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# Numerical Fitting of Planar Photographic Images with Spherical Voronoi Diagrams

Authors:

## Abstract

There are many phenomena that generate polygonal tessellations on surfaces of 3D objects. One interesting example is the jackfruit, a multiple fruit found in the tropics. A recent study found the best-fit spherical Voronoi diagram from a photo of jackfruit skin, but the optimization was relative to the radius of the sphere and the height of the spikes. In this study, we propose a method for adjusting the position of the center of the sphere in addition to these parameters. Experiments were conducted using both ideal and real data. However, convergence with real data has not been confirmed due to relaxation of the convergence condition.
NUMERICAL FITTING OF PLANAR PHOTOGRAPHIC IMAGES
WITH SPHERICAL VORONOI DIAGRAMS
Supanut CHAIDEE and Kokichi SUGIHARA
ABSTRACT: There are many phenomena that generate polygonal tessellations on surfaces of 3D
objects. One interesting example is the jackfruit, a multiple fruit found in the tropics. A recent study
found the best-fit spherical Voronoi diagram from a photo of jackfruit skin, but the optimization
was relative to the radius of the sphere and the height of the spikes. In this study, we propose a
method for adjusting the position of the center of the sphere in addition to these parameters.
Experiments were conducted using both ideal and real data. However, convergence with real data
has not been confirmed due to relaxation of the convergence condition.
Keywords: Spherical Voronoi diagram, Jackfruit, Discrepancy, Circular search, Method of steepest
descent.
………………………………………………………………………………………………………....
1. INTRODUCTION
Many natural phenomena result in displays of
polygon-like tessellations; examples include
the patterns seen with animal territories and
on fruit skins. From a mathematical viewpoint,
there is a well-known polygonal tessellation
called the Voronoi diagram which divides a
space into subdivisions corresponding to a
given set of generators in such a way that a
point in the space is assigned to the nearest
generator. Voronoi diagrams are widely used
as tools for understanding natural phenomena
[1, 5]. Verifying that a given tessellation is a
Voronoi diagram is useful when constructing
a mathematical model of a polygonal pattern
found in nature.
Several criteria have been proposed for
evaluating the difference between a particular
tessellation and a Voronoi diagram [1, 3, 4, 9].
However, these only apply to Voronoi
diagrams in 2D space.
The items of interest are typically
encountered as a particular type of 3D object
covered by spikes, or a spike-containing
object (see Section 2.1 for a more detailed
definition). One interesting example of a
spike-containing object is the jackfruit
(Artocarpus Heterophyllus), a multiple fruit
found in various tropical locations [6, 7, 8].
The jackfruit skin is an ellipsoid-like surface
covered by a polygon-like tessellation. The
skin of a jackfruit and a close-up of the
pattern are shown in Figure 1. Each cell of the
tessellation contains a blunt spike, which we
will represent as a spike dot. Based on
knowledge of the biology of the jackfruit, the
tips of the spikes can be considered to be the
generators of the tessellation.
Figure 1: (left) Jackfruit; (right) close-up of
the pattern on the skin of a jackfruit.
Recently, we [2] proposed a method for
fitting a spherical Voronoi diagram to a 2D
photograph of a curved surface of a
spike-containing object. In that paper, the
proposed optimization problem was to find
the spherical Voronoi diagram that best fits a
F21
The 10th Asian Forum on Graphic Science 2015
August 4-7, 2015, Bangkok ISBN 978-4-9900967-2-4
© 2015 Japan Society for Graphic Science
2
surface covered by spikes of approximately
uniform height. However, the optimization
of the sphere radius and the height of the
spike height; the center of the sphere was
fixed.
In this study, we propose a method that
also allows the center of the sphere to be
optimized. We conducted experiments with
both ideal and real data, based on a photo of
jackfruit skin.
2. PROBLEM FORMULATION
In this section, we state the basic assumptions
and propose a framework for judging the
difference between two tessellations. All of
the assumptions in this section follow from
our previous study, mentioned above [2].
