used in the treatment of a number of ailments,
including alleviation of sunstroke, Datura poisoning and the intoxicating effects of
alcohol and ‘ganja’ (Cannabis sativa L.) (Gunasena and Hughes, 2000). It is used as
a gargle for sore throats, dressing of wounds (Benthall, 1933; Dalziel, 1937; Eggeling
and Dale, 1951; Chaturvedi, 1985) and is said to aid the restoration of sensation in
cases of paralysis. Tamarind is also said to aid in the cure of malarial fever (Timyan
and Bwa 1996). In Southeast Asia, the pulp is prescribed to counteract the ill effects
of overdoses of chaulmoogra (Hydnocarpus anthelmintica Pierre), a leprosy medica-
tion, and in Mauritius, the pulp is used as a liniment for rheumatism (Morton, 1987).
Tamarind seeds have been used in Cambodia and India, in powdered form, to treat
boils and dysentery (Rao, 1975; Jayaweera, 1981). Boiled, pounded seeds are reported
to treat ulcers and bladder stones and powdered seed husks are used to treat dia-
betes (Rao, 1975).
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Several medicinal properties are claimed for preparations containing tamarind
pulp, leaves, fl owers, bark and roots (Lewis et al., 1970; Bueso, 1980; Jayaweera, 1981;
Ghosh, 1987; Rajan et al., 1989; Lakshmanan and Narayanan, 1990; Mustapha et al.,
1996; Doughari, 2006; El-Siddig et al., 2006). These include use as anti-infl ammato-
ries in North Africa (Rimbau et al., 1999), use as herbal medicines in Burkina Faso
(Kristensen and Lykke, 2003), use against leucorrhoea and skin disorders and folk
uses in India (Sen and Behera, 2000; Punjani and Kumar, 2002; Patil and Yadav, 2003;
Rajendran et al., 2003).
Improved bioavailability of anti-infl ammatory drugs utilizing tamarind xyloglu-
can was reported by Takahashi et al. (2002). Fruit extracts have been shown to
enhance the bioavailability of ibuprofen in humans as well (Garba et al., 2003). In
rats, tamarind xyloglucan has been found to show a strong antidiabetic effect (Maitin
et al., 2004). There is current medical interest in the use of purifi ed xyloglucan from
tamarind in eye surgery for conjunctival cell adhesion, corneal wound healing as
well (Burgalassi et al., 2000). The tamarind seed polysaccharide appears to be a
promising candidate as a vehicle for the topical treatment of bacterial keratitis, a
serious infectious ocular disease (Ghelardi et al., 2004). Other medical-related trials
have shown that tamarind intake delayed the progression of fl uorosis by enhancing
excretion of fl uoride (Khandare et al., 2004, 2010).
Apart from fruits, tamarind leaves are used to treat conjunctivitis, throat infec-
tions, coughs, fever, intestinal worms, urinary troubles and liver ailments, cardiac and
blood sugar reducing medicines, in ulcers, and as external applications in boils,
rheumatism and external swellings (Rao, 1975; Jayaweera, 1981; El-Siddig et al.,
2006). Jayaweera (1981) and Rao (1975) have reported its use in treatment for
digestive tract ailments and indigestion in Cambodia, India and the Philippines. The
bark as an astringent was being used as a tonic and in lotions or poultices to relieve
sores, ulcers, boils and rashes in the Philippines and Eastern Sudan (Dalziel, 1937).
Ashes of the burnt shells of ripe fruits are used as an alkaline substance with other
alkaline ashes in the preparation of medicine ‘Abayalavana’ in India, for curing
enlarged spleen (Sengupta, 1994). Flowers are used in the treatment of eye diseases
in the Philippines and also for jaundice and bleeding piles (Brown, 1954; de Padua
et al., 1978). The ‘Irula’ tribals in Tamil Nadu, India, use tamarind root bark for
abortion and for prevention of pregnancies (Lakshmanan and Narayanan, 1990). In
some countries, the bark is reported to be prescribed in asthma, amenorrhoea and
as a tonic and febrifuge (Anon., 1976). Medicinal and pharmacological uses have
been reviewed by Krishnamurthy et al. (2008). A recent study by Ranjan et al. (2009)
revealed a decrease in plasma and bone F levels on ingestion of 100 mg tamarind
water extract in rabbits.
