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Unequal Childhoods: Class, Race, and Family Life

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Abstract

Class does make a difference in the lives and futures of American children. Drawing on in-depth observations of black and white middle-class, working-class, and poor families, Unequal Childhoods explores this fact, offering a picture of childhood today. Here are the frenetic families managing their children's hectic schedules of "leisure" activities; and here are families with plenty of time but little economic security. Lareau shows how middle-class parents, whether black or white, engage in a process of "concerted cultivation" designed to draw out children's talents and skills, while working-class and poor families rely on "the accomplishment of natural growth," in which a child's development unfolds spontaneously—as long as basic comfort, food, and shelter are provided. Each of these approaches to childrearing brings its own benefits and its own drawbacks. In identifying and analyzing differences between the two, Lareau demonstrates the power, and limits, of social class in shaping the lives of America's children. The first edition of Unequal Childhoods was an instant classic, portraying in riveting detail the unexpected ways in which social class influences parenting in white and African American families. A decade later, Annette Lareau has revisited the same families and interviewed the original subjects to examine the impact of social class in the transition to adulthood.
... Family socioeconomic theory by Bornstein & Bradley (2003), Brooks-Gunn & Duncan (1997), Coleman (1998), McLoyd (1998) and Blau & Duncan (1967), ethnic identity theory by Steinberg, Dornbusch, &Brown (1992), cultural capital approach by Bourdieu (1977), credential approach by Collins (1979), social psychological approach by his collaborators (1957, 1967), concerted cultivation approach by Lareau (2003)and currently majority-minority paradigm by Eitzen & Zinn (1997) and oppositional cultural theory by J. Ogbu (1978)are very popular in the field. The approaches designed and developed by the social scientists expose different assumptions, arguments, and explore evidence on the social issues. ...
... Annette Lareau (2003) in concerted cultivation approach addresses the factors that lead to social stratification in educational attainment. Lareau's idea of concerted cultivation refers to an active involvement of parents in a child's learning and development experiences by creating and controlling organized activities for their children. ...
... Actually, education attainment is a basic criterion to acquire a certain social status in the family as well as in the wider community but also to access in formal labor force participation and earn money for livelihood in any society. The assumptions of structural-cultural theories (Bourdieu, 1977;Collins,1979;Eitzen & Zinn, 1997;Lareau, 2003;Ogbu, 1978) suggest that education attainment is not only dependent on socio-cultural factors (e.g. ethnic identity, cultural pattern, power and discrimination in resource distribution and cultural distance but it is also the fundamental mediating factor that effects directly on family occupation and income attainment (Foster, 1964). ...
... As the one transmitted in schools, it is at the same time a major instrument for delegitimising other forms of culture and social reproduction . Other interpretations of Reproduction Theory contend that school culture is not the outcome of an intended design by a social class, but instead that the middle and upper classes have more opportunities to adapt to it because of their privileged social standing (Lareau, 2011;Martín Criado, 2010). Bourdieu and Passeron themselves acknowledge the school system's independence, which they identify with a quid pro quo that the ruling classes are ...
... There are numerous studies on the differences in socialisation across diverse categories of families and in different aspects Lareau, 2011, andLahire, 2019). Generally speaking, these studies reveal that those social classes with higher levels of education, whose social reproduction basically involves the school system, "conduct an ongoing process of adapting to the requirements of the accumulation academic capital" (Martín Criado, 2010: 333). ...
... Such capabilities are essential for academic success, which is the goal of the working-class families that have adopted this model. In spite of these changes, differences remain between families of different social classes regarding their socialisation practices and, above all, their relationship with the school system that is not without its conflicts among lower-income or working-class families (Martín Criado, 2006;Lareau, 2011). Working-class families continue to have lower expectations and aspirations regarding schooling (Martín & Bruquetas, 2014) or they are less involved in homework . ...
Article
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This study analyses the degree of correspondence between the qualities the Spanish school system requires and those that parents consider important to convey to their children. We carried out a descriptive analysis of the qualities featured in educational reforms from the LGE to the LOMLOE, comparing their outcomes with data from the World Values Survey (WVS). Families with medium and high educational levels are more in tune with schooling's requirements, although those with lower levels tend to adapt over time.
... Der Beitrag von Familien zur Bildung ihrer Kinder ist seit Jahrzehnten Forschungsgegenstand zahlreicher nationaler und internationaler Studien (Baumert und Schümer 2001;Lareau 2003;Totsika und Sylva 2004). Aus der Perspektive verschiedener Disziplinen wurde vielfach versucht, die familialen Bildungsleistungen zu quantifizieren, inhaltlich zu bestimmen und konzeptionell von anderen Leistungen der Familie abzugrenzen. ...
... Aus ungleichheitstheoretischer Perspektive ist zu konstatieren, dass eine fehlende ‚kulturelle' bzw. habituelle Passung zwischen dem Lernort Schule und unterschiedlichen familialen Milieus ungleichheitsverstärkend ist, was auch bei Familien mit Migrationshintergrund zum Tragen kommen kann (Lareau 2003;Müller 2007). "So entscheiden letztendlich die vorhandenen Passungsverhältnisse dieser beiden Lernorte darüber, ob die kulturellen Transferbeziehungen in der Familie dem Statuserhalt oder der Statusverbesserung förderlich sind oder nicht" (Ecarius und Wahl 2009, S. 17). ...
... Dies konnte auch in internationalen Studien bestätigt werden (Totsika und Sylva 2004 Zudem gibt es Hinweise darauf, dass der theoretisch angenommene enge Zusammenhang zwischen Erziehung und Bildung auch empirisch sichtbar ist. Darauf verweisen die Studien von Lareau (2003) sowie Büchner und Brake (2006), die Erziehungsvorstellungen von Eltern berücksichtigten. Neuere Analysen auf Basis des DJI-Surveys AID:A zum Zusammenhang zwischen Erziehungsverhalten und familialen Praktiken zeigen, dass es zum einen keine eindeutige Zuordnung der Eltern zu Erziehungsmilieus entlang der formalen Bildung der Familie gibt. ...
