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Prospecção palinológica em méis da Bahia

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... Pollen spectra were, in general, composed of pollen types of native species of Northeast Brazil, and which had been identified in previous studies as of importance to beekeeping in this region (Aires & Freitas, 2001;Barth, 1989;Borges, 2013;Oliveira & Santos, 2014;Silva & Santos, 2015;Sodr e et al., 2007). ...
... The predominance of pollen types of the genus Mimosa L. in the honey produced in the Northeast Region of Brazil was previously documented in the states of Bahia (Oliveira & Santos, 2014), Cear a (Aires & Freitas, 2001;Sodr e et al., 2007), Para ıba (Silva, 2006), Piau ı (Borges, 2013), and Sergipe (Silva & Santos, 2015); however, their participation in supplying nectar to bees may be questionable. According to Barth (1989), pollen types of this genus are always overrepresented in spectra because its species are mostly polliniferous. ...
... Regarding the Myrtaceae, pollen types associated with the genus Myrcia DC. generally do not occur at high frequencies in honey spectra from Northeast Brazil, however, their presence is frequent between samples (Borges, 2013;Oliveira & Santos, 2014;Silva, 2006;Sodr e et al., 2007). ...
Article
A chemical and palynological study was performed on honey of Apis mellifera L. (Hymenoptera: Apidae) produced and marketed in the nine states that comprise the Northeast Region of Brazil. A total of 58 samples were obtained from markets between the years 2015 and 2017. The pollen spectra of the samples encompassed 232 pollen types of defined botanical origin, with 31 samples possessing predominant pollen in their spectra, which represent species with beekeeping potential: Angelonia, Borreria verticillata, Copaifera, Mimosa caesalpiniifolia, M. pudica, M. tenuiflora, Myrcia 1, Schinus terebinthifolia, Tapirira guianensis, Tarenaya, and Ziziphus joazeiro. Leguminosae was the most represented botanical family in all the studied honey samples, with Mimosa L. being the most diverse and frequent genus. The richness of different pollen types varied among states, but similarities in pollen spectra were minimally related to geographical proximity to the municipalities of origin. Thus, some pollen types, alone or in combination, can be considered good indicators of honey produced in Northeast Brazil. The levels of the main metallic contaminants of honey (i.e., As, Cd, Cr, Hg, and Pb) were found to be below their respective limits, suggesting that honey samples from the Northeast are safe for human consumption. The studied samples presented heterogeneous botanical constitutions that reflect the diversity of plant species of the Caatinga biome and the generalist habit of A. mellifera.
... In a floristic survey of plant species related to apiculture in the state of Piau ı, Sousa et al. (2015) found a large diversity of species of the families Asteraceae, Euphorbiaceae, Malvaceae, Rubiaceae, and especially Fabaceae (Leguminosae), corroborating the diversity encountered in the present study. Other authors also refer to legume pollen grains as being very frequent in apiculture products and very important resources for bees (Barth 1989;Lima 2007;Borges et al. 2014;Oliveira and Santos 2014;Silva and Santos 2014;Jesus et al. 2015). ...
... The high frequency of the M. misera and M. tenuiflora types in honey from the caatinga was observed by Oliveira and Santos (2014), and was also registered in the present work. Sousa et al. (2015) registered both species as bee plants for the state of Piau ı, reinforcing their importance as part of the bee flora and corroborating the identification of these types in the present study. ...
Article
Honey samples produced in the years 2010 and 2011, in an area of caatinga vegetation in the semi-arid region of the Piauí State (Brazil), were analyzed using microscopy in order to track their botanical origin by pollen grains present. Samples (19) were dissolved in ethanol and acetolyzed. The absolute concentration of pollen grains was obtained by comparison with the exotic marker Lycopodium clavatum L., and at least 500 pollen grains were counted per sample. The most diverse families were Leguminosae, Euphorbiaceae, Rubiaceae, and Myrtaceae, reflecting the characteristics of the semiarid region and the Caatinga, including endemic species. Samples from February (2010) showed a greater richness of pollen types, which is probably associated with the onset of the rainy season. Even during the dry season, there was honey production, with a considerable diversity of pollen types. This indicates that there are plant species in flower during the dry season that are important to sustaining bee colonies. Mimosa caesalpiniifolia and Pityrocarpa moniliformis were the only predominant pollen types; Coutarea and P. moniliformis were the secondary types. The pollen types Borreria verticillata, Combretum, Croton, Herissantia, Hyptis, Microtea, Mimosa caesalpiniifolia, M. misera, M. tenuiflora, P. moniliformis and Poaceae are very frequent in the analyzed honey, and characteristic of honey from Simplício Mendes. The absolute concentration analysis showed that 69% of the honey was classified in category I, 26% in category II and 5% in category III. A cluster analysis showed the formation of two major clades, one that shared many pollen types of Croton (S2) and another that shared the pollen types Borreria verticillata and Hyptis (S1). Two samples were considered monofloral honey (from M. caesalpiniifolia) and the remaining were considered heterofloral.