2.1 Basic assumptions
We assume that a jackfruit can be considered
to be a spike-containing object; that is, we
assume that it is an object with a convex
surface covered by spikes of approximately
uniform height, that it contains a polygon-like
tessellation on the surface, such that each
tessellation cell contains exactly one spike,
and that it can be approximated by a sphere.
A photograph of a jackfruit is assumed to
be an orthogonal projection onto the XZ-plane.
The spike dots, which correspond to the tips
of the spikes, also appear in the photo.
From a given photo, we can extract the
spike-containing tessellation T, which is a
convex tessellation embedding of a planar
3-regular straight graph, such that each cell of
T contains a unique spike dot.
After we extract the tessellation T from
the photo, we construct the Voronoi diagram
with respect to the set of spike dots B.
However, we cannot directly compare the
tessellations from a planar photographic
image to the planar Voronoi diagram due to
the distortions that arise in the projection.
Therefore, we construct a spherical Voronoi
diagram for solving this problem, as follows.
First, we project the spike dots from a
spike-containing tessellation onto a sphere of
radius R+h. Next, in order to obtain the
generators, we project the spike dots to a
sphere of radius R. Following this, we
construct the spherical Voronoi diagram V
S
.
Finally, we project the Voronoi vertices onto
the XZ-plane and connect them with
polygonal line segments; the resulting planar
straight line graph is an approximation of V,
the Voronoi diagram projected onto the plane.
We are now ready to compare the two
tessellations, T and V.
2.2 Criterion for measuring the difference
between two tessellations
To compare a spike-containing tessellation T
with the corresponding projected spherical
Voronoi diagram V, we define the
discrepancy Δ
T,V
to be the ratio of the sum of
the differences between the two tessellations.
to the sum of the areas of the tessellations:
where A
T
and A
V
are the areas of the
tessellations T and V, respectively, and and D
T
= A
T
A, D
V
= A
V
A such that A is the sum
of areas of an intersection between cells of T
and V corresponding to the same spike dots.
We will assume that there is not much
different between D
T
and D
V
. A
T
, A
V
are not
much different also. The steps described
above are shown in Figure 2.
Figure 2: (left) Photo of the surface of a
jackfruit; (center) tessellations T and V shown
by dashed and solid line, respectively; (right)
differences between T and V.
3. FRAMEWORK FOR FITTING A
VORONOI DIAGRAM TO A PLANAR
TESSELLATION
Errors from measurements can easily occur in
the case of photographs. We would like to
find the spherical Voronoi diagram which
Δ
T ,V
= (D
T
+ D
V
) / ( A
T
+ A
V
)
3
best fits a given tessellation. The parameters
of the projected sphere consist of its center
(x, z), its radius R, and the spike height h.
3.1 Discrepancy function
For each set of parameter values x, z, R, and h,
there exists a unique spherical Voronoi
diagram with respect to the geodesic distance.
Hence, the ratio Δ
T,V
is unique to a given
Voronoi diagram, and so we can define the
discrepancy as a function of the variables x, z,
R, and h, denoted as D(x, z, R, h) = Δ
T,V
.
To obtain the best-fit Voronoi diagram,
we optimize with respect to the parameters;
that is, we find x, z, R, and h that minimize
D(x, z, R, h). However, it is difficult to derive
the discrepancy function algebraically, and so
we present a method for numerical
optimization of the parameters.
3.2 Optimization problem for acquiring the
best-fit spherical Voronoi diagram
We begin by introducing a framework for
finding the best-fit spherical Voronoi diagram
with respect to the parameters x, z, R, and h.
Algorithm 1: Fitting the Spherical Voronoi
Diagram (also see [2])
Input: B: set of spike dots on the XZ-plane
T: initial tessellation containing B
x = (x, z, R, h)
Output: x, z, R, h minimizing D(x, z, R, h)
Definition: function D(x, z, R, h)
1. Project spike dots from the XZ-plane
to a sphere of radius R+h;
2. Project spike dots from the sphere
with radius R+h to a sphere with
radius R, using a projection centered
on the origin of the sphere;
3. Construct V
S
using the spike dots
obtained in Step 2;
4. Create V, the projection of V
S
onto
the XZ-plane;
5. Compute D
T
, D
V
, A
T
, A
V
, Δ
T,V
;
6. Define D(x, z, R, h) Δ
T,V
.