Chapter
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Die Familie ist zu einem immer wichtiger werdenden Akteur in der Bildungslandschaft avanciert. Dieser Beitrag zeichnet nach, wie die Familie mit ihren Bildungsleistungen ab den 2000er-Jahren unter dem Label des Bildungsorts ‚wiederentdeckt‘ wurde. Im Rahmen einer theoretischen Analyse werden wichtige Charakteristika des Bildungsorts Familie herausgearbeitet, unter anderem die generationenübergreifende, in Interaktionen eingebettete, überwiegend nichtintentionale Bildungsvermittlung. Nationale und internationale Studien zeigen auf, dass Familien nicht nur dazu beitragen, dass Kinder Kompetenzen entwickeln, die im formalen Bildungssystem relevant sind, sondern auch zur Vermittlung der sogenannten Alltagsbildung beitragen, was bei einer funktionalen Betrachtung familialer Bildungsleistungen häufig aus dem Blick gerät.
... Emotional capital and emotional dimensions of family life, particularly parenting, have been a significant research focus for several decades. The researchers analyzed parents' emotional investments and the transmission of different capitals through emotion work (Lareau 2003;Gillies 2006Gillies , 2007. Much attention has been paid to the role of emotional capital in the reproduction of class (Lareau 2003;Irwin and Elley 2011). ...
... The researchers analyzed parents' emotional investments and the transmission of different capitals through emotion work (Lareau 2003;Gillies 2006Gillies , 2007. Much attention has been paid to the role of emotional capital in the reproduction of class (Lareau 2003;Irwin and Elley 2011). The research on classed emotional capital demonstrated its relation to parenting styles (Lareau 2003;Weininger and Lareau 2009). ...
... Much attention has been paid to the role of emotional capital in the reproduction of class (Lareau 2003;Irwin and Elley 2011). The research on classed emotional capital demonstrated its relation to parenting styles (Lareau 2003;Weininger and Lareau 2009). An interest in the emotional side of parenting has been prompted by feminist theories that challenged the gendered division of emotion work (Hutchison 2012, p. 196). ...
Article
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The article examines Lithuanian middle-class fathers’ uses of emotional capital to learn which patterns of emotional engagement with children they employ in their fathering. Emotional capital is defined, in the article, as a type of interpersonal resource that consists of emotion-based knowledge and emotion-management abilities that can lead to social benefits. The 24 in-depth interviews with 35- to 48-year-old fathers show that males believe they are emotionally prepared to cope with their children’s concerns and challenges. The use of emotional capital is an attempt to strengthen their standing as fathers and gain pleasure. Emotional capital is activated by fathers regulating negative emotions and using positive emotions to speak with their children and form friendship bonds. Emotion-based knowledge, management abilities, and capacities to feel provide fathers with a sense of authority and pride. Importantly, in the interviews, it is indicated that men and women have similar emotional resources. Compared to their female partners or wives, men generally consider themselves capable of skillfully enacting emotional capital in their interactions with children.
... Si la diversité des enfances dans le temps et dans l'espace a depuis longtemps été documentée (Mead, 1928, Ariès, 1960, Lallemand, 1997 (Lareau, 2003), une acquisition du langage écrit et oral plus ardue et des conséquences sur la scolarité des enfants des classes populaires (Lahire, 1991 (Pirus, 2011, Ménard & Volat, 2012, Tillard, 2014. Ces habitats, également, poseraient parfois la question de leur salubrité et donc des états de santé des enfants. ...
... Nous interrogerons ici ces éléments et l'éventuelle expression des classes sociales dans le quotidien et les pratiques familiales.Précisons préalablement que, pour caractériser socialement les familles, le premier outil du sociologue est souvent l'activité professionnelle des parents(Cayouette-Remblière, 2015).Mais si les classes populaires sont généralement définies par la profession des parents 247 , comprenant ainsi les « salariés d'exécution » (ouvriers et employés)opposés aux « professions intermédiaires » caractérisant les classes moyennes(Bertrand, Blois & Giraud, 2019) -, nombre de sociologues soulignent aujourd'hui une catégorie « à géométrie variable » recouvrant une hétérogénéité de situations(Siblot, Cartier, Coutant, Masclet & Renahy, 2015, Alonzo & Hugrée, 2010. Les classes populaires se caractérisent par une position dominée socio-économiquement, mais il s'agit aussi de différencier ce qu'AnnetteLareau (2003) appelle (dans un contexte nord-américain) working-class et poor class, correspondant à une séparation également opérée par certaines chercheurs francophones lorsqu'ils distinguent les catégories dites stabilisées (parents avec un emploi, un salaire fixe) de celles plus fortement précarisées, sans revenu, voire vivant dans des hôtels ou voitures(Lahire, 2019). Certaines des familles que nous avons rencontrées semblent davantage précarisées que d'autres, avec des parents isolés ou sans emploi et vivant des prestations sociales. ...
Thesis
La thèse interroge la configuration des relations de soin au sein de l’hôpital et de la famille, à partir du cas d’enfants de 6 à 14 ans atteints d’un diabète de type 1. Ce travail s’attache à étudier, par une approche qualitative – fondée sur des entretiens semi-directifs et sur l’observation ethnographique –, la forme que prennent ces relations telles que co-construites avec les enfants, leur diversité et leur possibilité d’évolution dans le temps. Les relations de soin donnent à voir des rapports sociaux plus larges et parfois inégaux, notamment d’âges et de générations. En investiguant le rôle et l’action des divers acteurs impliqués dans ces deux arènes d’action, l’enquête vise à saisir plus finement les manières dont ces asymétries sont reproduites, « mises en pratique » dans les soins ou modifiées. En plaçant au centre de l’analyse l’agentivité des enfants, elle étudie les manières dont ceux-ci se saisissent de ces asymétries, les interprètent, y participent ou les subvertissent en se réappropriant leur corps et la maladie, en négociant en situation et avec une pluralité d’acteurs leur place dans les soins et les liens qu’ils entretiennent aux autres.