26.4.2 Antioxidant activity
Several reports of antioxidant activity in tamarind indicate that fruits contain bio-
logically important mineral elements and have high antioxidant capacity associated
with high phenolic content that can be considered benefi cial to human health
(Gayathri et al., 2004). Tsuda et al. (1994) reported that tamarind seed coat contains
phenolic antioxidants, such as 2-hydroxy-30, 40-dihydroxyacetophenone, methyl
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3,4-dihydroxybenzoate, 3,4-dihydroxyphenyl acetate and epicatechin. Investigations
on tamarind seed by Osawa et al. (1994) revealed that the seed coat has antioxida-
tive activity as measured by the thiocyanate and thiobarbituric (TBA) method.
Ethyl acetate extracts prepared from the seed coat also had strong antioxidant
activity. Extraction of antioxidant compounds from the seed coat of sweet Thai
tamarind was reported by Luengthanaphol et al. (2004) and Lourith et al. (2009) as
well. Ramos et al. (2003) suggested that tamarind seed coat, a by-product of the
tamarind gum industry, could be used as a safe and low-cost source of antioxidants,
although other herbals could be more effective. Soong and Barlow (2004) reported
that seeds of tamarind have higher antioxidant activity than that of the pulp. Mar-
tinello et al. (2006) observed that the fruit pulp extract of T. indica, when adminis-
tered at a concentration of 5 % to hypercholesterolaemic, hamsters led to a decrease
in total serum cholesterol and an increase in HDL, indicating its potential in dimin-
ishing the risk of atherosclerosis in humans. Siddaraju (2006) observed radical
scavenging activity and good antioxidant activity of tamarind seed coat extracts
against linoleic acid emulsion systems. Sudjaroen et al. (2005) conducted quantita-
tive analysis of polyphenolic compounds in tamarind seeds and pericarp by analyti-
cal high-performance liquid chromatography. The yields of total phenolic compounds
were 6.54 and 2.82 g/kg (dry weight) in the seeds and pericarp, respectively.
26.4.3 Antimicrobial properties
The fruits of tamarind are reported to have antifungal and antibacterial properties
(Ray and Majumdar, 1976; Guerin and Reveillere, 1984; Bibitha et al., 2002; Metwali,
2003; John et al., 2004; Doughari, 2006). It is reported to be a potent fungicidal agent
to cultures of Aspergillus niger and Candida albicans. Investigations by Daniyan and
Muhammad (2008) revealed antimicrobial properties of tamarind against Esche-
richia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Salmonella paratyphi, Pseudomonas aeruginosa
and Staphylococcus aureus which are aetiological agents in urinary tract infections
(UTI), wounds, pneumonia and paratyphoid fever. Extracts from tamarind fruit
pulp have also shown molluscicidal activity against Bulius trancatus snails. This
activity is believed to be due to the presence of saponins in the fruit (Imbabi and
Abu-Al-Futuh, 1992). Tamarind plant extracts have been used to purify drinking
water in Burkina Faso and Vietnam (Bleach et al., 1991).
Several examples have been cited where tamarind extracts were used to control
pests and diseases in cultivated plants. Singh et al. (1989) reported that extracts
obtained from tamarind plant parts have completely inhibited the activity of both
cowpea mosaic and the mung bean mosaic viruses in India. The unfolded leaves of
tamarind, containing lupeol, are said to be effective in inhibiting viral and fungal
diseases in plants. Triterpenoids, phenols and alkaloids in tamarind extracts are
being looked at for their use in controlling pests and diseases, e.g. control of citrus
canker in Thailand (Leksomboon et al., 2001), of root knot nematode (Ranjana and
Rajendra, 2001) and of a range of fungi (Neetu and Bohra, 2003; John et al., 2004).
Tamarind pulp extracts screened for their antimicrobial activities exhibited higher
activity against S. typhimurium and S. aureus and lower activity against A. niger
(Jadhav et al., 2010).
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26.5 Quality issues
There are many problems associated with the quality of tamarind products due to
their high moisture level and seed, fi bre and rind contents. Tamarind is reported to
have been adulterated with foreign matter which is both organic and inorganic in
nature. Adulteration is considered to be due to poor post-harvest management
practices including processing (Rao and George, 1996; George and Rao, 1997).
General quality requirements of tamarind have been detailed by Pruthi (1999). The
Directorate of Marketing and Inspection and Bureau of Indian Standards have
prescribed quality specifi cations for seedless tamarind (Table 26.1), dry tamarind
(Table 26.2) and tamarind seed (Table 26.3) (Anon., 1996). Indian standard specifi -
cations are available for tamarind juice concentrate (IS 5955), pulp (IS 6364), kernel
oil (IS 9587: 1980) for kernel powder (IS 189: 1977, IS 511: 1962) and for seed testa
(IS 9004: 1978).