... Estudos sobre melissopalinologia foram desenvolvidos no sudeste, nordeste e norte do Brasil (BARTH, 1970;BARTH, 1989;BARTH, 2004;OLIVEIRA & SANTOS, 2014) e análises melissopalinológicas foram realizadas no extremo sul do país (BARTH, 2004;HILGERT-MOREIRA et al., 2010;WITTER et al., 2012;OSTERKAMP & JASPER, 2013;NOBRE et al., 2015;PILOTTO et al., 2016). ...
Article
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Um levantamento dos estudos melissopalinológicos realizados no Rio Grande do Sul é aqui apresentado. O intuito é contribuir para o conhecimento nessa área e identificar as lacunas de informações para que sejam propostos estudos que complementem as informações sobre a flora apícola desse estado, um dos principais produtores de mel do Brasil. Os estudos encontrados na literatura foram realizados com mel de Apis mellifera e dos meliponíneos Tetragonisca angustula, Scaptotrigona bipunctata, Melipona obscurior, Melipona bicolor, Melipona quadrifasciata, Plebeia emerina e Plebeia remota. Os méis são classificados como heteroflorais, com predominância de Schinus terebenthifolia, Ilex sp., Syagrus romanzoffiana, Asteraceae, Clethra scabra, Sebastiania sp., Eucalyptus sp., Mimosa sp., Eugenia sp. e Hovenia dulcis. O levantamento demonstra que o número de análises realizadas até o momento não corresponde à quantidade de produção de mel do Rio Grande Sul e que são necessários mais estudos da flora apícola em outras áreas do estado do que aquelas aqui avaliadas para a caracterização botânica e melissopalinológica. Espera-se sensibilizar os órgãos de fomento de pesquisa e a cadeia produtiva para conhecer e promover estratégias de manejo da flora apícola a fim de valorizar a apicultura no Rio Grande do Sul. Palavras-chave: grãos de pólen; mel; origem floral; sul do Brasil.
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Within the amazon region 130 species of stingless bees can be found, grouped into 26 genera, where Melipona and Trigona are the most represented. In Acre there is official record of 20 genera and 64 species of stingless bees, among those M. eburnea is one of the members, being very common in the Acre forests and rationally created by melipolinculturists, in the municipality of Rio Branco. The objectives that integrated this job were: (i) to identify botanical species used by M. eburnea to collect pollen and nectar; (ii) to determine the frequency of pollen types found in honey itself as well as in the pollen charges of the bees´ corbicles of M. eburnea; (iii) to point out the flowering seasonality of the plants used by M. eburnea to collect pollen and nectar; (iv) to identify the growth habits of M. eburnea´ s pollen and nectar suppliers; (v) to indicate the contribution of native, cultivated and ruderal species in the supply of pollen and nectar to M. eburnea; (vi) to verify the influence of rainfall and light intensity on the supply of food resources for M. eburnea, throughout the year; (vii) to assess the protein content and the specific concentration of amino acids content in the pollen collected by M. eburnea, throughout the year and (viii) to check if there is a link between the different levels of protein and amino acids with the diversity of pollen types collected by M. eburnea. Once a week, from April 2017 to March 2019, from 5 am to 9 am. worker bees from three colonies of M. eburnea have been sampled. The weekly samples have been gathered, thus creating a single monthly sample. The pollen sources used by M. eburnea have consequently been determined by sampling the pollen loads from the worker bees, when returning to the colony with pollen in their corbicles. The sources of nectar have been confirmed by checking on honey samples taken from the pots, still open. In order to quantify the protein content and the amino acid profile, the samples have been collected together with those of pollen and honey, in still open pollen pots and from the same selected colonies. After that, pollen has been collected and sampled from plants present in the study area, as well as from the dried ones, kept in the UFAC – UFACPZ herbarium, to preparing a reference “pollen library”. Microscopy slides have been set to perform qualitative and quantitative analysis of the pollen types contained in the samples of the bees´ charges, honey and pollen pots. Palynological analysis have shown that M. eburnea bees have harvested floral