... Een welvarende kindertijd betekent naast toegang tot basisbehoeften, vaak terdege ouderlijke ondersteuning bij de schoolloopbaan en de mogelijkheid tot private lessen als het moeilijk loopt op school. Kinderen daarentegen die opgroeien in armoede hebben een hogere kans om vroegtijdig de school te verlaten, en tot het ontwikkelen van fysieke en mentale gezondheidsproblemen (Duncane & Murnane, 2011;Lareau, 2011;Smeeding, Erikson & Jannti, 2011). Opgroeien in een welstellend gezin betekent automatisch het meekrijgen van cultureel en sociaal kapitaal dat eigen is aan de hogere klassen (Bourdieu, 1986;Lareau, 2011;Fischer, 1982;MacDonald, Schildrick, Webster & Simpson, 2005;van Eijk, 2010). ...
... Kinderen daarentegen die opgroeien in armoede hebben een hogere kans om vroegtijdig de school te verlaten, en tot het ontwikkelen van fysieke en mentale gezondheidsproblemen (Duncane & Murnane, 2011;Lareau, 2011;Smeeding, Erikson & Jannti, 2011). Opgroeien in een welstellend gezin betekent automatisch het meekrijgen van cultureel en sociaal kapitaal dat eigen is aan de hogere klassen (Bourdieu, 1986;Lareau, 2011;Fischer, 1982;MacDonald, Schildrick, Webster & Simpson, 2005;van Eijk, 2010). Daarenboven kunnen -en zullen door de band genomen -welstellende ouders, financieel kapitaal investeren in hun kinderen en een financiële terugvalbasis voorzien voor het geval er onverwachte hindernissen op hun levensparcours opduiken. ...
... The family plays a significant role in capital possession (Costa et al., 2020). Lareau (2003) noted that parents employ different strategies in passing their capital resources to their children. In her study, Lareau pointed out that middleclass families deliberately transfer their capital through concerted cultivation of children's potential, whereas, lower-class families depend on children's natural growth. ...
... Thus, when students acquire a particular form of capital, they can also earn other forms of capital. Economic capital, for example, allows participation in different kinds of activities (e.g., reading programs, museum visits, sports, TV viewing) through which students gain cultural capital or linguistic competence and familiarity of the dominant culture (Lareau, 2003;Sullivan, 2002). ...
Book
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We are very happy to publish this issue of the International Journal of Learning, Teaching and Educational Research. The International Journal of Learning, Teaching and Educational Research is a peer-reviewed open-access journal committed to publishing high-quality articles in the field of education. Submissions may include full-length articles, case studies and innovative solutions to problems faced by students, educators and directors of educational organisations. To learn more about this journal, please visit the website http://www.ijlter.org. We are grateful to the editor-in-chief, members of the Editorial Board and the reviewers for accepting only high quality articles in this issue. We seize this opportunity to thank them for their great collaboration. The Editorial Board is composed of renowned people from across the world. Each paper is reviewed by at least two blind reviewers. We will endeavour to ensure the reputation and quality of this journal with this issue.
... Der Blick auf die soziale Lage der Familien ist verbunden mit Annahmen über Abhängigkeiten des Sprachgebrauchs in Migrantenfamilien von deren sozialer Herkunft. In Bezug auf ihre Wirkrichtung konkurrieren derzeit zwei theoretische Argumente, die sich auf zweckrationale Handlungsmotive beziehen: Einerseits ist von Migranteneltern höherer sozialer Lagen anzunehmen, dass ihnen die Schlüsselfunktion sprachlicher Akkulturation für strukturelle Integration bewusst ist -insbesondere für den Bildungserfolg der Kinder -und sie daher verstärkt auf den Gebrauch der Majoritätssprache in der familialen Kommunikation setzen (Bleakley & Chin, 2004Esser, 2006;Lareau, 2011). Andererseits ist von diesen Migranteneltern aber auch zu erwarten, dass sie die Mehrsprachigkeit ihrer Kinder als Ressource wahrnehmen, die in erster Linie in der Familie vererbt wird (Park & Sarkar, 2007;Portes & Rumbaut, 2006;Young & Tran, 1999). ...
... Dans ces écoles publiques situées dans des quartiers très défavorisés, les élèves réussissent mieux que la moyenne américaine et leur réussite scolaire est même quatre fois plus élevée que celle des élèves défavorisés d'autres écoles publiques. En tenant compte du fait que les familles socio-économiquement défavorisées ont moins de possibilité d'offrir de l'instruction à leurs enfants en dehors de l'école (Lareau, 2011), ces programmes leur offrent plus d'école, soit un horaire plus dense qui permet de maintenir des exigences élevées. Dès l'entrée, professionnels, parents et élèves signent un engagement commun qui vise la réussite scolaire. ...
Technical Report
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Le mandat CIIP, à l’origine de ce rapport, demandait de répondre aux chefs de service de Suisse romande quant à la prise en charge des élèves perturbateurs dans les établissements de la scolarité obligatoire. L’étude descriptive présentée ici a pour objectif d’offrir une vue d’ensemble sur les constats, réflexions, questions et réponses pratiques proposées dans les systèmes scolaires de Suisse romande. Malgré des faits ponctuels constatés et la mention d’une augmentation de signalements en début de la scolarité, les cadres scolaires s’accordent à dire que les situations de perturbation graves restent rares. Par leurs constats, l’essentialisation de l’élève est renvoyée à des situations de perturbations scolaires.
... Por un lado, el propio DiMaggio (1982) inició una corriente de investigación apoyada en la noción weberiana de cultura de estatus, donde el capital cultural es identificado con las prácticas, gustos y estilos propios de la alta cultura (highbrow culture) tales como la participación en actividades relacionadas con el arte, la música clásica, el teatro o la literatura. Dicha definición ha sido posteriormente ampliada para incluir estilos de crianza de los hijos, hábitos comunicativos en el hogar o la participación en actividades extraescolares también expresivos de la participación en esa cultura dominante (Barone, 2006;Bodovski, 2010;Lareau, 2003;Tramonte y Willms, 2010). ...