Table 26.3 Agmark specifi cations (%/wt max.) – tamarind seed
Character/grade Special A
Extraneous matter 1 2
Damaged and discoloured 2 5
Wt/lit 900 800
Moisture 9 10
Source: Anon. (1996).
Table 26.2 Agmark specifi cations (%/wt max) – tamarind dry
Character/grade Special A B
Seed content 35 40 45
Fibres 6 8 10
Rind 3 4 6
Insect damage 2 3 5
Moisture 15 20 25
Source: Anon. (1996).
Table 26.1 Agmark specifi cations (%/wt max) – tamarind
Character/grade Special A B C
Moisture 15 17 20 20
Seed content 5 10 15 20
Foreign matter (organic) 4 6 8 10
Foreign matter (inorganic) 1 1.5 2 2
Source: Anon. (1996).
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... The physiological maturity of any fruit at harvest has an important effect on postharvest quality of that fruit Beckles (2012). Tamarind fruits begin to ripen during the months of February-March (Duke, 1981;Rao et al., 1999). The pods are allowed to ripen on the tree until the outer shell is dry and could be easily separated from the pulp without adherence (Shankaracharya, 1998;Muzaffar and Kumar, 2017) At the ripe stage, the pulp shrinks, due to loss of moisture, and changes to reddish brown and becomes sticky (El-Sidding et al., 2006). ...
... To store for long periods, the blocks of pulp may be first steamed or sundried for several days. In most of the tamarind-growing countries, pulp is pressed and preserved in large masses and sold in small shops and markets by weight (Patil and Nadagouder,1997;Rao, et al.,1999 ). Tamarind pulp briquettes or blocks (chhapati) deseeded pulp are compressed tightly together either by hand or manually by hammering action reduce the volume of seedless tamarind pulp, reduce space requirement, reduce the tendency of caramelisation and non enzymatic browning, provide suitable handling size, improve the appearance of pulp and finally result in value addition of the uncompressed tamarind pulp (El-Sidding et al., 2006). ...
Full-text available
Tamarind (Tamarindus indica L.) is a fruit tree in the family of Fabaaceae under the genus Tamarindus. Tree found most of the tropical and subtropical country. India is the largest producer of tamarind in the world. The tamarind fruit comprises pulp, seed, shell, and fibre. It's most valued part is pulp in Hindi known as phool Imli used for food, cultural, social, medicinal and income generation purposes. Storage of tamarind, for a long period is a problem. Appropriate handling practices played an important role in maintaining quality and extending shelf life. This review paper revealed that the handling practices like harvesting, drying, dehulling, defibering deseeding, packaging and storage of tamarind.
... amoeba, papaya leaves are also effective for treating diseases such as dysentery, syphilis, beri-beri, asthma and boils Ripe and dried tamarind fruit mainly contains tartaric acid, reducing sugars (glucose and fructose), pectin, tannin, fiber and cellulose. It also contains potassium, calcium, phosphorus, sodium, zinc and iron (Rao and Mathew 2012;Ebifa-Othieno et al. 2017). Tamarind is rich in riboflavin and is a good source of thiamin and niacin, but poor in vitamin A and C. Tamarind products are often used as health solutions throughout Asia, Africa and America as an anthelminthic (expelling worms), antimicrobial, antiseptic, antiviral, sunscreen and astringent. ...
... Tamarind is rich in riboflavin and is a good source of thiamin and niacin, but poor in vitamin A and C. Tamarind products are often used as health solutions throughout Asia, Africa and America as an anthelminthic (expelling worms), antimicrobial, antiseptic, antiviral, sunscreen and astringent. In addition, it has been used to improve wound healing, treat asthma, bacterial skin infections, boils, chest pain, disorders of cholesterol metabolism, colds, colic, conjunctivitis, constipation (chronic or acute), diabetes, diarrhea, dry eyes, dysentery, eye inflammation, fever, gallbladder disorders, gastrointestinal disorders, gingivitis, hemorrhoids, indigestion, jaundice, keratitis, leprosy, liver disorders, pregnancy-related nausea and vomiting (Rao and Mathew 2012). Tamarind is often also used throughout Southeast Asia as a poultice applied to the forehead of a fever sufferer. ...