end Definition
Procedure:
1. Calculate D(x);
2. Search for x= (x, z, R, h) such
that D(x) > D(x) (use the method
described below);
3. if x is found, then
x x; D(x) D(x);
go to Step 2;
else
report x and D(x);
end if;
end Procedure
In Algorithm 1, we need to find a decreasing
sequence of discrepancies tending to the
minimum. We begin by considering the
discrepancy function obtained from ideal data,
that is, a spherical Voronoi diagram from
which we obtain the parameters. Figure 3
shows the discrepancies for various values of
x and z when R and h are fixed at the values
for the ideal data (top), and for various values
of R and h when x and z are fixed at the
values for the ideal data (bottom); here, the
ideal tessellation T is the projection of the
spherical Voronoi diagram for (x, z, R, h) =
(0.2, 0.2, 18, 0.4). In the top panel, the
horizontal plane represents the XZ-plane, and
in the bottom panel, it represents the Rh-plane;
in both panels, the vertical axis represents the
discrepancy.
Figure 3: Plot of the discrepancy vs (top) the
xz-plane when R and h are fixed; (bottom) the
Rh-plane when x and z are fixed.
The method of steepest descent can be applied
0.10
0.15
0.20
0.25
0.30
0.10
0.15
0.20
0.25
0.30
0.0
0.1
0.2
0.3
16
17
18
19
20
0.30
0.35
0.40
0.45
0.50
0.00
0.01
0.02
0.03
4
to the discrepancy function in Figure 3 (top),
but we cannot consider all variables
simultaneously. As can be seen in Figure 3
(bottom), when we fix the variables x and z,
there is a sharp change of pitch at the valley
line, and the bottom of the valley is almost
horizontal. Thus, the direction of steepest
descent of the discrepancy gradient is
orthogonal to the bottom of the valley, and
hence, the ordinary method of steepest
descent method will oscillate, repeatedly
crossing the valley.
Hence, we divide the variables into two
groups {x, z} and {R, h}, and optimize them
separately using different methods. We use
the method of steepest descent to optimize x, z
for fixed R, h, and we use a primitive
technique called a circular search to optimize
R, h for fixed x, z.
Intuitively, the method of steepest
descent can be described as follows. Let
D(x, z) be a discrepancy function with respect
to x and z, and let R and h be fixed. We start
from an initial guess, the vector x = (x
0
, z
0
).
At x, we find S, the direction in which D(x)
decreases most rapidly; that is, S =
D(x)/||D(x)||, where .
Next, we search for the smallest value of the
function on the line passing through x in the
direction S. We move to that point, let it be
the new initial point, and repeat the process.
In practice, the gradient D(x) is
approximated by the forward difference:
It is written as .
The following algorithm shows the use of
the gradient approximation in the method of
steepest descent.
Algorithm 2: Method of Steepest Descent
Input: initial x
0
=(x
0
, z
0
), step size β for the
0
, spike height h
0
,
increments Δx and Δz, tolerances θ
1
and θ
2
,
number of iterations m
Output: x, z minimizing D(x, z)
Definition: function D(x, z) D(x, z, R
0
, h
0
),
as defined in Algorithm 1
Procedure:
1. Set x x
0
, β β
0
, n = 1;
2. Calculate D(x);
3. Set D
x
D(x);
4. Calculate ΔD/Δx and ΔD/Δz;
5. Set ;
6. Calculate and set
y xβ*D/||*D ||
7. Calculate D(y);
8. Set D
y
D(y);
9. if D
x
> D
y
then
Set x y; D
x
D
y
; n n+1;
go to Step 10;
else
β β/2; n 1;
go to Step 2;
end if;
10. If |D
y
D
x
| <
θ
1
and |y x| <
θ
2
for
fixed times n = m then
terminate;
else
go to Step 2;
end if;
end Procedure
For the optimization of variable {R, h}, we
introduce a primitive technique called the
circular search. This technique was provided
as Algorithm 3 in our previous study [2], and
we summarize it here as follows.