Article
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La teoría de la reproducción cultural planteada por Bourdieu y Passeron establece que el sistema educativo contribuye a la reproducción de las estructuras sociales a través de su papel en la reproducción de la estructura de capital cultural. No obstante, no existe consenso sobre cómo se transforma el capital cultural en una ventaja educativa o sobre qué alumnos obtienen una mayor rentabilidad del capital cultural, si los de extracción social alta (modelo de reproducción cultural) o baja (modelo de movilidad cultural). En el presente trabajo se emplea información de PISA 2000 sobre el caso español para operacionalizar distintas dimensiones del capital cultural y poner a prueba su productividad para alumnos de diferente extracción social. Los resultados avalan el modelo de reproducción cultural para todos los indicadores de capital cultural, lo que significa que los alumnos de extracción social alta no solo disponen de más capital cultural, sino que obtienen una mayor rentabilidad de cada unidad de capital cultural.
... Si può valutare in modo astratto tale comportamento senza collocarlo in uno specifico contesto di senso? Uno studio etnografico sulla vita familiare di un campione di famiglie americane, stratificato per classe sociale e razza, ha evidenziato come tali variabili influenzino le modalità con cui i genitori esercitano il controllo sociale sui propri figli (Lareau 2011). In particolare, i ricercatori hanno osservato come i genitori che utilizzano anche la forza fisica come mezzo disciplinare (e che appartengono soprattutto alla working class) hanno maggiori probabilità di essere considerati genitori abusanti (dalle figure istituzionali con cui entrano in relazione nelle attività quotidiane: insegnanti, animatori, allenatori, medici, ecc.) rispetto a coloro (appartenenti prevalentemente alla middle class) che usano la violenza verbale (una madre dice al figlio: «Non voglio essere più tua madre»). ...
Book
Ripercorrendone in modo rigoroso le principali teorie e tematiche, il volume aggiorna il dibattito critico sul discorso socio-criminologico, colmando il vuoto esistente nel mercato editoriale italiano su prospettive e sviluppi contemporanei delle teorie sociologiche della devianza e del crimine e proponendosi come un utile strumento di formazione critica per gli studenti di scienze sociali, politiche e giuridiche. È articolato in due sezioni. La prima è dedicata alla ricognizione delle teorie e approfondisce le strategie di identificazione e di definizione della devianza e del crimine all’interno dei diversi ambiti storici e intellettuali, con attenzione agli aspetti metodologici e agli sviluppi delle singole prospettive nei contesti contemporanei. La seconda, invece, intercetta ambiti e tematiche di attualità, approfondendo aspetti esplicativi e applicativi delle diverse prospettive e individuandone la spendibilità in termini di interventi e politiche. Il suo approccio del tutto originale rispetto ai manuali esistenti fa del volume un importante riferimento per chi voglia accostarsi allo studio sociologico delle devianze e del crimine nel mondo contemporaneo.
... Though education alone may not be the only item corresponding to social class, education is associated with relations related to income (Boshara et al., 2015). Moreover, past studies have emphasized parental education when operationalizing cultural capital (Lareau, 2011;Perna & Titus, 2005). Additionally, we follow Armstrong and Hamilton's (2013) understanding that often, social class standing does not follow ideal types. ...
Article
If you would like a copy, please send a message. Through outside-the-classroom activities (OCA), college students accumulate currencies for graduate school or the workforce. Because parents’ education level may foster both the ability and predisposition to participate in OCA, insight into its connection to this type of participation may help practitioners and policymakers tailor students’ campus involvement better. Although the authors found few parental-education differences in student participation among academically focused OCA in the Wabash National Study, there were differences surrounding leadership, social activities, and work.
... According to Awan et al. (2011), the prevalence of child labor results from the combination of issues and factors, i.e., illiteracy of the parents/guardians, health issues, failure in child law enforcement, social inequality and poverty. However, other social factors contribute to the curse of child labor (Lareau, 2011) such as living from hand to mouth, and lack of job opportunities for parents (Lassus et al., 2015). According to the United Nations understanding, "children are classified as child labourers when they are either too young to work, or are involved in hazardous activities that may compromise their physical, mental, social or educational development" (UN, 2020). ...
Article
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Children are forced to work when their families face financial pressures due to poverty, illness, or the loss of jobs. There is, however, still a perceived lack of research on the key factors contributing to child labor in Pakistan. This study examines the determinants of child labor in Mardan and Nowshera districts of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, a province of Pakistan. A total of 200 households were interviewed. A semi-structured questionnaire was developed to collect data from the family heads whose children are in child labor. A stepwise-regression model was adopted to explore the strength of the relationship between independent variables and dependent variable. The dependent variable was the child labor ratio and the independent variables were the socio-economic and demographic’ characteristics such as age, education, family size, parents’ occupation, the number of adult males and females, family income. The findings show that the family size was the most important determinant of child labor. Likewise, the number of adult females, parents’ occupation as daily wages labor, and the parents’ age had a positive influence on the extent of child labor. However, the number of adult males, family income, and parents’ education had a negative relationship with the extent of child labor. The questionnaire survey had shown that families considered poverty to be the main reason behind child labor, unemployment was the second reason and the third was number of dependent females within the families. Therefore, the government may target these families from lower socio-economic backgrounds to disseminate information about family planning and also include these people in the current governmental program to help them financially.
... The previous research has examined the following dimensions in the transmission of cultural capital between parents and children: reading habits (i.e., bedtime stories), educational material resources (i.e., books, educative games, computers), cultural communication (i.e., teaching them to be analytical, to reason, and to be argumentative), and extracurricular activities (Jaeger & Breen, 2016). Furthermore, parents with high cultural capital tend to follow an educational strategy of "concerted cultivation" for their children (i.e., structured activities, supervision of homework) (Lareau, 2003), while working-class parents are more likely to follow a "natural growth" strategy, which generally involves less supervision and organised time (Bodovski & Farkas, 2008). ...