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In this work, indigenous knowledge of Indonesian medicinal plants and their preparation for traditional medicines in Semarang Regency, Central Java, Indonesia, is investigated. This indigenous knowledge was incorporated into STEM-based teaching/learning as a meaningful aspect of science education in Indonesia. This indigenous knowledge was also scientifically correlated and its integration into STEM-based learning was evaluated. Field visits involving traditional medicine sellers and makers were conducted to gather information on Indonesian traditional medicines. A semi-structured interview technique was used. In addition, field observations were conducted to observe the process of preparing traditional medicines, along with literature studies on their ingredients and benefits. Twenty species of medicinal plants commonly used as herbs were investigated. The STEM approach was used descriptively in the data analysis. Comparative analysis was performed to investigate the relationship between STEM and indigenous knowledge of Indonesian traditional medicines. The correlation between the original knowledge in the community and scientific knowledge in the literature was analyzed to integrate this indigenous knowledge into STEM education and therefore to re-design the experiences in the teaching/learning process. This study showed that scientific concepts in the preparation of traditional medicines have important implications for indigenizing the science curriculum in Indonesia through an ethno-STEM-oriented teaching/learning approach.
... Tamarindus indica, commonly known as tamarind, is a well-known medicinal plant globally and different parts of the plant have been well explored for their biological activities (Azman et al, 2012;Agnihotri and Singh 2013;Sole et al, 2013;Chigurupati et al, 2018a) including antioxidant and antidiabetic properties (Maiti et al, 2004;Rehana et al, 2017). Although many studies have been performed on T. indica extracts from various geographical origins (Rao et al, 1999), there are a limited number of reports on antioxidant and antidiabetic properties of the plant of Malaysian origin (Rao et al, 1999). ...
... Tamarindus indica, commonly known as tamarind, is a well-known medicinal plant globally and different parts of the plant have been well explored for their biological activities (Azman et al, 2012;Agnihotri and Singh 2013;Sole et al, 2013;Chigurupati et al, 2018a) including antioxidant and antidiabetic properties (Maiti et al, 2004;Rehana et al, 2017). Although many studies have been performed on T. indica extracts from various geographical origins (Rao et al, 1999), there are a limited number of reports on antioxidant and antidiabetic properties of the plant of Malaysian origin (Rao et al, 1999). ...
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Tamarindus indica (T. indica; Family Leguminosae) is widely used in various traditional medicine and food preparations. Antioxidant and antidiabetic activities of T. indica leaf extracts from Malaysian macerated (TIME) and Soxhlet (TISE) were investigated. In TIME and TISE, total phenolic (TP) content was 1.80 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/g and 1.01 mg GAE/g respectively, and total flavonoid (TF) content 1.44 mg rutin equivalent (RUE)/g and 1.04 mg RUE/g respectively. TIME was selected for further studies due to its higher TP and TF contents. Using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl and 2,2'-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid radical scavenging assays, TIME radical scavenging capacity was 1.42±0.3 μg/ml and 1.62±0.66 μg/ml, respectively; and employing α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibition assays, TIME in vitro antidiabetic ability was 2.24±0.07 μg/ml and 2.26±0.07 μg/ml. Acute oral toxicity study in rat revealed TIME was safe up to 2,000 mg/kg body weight (BW), and treatment with 200 mg/kg BW TIME significantly lowered elevated blood glucose levels to those of glucose-loaded normoglycemic and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. The results suggest TIME from Malaysia has therapeutic potential as a natural product antioxidant and antidiabetic.
... Tamarind trees stand about 24 m tall and cover about 7 m of the surface which makes them cover a large area. They also yield the most acidic fruit ever found (Mathew & Rao, 2012). Therefore, it might not be recommended for intercropping. ...
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This case study is about farming systems followed by small mango growers of a Srinivaspur sub-district of Kolar district in Karnataka, India. Over the years, the size of landholdings decreased and suitability has become an issue. The integrated farming system is mostly desired but, the kind of cropping pattern which would bring profitability and sustainability for smallholding farmers under dryland conditions has not been extensively explored. This research analyzes and explains the economies of scale and scope for the smallholder mango growers both in irrigated and rain-fed conditions. The data covers the period from
... The most useful part is the pods which are 7.5-20 cm long, 2.5 cm broad and mostly 1 cm thick, slightly constricted, curved and brownish-ash in colour. The covering of the pod is fragile and easily detachable (Choudhary, 1997;Rao et al., 1999). In view of the above mentioned catastrophic health condition, there is need to reconsider the utilization of natural water purification methods by selected plants with purification potentials such as coagulation, antimicrobial as well as detoxification capabilities. ...