We wish to find the point on the line for
which the function is minimized. We begin by
letting the initial point be the center of a
α
. We consider a
finite number of points located at equal
intervals on the circle and search for the point
at which the function is smallest. Note that
when a circle is placed over the valley line, it
crosses it at two points. Therefore, we need to
check which direction minimizes the function;
however, since we are only considering a
finite number of points, we may not obtain the
overall minimum. Thus, we employ a binary
D(x) =
D
x
,
D
z
( )
T
D
x
ΔD
Δx
=
D(x + Δx, z) D(x)
Δx
D
z
ΔD
Δz
=
D(x, z + Δz) D(x)
Δz
D(x) =
ΔD
Δx
,
ΔD
Δz
( )
T
D(x) =
ΔD
Δx
,
ΔD
Δz
( )
T
5
search to determine which of these points
results in a smaller discrepancy. We then
make this point the center of a new searching
circle and again seek the smallest discrepancy.
If we reach a point at which the next
discrepancy is greater than that obtained in
the previous step, we decrease the radius of
the circle and repeat the search.
Let M
i
be the discrepancy function at the
i-th iteration. In our algorithm [2], we
decrease the searching radius if M
i
M
i+1
. In
this study, we propose relaxing the
convergence condition by defining a tolerance
θ
3
; that is, we decrease the searching radius
when M
i
M
i+1
θ
3
.
Algorithm 2 and the circular search
algorithm give the details of the procedure
part of Algorithm 1. In the first step of our
implementation, we use the method of
steepest descent to optimize x, z, and then in
the second step, we use a circular search to
optimize R, h. Let D
k
be the final discrepancy
from the k-th iteration. We alternate between
these two optimization steps until D
k
D
k+1
<
max{θ
1
, θ
3
}.
4. EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS
In this section, we present the results of
implementing the proposed algorithm with
ideal and real data.
For the method of steepest descent, we
set Δx = Δz = 10
–3
,
β
= 0.1, θ
1
= 10
–8
, θ
2
= 10
–6
,
and m = 10; for the circular search, we set
α
=
0.1 and θ
3
= 10
–6
. We used Wolfram
Mathematica
®
10.0 for our implementation.
4.1 Experiments with ideal data
In the case of ideal data, we used a
spherical Voronoi diagram with fixed
parameters: (x, z, R, h) = (0.2, 0.2, 18, 0.4).
In [2], we used various initial values of R
and h, and observed how the parameters
changed for fixed values of x and z. In this
paper, we performed two experiments with
ideal data.
In the first experiment, we fixed R and h
at the correct values and then used the method
of steepest descent to adjust x and z. The
results of the first experiment are shown in
Table 1.
Table 1: Optimization results for various
initial values used in the first experiment
Initial Value
Converging Value
x
z
Discrepancy
x
z
Discrepancy
0.0000
0.0000
6.198×10
–1
0.2000
0.2000
3.344×10
–5
0.0000
0.2000
4.877×10
–1
0.2000
0.2000
3.013×10
–5
0.0000
0.4000
6.212×10
–1
0.2000
0.2000
3.183×10
–5
0.2000
0.0000
4.281×10
–1
0.2000
0.2000
2.622×10
–5
0.2000
0.4000
4.282×10
–1
0.2000
0.2000
2.736×10
–5
0.4000
0.0000
6.212×10
–1
0.2000
0.2000
2.115×10
–5
0.4000
0.2000
4.878×10
–1
0.2000
0.2000
2.687×10
–5
0.4000
0.4000
6.198×10
–1
0.2000
0.2000
2.469×10
–5
From Table 1, it can be seen that x and z
converge to the correct answer: x = 0.2000, z
= 0.2000; the standard deviation of x and z are
3.850 × 10
–6
and 4.941 × 10
–6
, respectively.
This shows that the method of steepest
descent works for optimizing x and z.
For the second experiment, we optimized
all of the variables by alternately using the
method of steepest descent and a circular
search. For the ideal data, we could use the
circular search as in [2], without the need to
relax the convergence condition. The results
are shown in Table 2, where (S) indicates the
method of steepest descent and (C) indicates
the circular search.