Preprint
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Information and communications technology (ICT) skills are crucial for labour market success and full participation in society. Socioeconomic status (SES) inequality in the development of ICT skills would prevent disadvantaged children from reaping the benefits of the digital age. Besides, the digital divide in ICT literacy might add to the already well-documented large and persistent SES inequality in ‘hard’ skills—like math, reading, and science. This article studies the roots, evolution, and drivers of SES inequality in ICT literacy from age 8 to 15 in Germany. Drawing from the German National Educational Panel Study (NEPS), we highlight five main findings: (1) SES gaps in ICT literacy exist as early as age 8 (grade 3) and are similar in size compared to SES gaps in hard skills; (2) like hard skills, SES gaps in ICT literacy remain stable over primary and tracked lower secondary schooling; (3) ICT access and use at home and school do not substantially explain SES gaps in ICT literacy at any age; (4) selection into school tracks seems a critical pathway, although not necessarily a causal one, leading to SES inequality in secondary school; (5) SES gaps in ICT literacy are not observed among children with similar levels of hard skills. We discuss the implications of these findings for the interdisciplinary literature on social stratification, skill formation, and the digital divide.
... Many researchers have since shown that parenting styles and practices are important in explaining learning and school success of children, and that they may be one of the main mechanisms through which the background of the parents affects children's educational success (e.g. Lareau, 2011). Therefore, we hypothesise that any disparities between children with and without a migration background can further be explained by non-monetary forms of parental resources and investments, such as educational activities (H4). ...
Article
In today’s increasingly diverse societies, a key question is how to foster the structural integration of immigrants and their descendants. While research indicates that migrant educational underachievement is a serious issue, relatively little is known about achievement gaps at younger ages and in relatively new immigration countries. The current study sets out to estimate the size of disparities by migration background at age five (i.e. when they start school) and explores the causes of these gaps. It does so in a context that offers a compelling but under-researched case: the Republic of Ireland. It draws on the Growing Up in Ireland (GUI) data, a national longitudinal study of children in Ireland. The results suggest that some disparities by migration background already existed at the start of primary school, but also that gaps were limited to verbal skills and differed widely across groups. Moreover, social background only played a relatively minor role in explaining the differences, whereas the child’s first language was a powerful predictor of disadvantages by migration background in verbal skills.
... Los rigurosos exámenes de ingreso (Karabel, 2005;van Zanten, 2015b), el elevado costo de las mensualidades (Bathmaker et al., 2016), el reducido número de cupos (Wakeling & Savage, 2015), las entrevistas y la exigencia de cartas de recomendación (Friedman, 2018) son algunos de los mecanismos utilizados por las universidades de élite para garantizar la homogeneidad disposicional y "cierre social" (Karabel, 2005) de su público escolar. En segundo lugar, las universidades de élite desarrollan actividades curriculares y extracurriculares focalizadas en la inculcación de un sentido de privilegio (Lareau, 2011) y del espíritu de cuerpo (Bourdieu, 1989) de sus estudiantes, quienes viven su experiencia universitaria no como "un tiempo de rebelión contra las instituciones y sus universidades (...), sino que [como] un tiempo en que los estudiantes reproducen el criterio de evaluación y status que sus universidades comparten" (Warikoo, 2018, p. 12). Finalmente, las universidades de élite se caracterizan por entregar una formación "total, polifórmica y versátil más que una simple dotación de virtudes académicas" (Darchy-Koechlin et al., 2015, p. 144), promoviendo habilidades no cognitivas, como el sentido de responsabilidad, la humildad, la discreción (Darchy-Koechlin et al., 2015), la resiliencia, la ambición y las capacidades comunicativas y de dominio de los códigos de presentación (Ashley & Empson, 2017), pero también la confianza, la rapidez de pensamiento y la capacidad de argumentación (Mangset, 2015), tanto en Europa (van Zanten, 2010) como en Estados Unidos (Rivera, 2015). ...
Article
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Se estudian las percepciones sobre el ingreso a la universidad, el esfuerzo, la meritocracia y las desigualdades sociales en los estudiantes de 8 instituciones de educación superior de élite en Chile. Usando las 1.773 respuestas de un cuestionario aplicado a una muestra estratificada de estudiantes de estas instituciones, se estiman modelos de regresión que controlan las diferencias entre grupos socioeconómicos, tipos de universidad y tiempo de estadía en la institución. Los resultados muestran que es el tipo de universidad el principal eje de diferenciación en estas percepciones, siendo los estudiantes de universidades tradicionales más escépticos de la meritocracia y las explicaciones individualistas que sus pares de universidades privadas emergentes. Además, existe una relativa homogeneidad dentro de cada tipo de universidad, salvo en aquellos ítems relacionados con el ingreso a la universidad. A raíz de esto se concluye que los diferentes tipos de instituciones de élite son una distinción relevante para comprender la diversidad de percepciones que existe entre los que transitan por estos espacios de significativa influencia a nivel nacional.
Article
Asian Americans are generally understood as a success story: scholars point out the incredible educational leaps in the second-generation. As a result, research on Asians is often devoted to explaining why mobility occurs. A recent explanation points to immigrant hyper-selectivity: post-1965 Asian immigrants come to the U.S. highly educated. Yet, research has shown divergent patterns among two of the largest hyper-selected Asian groups, Chinese and Filipinos: while the former achieves tremendous educational gains in the second-generation, the latter experiences stagnation. Drawing on data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, the following study examines why current hyper-selectivity literature fails to explain the two groups’ disparate outcomes. Findings point to unequal levels of hyper-selectivity between Chinese and Filipinos, largely due to their opposing gendered migrations. In addition, the study illustrates a Filipino penalty in education vis-à-vis their Chinese counterparts.