... Tamarindus indica is moderate to large size evergreen tree up to 24 m height and 7 m in girth with an exceptionally beautiful spreading crown and fragranted flower with wide range of geographical distribution in the tropic and subtropic areas except in the Himalayan and western country [9]. It has short, thick and seldom straight trunk. ...
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Plants have provided a source of inspiration of novel drug compounds, as plant derived medicines have made large contributions to human health and well-being. An estimate of 75-90% of rural population of the world still relies on herbs for their healthcare. Ayurveda, supposed to be the oldest medical system in the world, provides potential leads to find active and therapeutically useful compounds from plants. Epidemiological studies have consistently demonstrated that consumption of plant- derived foods rich in bioactive phytochemicals have a protective effect against different aliments related to human health. Tamarindus indica is having numerous reported activities like antidiabetic, hypolipidemic, hepatoprotective, anti-ulcer, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antivenom, antimicrobial, antihelmintic and molluscicidal properties. In spite of these medicinal values this plant is also consumed by rural people as vegetable. It also use as flavoring agent to impart flavor to various dishes and beverage. The present comprehensive review is therefore an effort to give detailed information about botanical description, phytochemical, traditional, nutraceutical and pharmacological approaches of Tamarindus indica.
... We chose this component because of its excellent moisturizing and restructuring properties. [20] Moreover, it is a well-characterized rheological modifier, and it allows the formation of personal care products with a sensorial and moisturizing effect which is comparable to different non-green polymers like hyaluronate and xyloglucan [21]. The product development design applied in this study included rheological analyses of each cosmetic prototype, with the aim of determining the relevance of using rheology as a methodological approach to optimize cosmetic formulations, in terms of percentage of both technical and active ingredients. ...
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Quality, safety, and efficacy concerns added to instability, poor absorption, and the dispersion of actives are common problems while formulating plant-based cosmetics. Furthermore, a correct balance between the stability of the emulsion, the sensory profile, and the high efficacy has to be considered to formulate an effective product. In this paper, we demonstrate that rheology is a methodological tool that can be used while designing a new product. In particular, we developed an O/W emulsion which is easy to spread on irritated skin, and that can soothe the redness and discomfort caused by the exposure to both physical and chemical irritating agents. The green active mixture consists of three natural raw materials: Bosexil®, Zanthalene®, and Xilogel®. Each ingredient has a well-demonstrated efficacy in terms of soothing, anti-itching, and moisturizing properties respectively. Starting from the selection of a new green emulsifying system, through the analysis of the rheological properties, we obtained a stable and easy-to-apply o/w emulsion. The efficacy of the optimized product was assessed in vitro on intact and injured skin using the SkinEthic™ Reconstituted Human Epidermis (RHE) as a biological model.
Tamarind seed is a large amount of waste, which is discarded from the tamarind pulp industry. It is underutilized, but has a great potential to be used. The utilization of tamarind seed can be an interesting way to make its use in composite ingredient‐based foods and industrial products. The industrial products from tamarind seeds, such as polysaccharides, kernel powder, gum, starch and oil have found limited uses in food industries, though some research has proved their potential to be utilized in many food applications. But there is still a wide gap in potential and actual application of the tamarind seeds, which may be due to a lack of feasible technologies. This article outlines the potentials of using the tamarind seed in numerous food and non‐food applications with specific mentions on physical and engineering properties, composition, and its derived industrial products along with their extraction techniques for wider applications.
Background: Tamarind seed polysaccharide (TSP) is used as a texturizing agent and a thickener in food and pharmaceutical products. There are no publications describing the addition of TSP to intra-articular injection formulations for arthritis. Objective: The purpose of this study was to investigate the rheology and efficacy of the formulation of TSP with hyaluronic acid (HA) as a new material for injection for arthritis. Methods: We investigated the viscoelastic properties of formulations of HA and TSP as potential lubricants for arthritis, and tested the improvement of right/left paw weight distribution in monosodium iodoacetate-induced arthritis in the rat. Results: HA formulations with 3% and 4% TSP showed improved rheological characteristics and were protected against changes induced by heat sterilization. Addition of TSP also reduced pain in the arthritis model, as evidenced by normalization of the distribution of paw weight. Conclusions: TSP is a potential material as a substitute for HA or in combination with HA for intra-articular injection for arthritis.