Table 2: Results for the second experiment:
parameters x, z, R, and h, and the
discrepancies after optimization
Round
x
z
R
h
Discrepancy
0
0.1000
0.1000
17.00
0.3000
8.543×10
–1
1 (S)
0.1994
0.1978
17.00
0.3000
1.654×10
–2
2 (C)
0.1994
0.1978
18.00
0.3887
4.924×10
–3
3 (S)
0.1999
0.1997
18.00
0.3887
2.268×10
–3
4 (C)
0.1999
0.1997
18.00
0.3984
6.720×10
–4
5 (S)
0.2000
0.2000
18.00
0.3984
3.144×10
–4
6 (C)
0.2000
0.2000
17.99
0.3996
6.666×10
–5
7 (S)
0.2000
0.2000
17.99
0.3996
6.666×10
–5
Table 2 shows that we can find the correct
values of x, z, R, and h from the given initial
values. Thus, we see that our proposed
method determines the appropriate parameter
values with a very small discrepancy.
6
4.2 Experiments with real data
For our experiments with real data, we again
used the jackfruit tessellation and initial
values that we used in [2]. The condition for
convergence of the circular search was
relaxed with θ
3
= 10
–6
; that is, the search will
cease if the difference in the discrepancies of
the k-th and k+1-st rounds is less than 10
–6
.
The experimental results are shown in Tables
3, 4, and 5. Figure 4 shows the changes of
discrepancy after optimization from Table 3.
Table 3: Parameters x, z, R, and h, and the
discrepancies after optimization; initial values
were from measurements
Round
x
z
R
h
Discrepancy
0
0.0000
0.0000
3.300
0.1500
0.1712
1 (S)
0.0200
0.0172
3.300
0.1500
0.1235
2 (C)
0.0200
0.0172
9.281
0.5330
0.1191
3 (S)
0.0176
0.0158
9.281
0.5330
0.1186
4 (C)
0.0176
0.0158
9.380
0.5460
0.1185
5 (S)
0.0176
0.0157
9.380
0.5460
0.1185
6 (C)
0.0176
0.0157
9.380
0.5460
0.1185
Table 4: Parameters x, z, R, and h, and the
discrepancies after optimization; various
initial values of R and h
Round
x
z
R
h
Discrepancy
0
0.0000
0.0000
1.800
0.0500
0.1919
1 (S)
0.0228
0.0197
1.800
0.0500
0.1407
2 (C)
0.0228
0.0197
9.374
0.5289
0.1217
3 (S)
0.0178
0.0160
9.374
0.5289
0.1186
4 (C)
0.0178
0.0160
9.472
0.5511
0.1185
5 (S)
0.0176
0.0158
9.472
0.5511
0.1185
6 (C)
0.0176
0.0158
9.472
0.5511
0.1185
Table 5: Parameters x, z, R, and h, and the
discrepancies after optimization; various
initial values of R and h
Round
x
z
R
h
Discrepancy
0
0.0000
0.0000
1.800
0.4000
0.4140
1 (S)
0.0069
0.0074
1.800
0.4000
0.4130
2 (C)
0.0069
0.0074
3.473
0.2206
0.1334
3 (S)
0.0173
0.0147
3.473
0.2206
0.1196
4 (C)
0.0173
0.0147
4.371
0.2566
0.1188
5 (S)
0.0175
0.0155
4.371
0.2566
0.1187
6 (C)
0.0175
0.0155
4.471
0.2598
0.1187
7 (S)
0.0175
0.0156
4.471
0.2598
0.1187
8 (C)
0.0175
0.0156
4.471
0.2598
0.1187
Figure 4: The different area between T and V
in a photo before optimization; (right) The
different area between T and V in a photo
after optimization
From Tables 3, 4, and 5, we can see that the
results each converge to a local minimum, but
they do not converge to the same values. This
occurs because the discrepancy function is
very complicated and contains many local
minima. We also note that the discrepancy is
very sensitive to changes in each of the
variables, and thus, relaxation of the condition
for convergence of the circular search also
affects the values to which the variables
converge.