Chapter
Kindheit und Familie ins Verhältnis zu setzen verlangt zum einen, beide Themenfelder, die je für sich schon in beträchtlichem Maß aufgefächert sind, ausschnitthaft zu behandeln. Zum zweiten dürfen die vielen Überschneidungen zwischen diesen Komplexen nicht vorschnell so ausgelegt werden, als fielen sie in eins zusammen. Auch wenn die Familie ein zentraler Lebensort für die meisten Kinder ist, und auch wenn Kinder konstitutiv für Familie sind, so ist Kindheit mehr als Familienkindheit und Familie auch durch weitere Aspekte strukturiert als nur durch Intergenerationalität. In dieser Dialektik von Konvergenz und Divergenz fragt der vorliegende Beitrag danach, wie die Lebensform Familie zur gesellschaftlichen Konstruktion von Kindheit beiträgt. Mit dieser Ausrichtung geht einher, dass sich der Beitrag analytisch auf ein Normalfeld von Familie richtet, das durch die an sie gerichteten Normierungen und Funktionserwartungen konstituiert wird.
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Using primary data from the Assessing the Social Consequences of COVID-19 study, the authors examined how the pandemic affected the stress levels of women with and without coresiding minor children (mothers vs. nonmothers), paying special attention to the moderating role of employment status. The ordinary least squares regression results show that following the pandemic outbreak, among full-time working women, mothers reported smaller stress increases than nonmothers. In contrast, among part-time and nonemployed women, mothers and nonmothers experienced similar stress increases. Also, full-time working mothers reported smaller stress increases than women with most other mothering and employment statuses. Changes in women’s employment status, following pandemic onset, had limited impacts on the patterns of stress change. This study contributes to research on parenting and health by showing that during times of crisis, full-time employment may be protective of mothers’ mental health but may not buffer the mental health deterioration of women not raising children.
Chapter
Die Forschung zu Erziehung in Familie weist psychologische, erziehungs- und sozialwissenschaftliche Bezüge auf. Die Erziehungsstilforschung (1), die ursprünglich in der Psychologie beheimatet ist, nutzt sozialwissenschaftliche Annahmen und bringt Erziehungsstile in den Kontext von sozialem Milieu und Migration. Die erziehungswissenschaftliche Forschung (2) analysiert den zivilisationsgeschichtlichen Wandel von Erziehungsmustern über mehrere Generationen vom Befehls-, zum Verhandlungs- und Beratungshaushalt und integriert sozialwissenschaftliche Annahmen um soziales Milieu, Bildung und Geschlecht. Eine auf empirische Ergebnisse beruhende Theoriebildung (3) erfasst die Verwobenheit von Familienalltag und Familienerziehung, die Bedeutung von Ritualen sowie den Erziehungsgestus. Zu diskutieren ist in diesem Kontext das Technologiedefizit, um Erziehung in der doppelten Kontingenz als spezifische Figur des erziehenden und lernenden Handelns zwischen Generationen zu kontextualisieren (4). Erziehung in Familie ist dabei immer auch eingebettet in soziale Normierungen, hat sich auseinanderzusetzen mit verantworteter Elternschaft und der Norm, Familie als Bildungsort herzustellen (5).
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Although most studies of the transition from school to work take a snapshot perspective in examining economic returns to education, such returns evolve over an individual’s lifetime. We empirically test a theoretical formulation derived from the cumulative advantage mechanism about enduring life-cycle effects of educational mobility on income. We analyse income trajectories for all Danes born in 1960–1961, and we consider how the welfare state may counteract certain mechanisms of intergenerational transmission that give children with college-educated parents better opportunities in the labour market. We find only small direct effects of parental college attainment on earnings trajectories after we control for offspring college attainment. Thus, schooling acts as a powerful and enduring economic leveller of family background effects in Denmark. Our analyses also show direct effects on trajectories in property income derived from wealth, suggesting that the welfare state has a harder time equalising income from wealth than from earnings.
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Support for higher education is a known and well‐documented venue for financial transfers within families, but practices of family support beyond college are less understood. Drawing on interviews with recent master's degree recipients who have student debt, I find key class differences in the process and forms of family financial assistance for graduate and professional education. Working‐class young adults receive clear, mainly in‐kind “business as usual” support that, while limited, is consistent with both expectations and prior support with undergraduate education. In contrast, despite proclamations of financial independence after college, young adults from middle‐class backgrounds engage in an emotional “dance” of family assistance. They field ambiguous offers of support which often evolve into substantial financial transfers and receive that financial support with ambivalence, which minimizes the existence of support and their own agency in receiving it. This article illustrates how, even with anxiety and uncertainty in place of strategic institutional navigation, middle‐class families transmit economic advantages that facilitate social reproduction. Rather than being a discrete, automatic transfer, intergenerational wealth transmission is contextual and comprised of everyday, relational processes.
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Research on parental involvement has traditionally focused on social class differences in parenting behavior throughout early childhood and K‐12 schooling. Yet there is mounting evidence that similar class divides persist as children exit high school and progress through young adulthood. This review examines parents' roles in young adults' lives, focusing on class differences in non‐financial forms of involvement. These processes are often hidden from public view and have received less attention in prior reviews. Beginning with the transition out of high school, I discuss current research on parents' roles in relation to five traditional young adult milestones: finishing school, finding a job, leaving the family home, getting married, and becoming a parent (Furstenberg, 2010). The findings underscore that understanding the transition to adulthood requires understanding young adults' relationships with parents.
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With the closure of schools due to the Covid-19-pandemic, parents of schoolchildren had to quickly adapt their daily schedules by taking over responsibilities of homeschooling for their children, while arranging their own schedule. This study first identifies the parents who are most challenged by having to ensure homeschooling responsibilities and then assesses how homeschooling affects different dimensions of parents’ wellbeing. Analyzing data from a large general population-representative panel survey in Switzerland, we compare subjective wellbeing before the Covid-19-outbreak to wellbeing at the end of the semi-lockdown. Almost one fifth of parents report being sometimes overwhelmed by homeschooling obligations for their children. Women, mid-aged and lower-educated individuals as well as those with young children and a lower income are particularly overwhelmed. Being sometimes overwhelmed by homeschooling does not cause changes in life satisfaction, stress and negative affect. Yet, it leads to a decrease in positive affect. We derive recommendations for educational and public health policies.