resources from 115 botanical species, belonging to 47 families and 96 genera: 61 species have been used both to collect pollen and nectar, 19 only for pollen collection and 35 just for nectar extraction. Fabaceae (Mimosoideae) and Myrtaceae have been the main sources of pollen and nectar to M. eburnea, in all the seasons of the bee calendar (rainy, rain-dry transition, drought and dry-rain transition). Among the pollen types of the corbicle loads´ samples, Mimosa pudica represented the highest concentration 6.79 (log 10). When considering the volume of the pollen grain, Hybiscus was the most important. Among those classified in the honey samples, Crotalaria retusa obtained the highest concentration of 6.56 (log 10). In the main group of plants visited by M. eburnea, 50.61% were native; 36.59% cultivated and 12.81% ruderal. Referring to the habit, 40.25% were trees; 34.59% bushes; 13.21% herbs; 8.18% vines; 3.14% sub-shrubs and 0.63% epiphytes. The seasonality of the botanical species utilized by M. eburnea to collect floral resources has demonstrated wide variation throughout the study period: the pollen types Solanum and M. pudica have turned out being the least seasonal, in the corbicula loads´ samples. Among honey ones, Combretum. These pollen types have been present during the all assessed months. 13 amino acids have been found in the pollen stored by M. eburnea, nine of which are essential ones. In this group, Arginine was preponderant. Among the non-essentials, Proline has shown the highest concentration, being predominant in the set of identified amino acids as well, representing 68.5%. The levels of raw protein vary from 16.57 to 24.39%, within an average of 20.75%. The highest concentration of flowering has occurred in the dry season, characterized by a decrease in the volume of rainfalls and an increase in the amount of hours of sunshine. As for the totality of plants visited by M. eburnea, 38.39% offered pollen and/or nectar, during the dry season. It is concluded that (i) M. eburnea presents a generalist behavior in the use of pollen sources; (ii) the main sources of pollen and nectar for M. eburnea have been Fabaceae and Myrtaceae; (iii) native vegetation, mainly trees and bushes, have been the primary source of pollen and nectar for M. eburnea; (iv) an association among native, cultivated and ruderal plants provides appropriate amounts of proteins and amino acids for M. eburnea. Keywords: Stingless bee, Rational breeding, Meliponiculture, Floral resources, Agroforestry system – AFS.
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Pollen analyses were carried out on 33 honey samples from Espinal, Monte de Llanuras y Mesetas and Pampeana phytogeographical Provinces, collected during the 2000-2001 period. Sample processing as well as qualitative and quantitative analyses were performed according to standard techniques. Sixty-seven morphological pollen types were identified. The association of Eucalyptus sp. (E. camaldulensis Dehnh., E. viminalis Labill.), Centaurea sp. (C. solstitialis L., C. calcitrapa L.) and Diplotaxis tenuifolia DC. characterized these honeys. Twelve samples were unifloral: six from Eucalyptus sp., five from Helianthus annuus L., and one from Brassicaceae. Asteraceae and Fabaceae were the most representative botanical families.
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As plantas visitadas pela abelha africanizada Apis mellifera L. para obtenção de recursos florais foram estudadas em uma área de caatinga (Itatim, Bahia, Nordeste do Brasil). Um total de 588 forrageadoras foi coletado visitando 33 espécies de plantas. Sterculiaceae, Erythroxylaceae, Mimosaceae e Rhamnaceae foram as famílias botânicas mais freqüentemente visitadas. Apis mellifera apresentou nicho trófico amplo (2,71), todavia poucas plantas foram importantes como fontes de pólen e néctar. Cerca de 80% dos indivíduos foram coletados em dez espécies de plantas, sendo Melochia tomentosa e Erythroxylon catingae as plantas mais freqüentemente visitadas. A similaridade encontrada entre a flora visitada por A. mellifera em Itatim e em outra área de caatinga distante 30 km foi baixa (0,17), e diferentes espécies de plantas foram mais freqüentemente visitadas em cada área. Isto pode resultar de diferenças na composição florística das comunidades assim como de diferenças na quantidade de recursos florais disponíveis em cada área.