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Polysaccharide is used widely in food, cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries. The main use is to give appropriate texture to the products. Thus the polysaccharides used in such way are called texture modifier. Here two important texture modifiers, gellan and tamarind xyloglucan are introduced. The former one is a microbial polysaccharide with gelling ability. Gelling ability makes gellan valuable since only a few polysaccharides can form a gel. Most polysaccharides do not form a gel by themselves; however, some can form a gel under appropriate conditions. The latter one is a plant polysaccharide which forms a gel under appropriate conditions. Gelation and gel properties of gellan and tamarind xyloglucan are described.
Fresh commercial tamarind (Tamarindus indica L.) pulp samples with initial moisture content of 20% (Sample-1) and 17% (sample-2) were equilibrated to 54 and 55% RH, respectively. A moisture content of 24.0-25.5% equilibrating to 64% RH, was found safe for the storage of tamarind pulp. The product retained its overall quality in aluminium foil vacuum (AFV), aluminium foil air (AFA), metallised polyester polyethylene (MPET), and polypropylene (PP) packages at refrigerated (4-6°C) and ambient (27°C / 65% RH) conditions up to 180 days studied. However, colour of the samples stored at ambient condition was less than that of the refrigerator stored samples in all the packagings. Under accelerated conditions of 30-40% RH and 40°C and 92% RH and 38°C the product showed significantly lower colour values than ambient and refrigerated samples. Tartaric acid and total acid values did not show significant differences irrespective of packaging and storage conditions. But at 38°C and 92% RH, the products in all the packages were discoloured, soggy and darkened. Sample-1 and Sample-2 followed almost the same storage quality pattern.
Tamarind (Tamarindus indica) pulp subjected to vacuum sealing and normal sealing was stored at refrigerated (4±2°C) and ambient (25±2°C) conditions. The pulp packed under vacuum sealing and stored under refrigerated temperature retained the brown colour (0.2540 OD value) upto 330 days of storage. Variations in other biochemical parameters were negligible from the initial values during the period of storage when stored under low temperature conditions after packing the pulp under vacuum.
Tamarind (Tamarindus indica L.) is an economically important tree of India, which grows abundantly In the dry tracts of Central and South Indian States. Its life span is long and yields 150-500 kg fruits per tree. The pulpy portion of the fruits form the tamarind of commerce, which finds extensive use in culinary preparations. Indian production of tamarind is about 3 lakh tonnes per year. The country earns about Rs. 50 crores annually from the export of various tamarind products such as tamarind concentrate, tamarind powder, tamarind kernel powder (TKP) pickles and pastes. The fruit pulp is the richest natural source of tartaric acid (8-18%) and is the chief acidulant used in the preparation of foods in India. The major industrial use for the seeds is in the manufacture of tamarind kernel powder (TKP), which is an Important sizing material for the jute and textiles. The seeds are gaining Importance as a rich source of proteins and valuable amino acids. Also, the seed kernels have been used as food in times of scarcity either alone or mixed with cereal flours. This review covers the chemical, technological and usage aspects of tamarind.
Whole tamarined seeds contained 131.3 g kg−1 crude protein, 67.1 g kg−1 crude fibre, 48.2 g kg−1 crude fat, 56.2 g kg−1 tannins and trypsin inhibitor activity (TIA) of 10.8, with most of the tannins being located in the testa. Owing to their hardness, seeds proved difficult to grind and grinding was only slightly eased by boiling followed by decortication, a process that rendered the seeds malleable. Infrared micronisation did not have any effect on the ease of grinding.Tamarind seeds were poorly utilized by broiler chicks. Boiling followed by decortication did not improve their nutritive value and infrared micronisation produced further adverse effects in chicks. Chicks fed on tamarind seed diets had higher water intakes than controls, and pancreas weights and intestinal and caecal lengths were also increased. It is suggested that the primary factor responsible for the poor utilization of tamarind seed may be the indigestible nature of its polysaccharide rather than its tannin content, or the possible presence of other toxins.
Aqueous, ethanol and chloroform extracts from five plants were administered either topically (oedema induced by arachidonic acid in mouse ear) or i.p. (subplantar oedema induced by carrageenan in rats). Our results show that Anacyclus pyrethrum, Armeria alliacea, Asphodelus ramosus, Capparis spinosa and Rhaponticum acaule possess antiinflammatory activity, since at least one extract of each plant was active in one of the experimental models. The three extracts from Anacyclus pyrethrum showed significant activity in both experimental models, but the highest antiinflammatory activity was exhibited by the polar extracts of Armeria alliacea. The ethanol extract of the latter produced 100% inhibition of the inflammation induced by carrageenan and this inhibition was highly significant (p<0.001) with reference to values found in both active (indomethacin 3 mg/kg) and vehicle administered control groups.