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This article studies how middle‐class parents negotiate globally inspired and classed parenting dispositions with contextual circumstances for transferring their privileges to their children. By drawing on 3‐year longitudinal qualitative data from middle‐class parents in Istanbul, we show that, first, this class feels insecure in the face of changing its social position in the transformation of the state's political economy and ideological foundations. Second, consistent with patterns reported elsewhere, they generally follow a concerted cultivation style of childrearing – enrolling their children in various extracurricular activities, prompting them to discover or create specific talents, consciously developing their language use and forging their ability to interact with social institutions – to impose a competitive personality on their offspring. Third, however, the early tracking, which may stream their children to disadvantaged upper secondary schools through multiple choice and centralized standardized tests, limits their concerted cultivation process by necessitating test‐doing skills. We argue that the Turkish middle class aspires to cultivate their children culturally, but the national testing regime forces them to develop aggressive tactics such as strategically delaying the cultivation process and cutting children's friendships.
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This article investigates the recent proliferation of family-themed homosexual stories in China based on life-history interviews and participant observation conducted in Shenzhen. We develop the concept of “neo-Confucian homonormativity” – characterized by a harmonious relationship between gay men and their families of origin and their ability and aspiration to enter a monogamous relationship and become parents – to explain the production, circulation and consumption of these stories in the Chinese gay community. We argue that these stories are socially embedded actions enabled by the emerging neoliberal sexual politics in the Chinese gay community that influence the organization of the Chinese gay community and Chinese gay men's lived experiences. By analysing the emerging storytelling practices in the Chinese gay community, this article challenges the Western-centric way of theorizing homonormativity and opens up the possibility to conceptualize homonormativity from an Asian perspective.
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This article investigates Danish and Norwegian early childhood education and care teachers’ expectations of immigrant parents’ involvement in kindergarten. The findings are interpreted in terms of the multifaceted interplay between social class relations, culture, migration and hegemonic ideals of intensive parenting and concerted cultivation. By taking the early childhood education and care teachers’ standpoint, the article contributes a renewed understanding of previous reports of barriers to immigrant parents’ involvement in their children's education. Based on early childhood education and care teachers’ accounts, I identify three key tensions: (1) conflicting perceptions of responsibility, (2) conflicting perceptions of children's roles and how to communicate with children and (3) conflicting perceptions of what kindergarten is and what constitutes valuable knowledge. The findings suggest the existence of a distinct Nordic adaptation to intensive parenting, contradicting parts of the dominant understandings of concerted cultivation found in more school-oriented curricular contexts, such as the UK and France, while still maintaining the original key characteristics of concerted cultivation.
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In this paper, I address how mothers' public discourse about their children has changed over time by analysing 130 interviews with mothers published in Icelandic magazines and newspapers in 1970-1979 and 2010-2019. The analysis is framed by scholarship on intensive mothering and the affective aspects of neoliberalism, including Berlant's cruel optimism. The results show that in the former period, children are depicted as equality minded and independent, echoing the then public debate about mothers' participation in the workforce and gender equality. In the latter era, the children are characterised as talented, perfect, happy, and spiritually inspiring for the mothers. This stark contrast between the time periods suggests that today, the feeling rules of neoliberalism influence mothers' public portrayal of their children. In that way, children have become proxies to the neoliberal and competitive pursuit of perfection as well as perceived pathways to the personal enlightenment of adults.
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Culturally relevant pedagogy (CRP; e.g., Ladson-Billings, 1995) is a set of beliefs and practices that aim to serve culturally and linguistically diverse student learners. Although a large body of work describes its tenets and permutations, and its implications for students, less work has been done to outline the myriad barriers that teachers face when trying to implement CRP. This paper addresses this gap by proposing a race-conscious, multilevel, ecological framework to illuminate the societal, institutional, and individual obstacles that teachers must navigate in the pursuit of CRP. Implications for teacher training and development are discussed.
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In this paper, we examine whether social class and class divides in social networks contribute to individuals' attachment to society. We argue that network segregation restricts individuals' social worlds, thereby diminishing societal attachment. Our research site is Chile, a country with relatively low social cohesion and one of the world's highest levels of economic inequality. We use large‐scale representative survey data collected in 2016 for the Chilean urban population aged 18–75 years (n = 2983) and interrelate indicators of well‐established dimensions and sub‐dimensions of societal attachment. Results of our regression analyses show that members of the upper middle class are more attached to society than their fellow citizens from other social strata. In addition, having more social contacts within one's own social class reduces attachment to society. In particular, network homogeneity lessens societal attachment for lower‐ and upper‐class individuals, but not so strongly in the middle class. We conclude that social cohesion in Chilean society would be enhanced not only by more equal opportunities but also by changes to the social settings in which social class segregation is (re)produced.
Article
In The Tyranny of Merit, Michael Sandel argues that the American society is not meritocratic, that belief that it is causes various social harms, and that some of those harms –in particular, the costs to social solidarity – would be caused even if society actually were meritocratic. He also explores the way that the structure of higher education is implicated in the ‘ethos’ of meritocracy. This article explores just how the ethos of meritocracy might undermine solidarity, argues that the structural changes needed to achieve actual meritocracy would be benign, even though meritocracy itself is not very valuable, and identifies ways in which changes to the structure of public funding for higher education may inadvertently have undermined solidarity.