5. CONCLUDING REMARKS
In this study, we proposed a method for fitting
a spherical Voronoi diagram to a
spike-containing tessellation. We optimized
the fit for four variables by optimizing
separately for two groups of two variables
each. Experiments using ideal data showed
that the proposed method works well.
data should be performed with a stronger
convergence condition.
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
The first author acknowledges the MIMS
Ph.D. Program of the Meiji Institute for
Meiji University, and the Development and
Promotion of Science and Technology Talents
Project (DPST) of the Institute for the
Promotion of Teaching Science and
Technology (IPST), Ministry of Education,
Thailand. This research is partly supported by
the Grant-in-Aid for Basic Research No.
24360039 of MEXT.
7
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1. Supanut CHAIDEE, M. of Sc., is a Ph.D.
student of the MIMS Ph.D. Program of
the Meiji Institute for Advanced Study of
Mathematical Sciences, Meiji University.
He is also a DPST scholarship student
affiliated with IPST, Ministry of
Education, Thailand. His e-mail and
schaidee@meiji.ac.jp
Mathematical Sciences, Meiji University,
4-21-1 Nakano, Nakano-ku, Tokyo
164-8525, Japan.
2. Kokichi SUGIHARA, Dr. of Eng., is a
professor at Meiji Institute for Advanced
Study of Mathematical Sciences,
Organization for the Strategic
Coordination of Research and Intellectual
Property, Meiji University. His e-mail and
kokichis@meiji.ac.jp
Mathematical Sciences, Meiji University,
4-21-1 Nakano, Nakano-kkiu, Tokyo
164-8525, Japan.
Conference Paper
There are many natural phenomena displayed as polygonal tessellations on curved surfaces, typically found in fruit skin patterns. The paper proposes a method to fit given tessellations with spherical Laguerre Voronoi diagrams. The main target of this paper is fruit skin patterns such as jackfruit and lychee covered by tessellation patterns in which each cell contains a unique spike dot that can be considered as a generator. The problem of estimating the weights is reduced to an optimization problem, and can be solved efficiently. The experiments were done with ideal data and real fruit skin data, which show the validity of the method. We also propose related problems for further studies.
Article
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In nature, there are many tessellation patterns on curved surfaces that look like Voronoi diagrams. Typical examples are the patterns found on fruit skins. Verifying that a given tessellation is a Voronoi diagram will be useful for constructing mathematical models of polygonal patterns. However, the data are usually obtained as a 2D projected image, and hence it is not easy to compare it with a Voronoi diagram on a curved surfaces. We propose a framework for using a photograph of a fruit to measure the difference between the pattern on its skin and a spherical Voronoi diagram. The problem of finding the spherical Voronoi diagram that best fits the fruit skin pattern is reduced to an optimization problem. The validity of this formulation is evaluated using jackfruit and lychee. We also propose generalizations of our problem for further research.
Article
In this paper the problem of obtaining the Voronoi diagram which approximates a given tessellation of the plane is formulated as the optimization problem, where the objective function is the discrepancy of the Voronoi diagram and the given tessellation. The objective function is generally non-convex and nondifferentiable, so we adopt the primitive descent algorithm and its variants as a solution algorithm. Of course, we have to be content with the locally minimum solutions. However the results of the computational examples suggest that satisfactory good solutions can be obtained by our algorithm. This problem includes the problem to restore the generators from a given Voronoi diagram (i.e., the inverse problem of constructing a Voronoi diagram from the given points) when the given diagram is itself a Voronoi diagram. We can get the approximate position of the generators from a given Voronoi diagram in practical time; it takes about 10s to restore the generators from a Voronoi diagram generated from thirty-two points on a computer of speed about 17 MIPS. Two other practical examples are presented where our algorithm is efficient, one being a problem in ecology and the other being one in urban planning. We can get the Voronoi diagrams which approximate the given tessellations (which have 32 regions and are defined by 172 points in the former example, 11 regions and 192 points in the latter example) within 10s in these two examples on the same computer.