Article
This study sought to (a) identify the factors most salient to parents when sending their child to summer camp, (b) examine family members' roles in the camp decision‐making process, and (c) compare both by income and other family contextual factors in a sample of parents with a child who enrolled and participated in a summer camp experience. Survey data were collected from a total of 354 families that included families from high, middle, and lower incomes. Surveys collected data on parental developmental goals for their child, factors related to camp–child and camp–family fit, and the level of involvement of family members in the camp decision‐making process. The study identified three core parental goals for sending their child to camp: interactive learning, intrapersonal development, and fun/belonging. The analysis also identified five essential considerations parents use to consider camp fit: logistics/cost, program quality, child fit, institutional ties, and social connections. One parent, primarily the mother, drives the decision to send a child to camp. Family income was significant predictor of all three developmental goals with parents from higher income families reporting lower levels of developmental goals than parents from lower income families. Income also predicted camp fit considerations related to logistics/cost, institutional ties, and social connections. Parents in the high‐income group reported lower levels of consideration for logistics/cost and institutional ties than parents in the low‐income group. Parents in the high‐income group reported higher levels of consideration for social connections. Parents, regardless of income, want the best for their children when they go to summer camp. They want their kids to have fun, build social skills, and develop independence and other intrapersonal skills. However, parental decisions of where to send their child to camp and parental evaluations of camp–child and camp–family fit are more nuanced. Unsurprisingly, logistics and cost are major considerations for families with low incomes, and camps need to continue to find ways to reduce barriers for kids from low‐income homes to attend camp through outreach and scholarship programs.
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This article examines how specialist music secondary schools in England present themselves on their websites and social media platforms. We consider visual communication codes and how such patterns reflect cultural distinctions and social boundaries. Multimodal critical discourse analysis is used to demonstrate how the choice of semiotic resources convey the meaning of specialisation in a socially exclusive manner. Although the schools in question use different resources, similarities in function can be noted in their self-promotion. A school’s social matrix and use of classical aesthetics are conveyed through non-verbal, visual communication. An elite code associates advanced musical training with certain principles of behaviour and social values. Those, in turn, represent class-based distinctions, cultural boundaries, and characteristics of privileged education.
Thesis
The thesis investigates upward social mobility among immigrants’ descendants, more precisely the presence of professional trajectories that lead to middle classes positions. The main goal is to understand whether and under which circumstances young people of foreign origin are able to move up the social ladder, considering both their individual agency and capabilities, and the effect of the integration context.Studying the social mobility pathways of “second generations” is relevant as it attempts to account for the progress of mobility processes regarding a now established group of our societies. Understanding if, and how, young people with a migratory background manage to access middle class positions and hence escape the so-called “3D” jobs (dirty, dangerous and demeaning), allows to acquire important information about social inclusion processes, as well as about the ways in which different constraints and resources act on them.The research adopts a comparative perspective, in order to increase the scope of the analysis and the results obtained. The study is therefore located in the cities of Turin and Lyon: on one hand, the main goal is to study a consolidated case in terms of foreign presence - Lyon precisely – and, on the other, to understand if and under what conditions pathways similar to the French experience are being carried out in Turin. Moreover, the thesis focuses on subjects with different origins and migratory backgrounds, since the primary intention is to investigate the presence of shared patterns in the analysed trajectories. In other words, the aim is to understand whether there are common resources and obstacles, and of what kind, in the mobility paths, leaving specific migratory chains and histories aside.The research employs a qualitative methodology, and it is based on in-depth interviews collected with a snowball sampling technique. Based on literature on both migrations and social mobility, the research considers five main analysis dimensions: family background and migration history, housing situation, networks and relationships, educational and work pathways, social status attained.To sum up, the research proves the impact of cultural capital in both context, pointing out differences and similarities in the educational paths in Turin and Lyon. It also shows the pivotal role playing by parents (and in some cases by siblings too), as well as the functioning – and influence – of various forms of social capital. The (positive) effect of institutional resources, much more present in Lyon, complete the trajectories’ analysis and explanation.
Article
There is a vast amount of literature which locates the home-school relationship as a keystone to improving academic outcomes and preventing school dropouts. It is not always sufficiently clear, however, how these relationships are established and function and how they impact on students’ school engagement. This paper draws on the concepts of familial habitus and institutional habitus to better understand how home-school relationships are formed and how they are deeply class-biased. Using in-depth qualitative interviews with parents and teachers from four public secondary schools in Barcelona, this paper examines the factors explaining more and less harmonious relations between these two agents. This article will help shed light on the challenging relation between home and schools, taking into account different sociocultural contexts mediating this interaction and suggesting some implications in terms of educational policy from a social justice perspective.
Article
The United States has experienced a sustained fertility decline, with those currently in their childbearing years facing unique constraints. Drawing from the Theory of Conjunctural Action and the Narratives of the Future framework, this work considers how objective and subjective socioeconomic conditions, psychosocial characteristics, and perceptions of well‐being are linked to mothers’ and childless women's (a) prospective fertility intentions during the Great Recession, (b) realization of those intentions in the post‐Recession period, and (c) fertility intentions toward the end of the reproductive years, using Waves IV and V of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health. The results confirm the role of standard socioeconomic measures and also highlight the importance of subjective measures. In general, more advantaged women were more likely to intend to have (more) children at both waves and to have children between waves. Furthermore, women who already had children by the Great Recession were more likely than their childless peers to have a(nother) child in the post‐Recession period. As this cohort approaches the end of its childbearing years, having unfulfilled fertility plans from earlier in the reproductive life course is a strong predictor of continuing to intend at least one birth.
Article
Family separation policies’ impacts on children’s education and well-being are critical issues of our time. This paper argues through ethnographic study that although im/migrant parents believed in the promise of a better life for their children as they migrated, COVID-19 and remote schooling contributed to a breakdown in structures of care once they were in the United States. Thus, the experience of remote schooling during 2020 was a difficult task for parents and children who were already dealing with the trauma of detention or separation at the border. Ultimately, we argue that to understand the educational experiences of im/migrant parents and children in the United States, we must consider a multiple disruptions framework. The findings in this article reveal the layered consequences that broader immigration policy has on the everyday educational lives of im/migrant children and their parents.
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