Article
Voronoi diagrams partition space according to the influence certain sites exert on their environment. Since the 17th century, such structures play an important role in many areas like Astronomy, Physics, Chemistry, Biology, Ecology, Economics, Mathematics and Computer Science. They help to describe zones of political influence, to determine the hospital nearest to an accident site, to compute collision-free paths for mobile robots, to reconstruct curves and surfaces from sample points, to refine triangular meshes, and to design location strategies for competing markets. This unique book offers a state-of-the-art view of Voronoi diagrams and their structure, and it provides efficient algorithms towards their computation. Readers with an entry-level background in algorithms can enjoy a guided tour of gently increasing difficulty through a fascinating area. Lecturers might find this volume a welcome source for their courses on computational geometry. Experts are offered a broader view, including many alternative solutions, and up-to-date references to the existing literature; they might benefit in their own research or application development. © 2013 by World Scientific Publishing Co. Pte. Ltd. All rights reserved.
Article
Summary 1. The morphological and anatomical features of seven species ofArtocarpus have been studied and described at some length. 2. All species are trees of moderate or lofty habits. They are of uniform patterns; however, each species has certain peculiarities. 3. While most of the species have 2/5 type of phyllotaxy,A. lakoocha is distinct in having distichous arrangement with peculiar angular divergence. 4. There are unicellular as well as multicellular (glandular) hairs of different magnitudes in stem, leaves and stipules. They have some taxonomic significance. 5. The nodal anatomy reveals considerable uniformity in all species ofArtocarpus studied here. The node is uniformly multilacunar, like that ofFicus but differs from those members of Urticales that are essentially trilacunar. 6. The two stipules are characteristic and well suited to protect the young buds. They have been described and their morphological nature has been discussed at some length.
Article
The fruits ofArtocarpus heterophyllus (jack-fruit),A. altilis (bread-fruit) andA. lakoocha (barhal), etc., have been studied and described. The whole female inflorescence increases and develops into a composite or multiple type of fruit. The so-called fruit has three regions: (i) The fruit axis, (ii) The persistent perianth and (iii) The true fruit. The perianth is the most important part and constitutes the major bulk of the fruit. It has basically three regions (A. heterophyllus): (a) The lower free and fleshy edible region, (b) The middle fused region and (c) The upper free and horny non-edible region. InA. altilis, the fusion region extends upto the base but inA. lakoocha it goes up to the top and this (fusion region) becomes edible. The true fruit developed from the carpel (ovary) is insignificant and may be considered as similar to one-seeded ‘achene’.
Article
An attempt was made to describe cellular patterns by Dirichlet domains, that are convex polygons which cover a plane without leaving any gaps or overlaps and can be simply determined by a small number of parameters. In order to examine the accuracy of the description, the deviation value was defined. Dirichlet domains were shown to describe some cellular patterns (cultured monolayer cells, epithelial cells in tissue, etc.) with relatively small deviation values. Dirichlet domains were also used for simulation of an experiment in which contiguous cells migrated to fill a space after removal of a single cell in an epithelial sheet.
Article
This chapter discusses the geometrical models for cells in tissues. Powerful models are needed to bridge the gap between a tissue and its component cells. The chapter describes two geometrical cell models: the cell aggregate model and the boundary shortening model of cells in a tissue. The cell aggregate model describes a cell sheet in which independent spherical cells are crowded and packed so that they are deformed into polygons. However, the boundary shortening model of cells in a tissue can be applied to an actual cellular pattern by using the boundary shortening (BS) procedure. These models are useful in describing cellular patterns and simulating dynamic changes during morphogenesis, developmental processes, and wound healing. These models help in analyzing cellular pattern geometrically and inspect the states or functions of a tissue. The models are discussed with respect to mechanics and geometry.
• M R Sharma
Sharma. M. R., Morphological and Anatomical Investigations on Artocarpus Forst: III The Flower, Phytomorphol, 15, 185-201 (1965).
• M R Sharma
Sharma. M. R., Morphological and Anatomical Investigations on Artocarpus Forst: IV The Fruit, P Indian Acad Sci B, 60 (6), 380-393 (1964).