Book

Interactive Digital Television: Technologies and Applications

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Abstract

The developments in digital television technology provide the unprecedented opportunity to drastically extend the role of television as a content delivery channel. E-health, e-commerce, e-government, and e-learning are only a few examples of value-added services provided over digital televisions infrastructures. These changes in the television industry challenge companies to adjust their strategies in order to meet the opportunities and threats in this new environment. Interactive Digital Television: Techniques and Applications presents the developments in the domain of interactive digital television covering both technical and business aspects. This book focuses on analyzing concepts, research issues, and methodological approaches, presenting existing solutions such as systems and prototypes for researchers, academicians, scholars, professionals and practitioners.
... Third, the usage of paper documentation also reduces the method's internal validity, because in cases where the diary is not available, subjects cannot document their viewing. This may be especially relevant for out-of-home viewing (Lekakos, 2007). ...
Article
Full-text available
This exploratory study inquires into the validity and reliability of dedicated mobile phone diary applications. We developed Watchy, a dedicated mobile viewing diary application, and compared users’ compliance and usage patterns with those of users of the paper viewing diaries. Participants received paper diaries or installed mobile diary apps, with or without daily reminders, to document their viewings over a 4-day period. Documentation was more extensive in the smartphone app with reminder group compared to the paper diary group. Reminders increased documentation rates. Extent of documentation decreased as the experiment progressed for mobile app users. Findings suggest that mobile viewing diaries are an important tool for viewing studies, yet their use requires careful planning.
... And interactive television is the product of the television and digital characteristics. Based on Lekakos, Chorianopoulos, and Doukidis (2008) the Television is no longer restricted to one type of technology, one type of service, and one type of application, that is, television programming. But interactive digital television is composed of different technologies and a diversity of different applications, services, and contents. ...
Chapter
This chapter focuses on the problem of how television can continue to attract user attention and earn income from advertisers. As television is evolving from digital television toward interactive television, the media consumer market is changing too. The influence of web 2.0 and always-on devices empowers users and provides more information for advertisers. The core idea of this chapter is that user innovation is the key and Television managers have to create mechanisms for using users’ innovative ideas and develop structures for turning them into media products with professional quality. Using three theories of innovation in media, the authors present a thesis of innovation market as an inventory for innovative ideas from users. Television managers should invest in these markets to facilitate their development as professional contents which leads to the retention of advertiser expenditure in consumer markets
... Third, the usage of paper documentation also reduces the method's internal validity, because in cases where the diary is not available, subjects cannot document their viewing. This may be especially relevant for out-of-home viewing (Lekakos, 2007). ...
Article
Full-text available
This exploratory study inquires into the validity and reliability of dedicated mobile phone diary applications. We developed Watchy, a dedicated mobile viewing diary application, and compared users’ compliance and usage patterns with those of users of the paper viewing diaries. Participants received paper diaries or installed mobile diary apps, with or without daily reminders, to document their viewings over a 4-day period. Documentation was more extensive in the smartphone app with reminder group compared to the paper diary group. Reminders increased documentation rates. Extent of documentation decreased as the experiment progressed for mobile app users. Findings suggest that mobile viewing diaries are an important tool for viewing studies, yet their use requires careful planning.
... A TV Digital Interativa (TVDI) [1] [2] é uma nova fase experimentada pela TVD. Na TVDI a ênfase é dada na convergência de tecnologias digitais, através da sistemática mudança do analógico para o equipamento digital, produzindo a interatividade e grandes mudanças na cadeia produtiva e especialmente, no consumo da mídia. ...
Article
Full-text available
This paper presents the Semantic Query TV (SQTV), a semantic query module to be inserted in the context of the Knowledge TV (KTV) project. The KTV proposes to create a semantic layer to be incorporated into the Digital Television (DTV) environment, aiming at improving how applications and developers access data. The SQTV will be the module that specializes in semantic queries using ontologies. Resumo. Este trabalho apresenta o módulo Semantic Query TV (SQTV), um módulo de consulta semântica que será inserido no contexto do projeto Knowledge TV (KTV). O KTV propõe a criação de uma camada semântica para ser incorporada no ambiente da TV Digital (TVD) com o objetivo de melhorar o acesso aos dados tanto por aplicações quanto por desenvolvedores. O SQTV será o módulo que se especializará em consultas semânticas com suporte em ontologias.
... Recent service advancements in the field of interactive television (TV) provide an opportunity for increasing accessibility and user participation during online learning across a range of Virtual Learning Environments (VLEs) [14]. Gamification is the application of game mechanics and game design techniques to enhance non-game scenarios [30]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Online distance learning is becoming more prevalent with increased developments in media content creation, Virtual Learning Environments (VLEs) and telecommunications technologies. Here, we propose the design and architecture of 360-PlayLearn, a software platform for consumers and producers of educational content bringing online education together with gamification and game-based learning (GBL), VLEs and interactive television (TV). 360-PlayLearn is underpinned by 360-MAM for essential Media Asset Management and 360-Cloud for hosting educational content and services. 360-PlayLearn, following a constructivist problem-based/project-centred approach, will widen access to educational content on STEM subjects, history, archaeology and general knowledge for people from all ages and backgrounds. Learning will be provided on desktop, mobile (smartphone, tablet) and TV devices. Future work will include implementation and testing of 360-PlayLearn within the ubiquitous arena of interactive TV.
... Cesar et al. (2004) present super teletext as a characteristic of teletext, highlighting its bridging function in digital terrestrial television development: " Digital television helps to realize the next evolutionary step for teletext services with the introduction of information portal services also known as super teletext services " (Cesar et al. 2004: 23). A few years later, Lekakos et al. (2008) describe super teletext as a traditional teletext service, with multimedia content broadcast with the digital TV compression standard. Super teletext was in these studies scripted in relation to existing teletext genre content and to technological development: digitalization of television. ...
Chapter
Full-text available
This is a study of teletext’s role in the development of digital terrestrial television in Sweden particularly as super teletext focusing on the public service television company Sveriges Television (Swedish Television) (SVT), and this company’s policy documents, both strategy document and public service audits made, 1996-2002. The purpose is to articulate and deepen an understanding of teletext’s involvement in this development, guided by following questions: What were the arguments SVT used for approaching and developing teletext? How did teletext’s placement in the organization change? What general understanding about the dynamics of media change can be found in teletext development? The analysis is made with the general epistemological standpoint of social shaping of technology, the specific media convergence theory often used as a hypothesis for digital media development, and an identifiable concept to highlight the local and situated aspect of newness in media technology development. Main results are that super teletext initially made it possible for teletext to be a part of locating newness in a media convergence future in: connecting teletext to a media convergence hypothesis; serving as an aligning-symbol between TV and PC; functioning as an argument for technological experiments; ascribing newness as a way of securing public service values in a digital future. Later, super teletext was described as inferior to teletext, in a combination of lacking interactivity and going beyond teletext’s close relationship with news and the tradition of news culture.
... And interactive television is the product of the television and digital characteristics. Based on Lekakos, Chorianopoulos, and Doukidis (2008) the Television is no longer restricted to one type of technology, one type of service, and one type of application, that is, television programming. But interactive digital television is composed of different technologies and a diversity of different applications, services, and contents. ...
Chapter
Full-text available
In a society like Egypt, online political practice is not normatively integrated due to structural and/or technological inefficiencies. By the time this research began in late 2010, less than a quarter (21.1 %) of the Egyptian constituency was online (Egypt: Internet Usage and Telecommunications Report, n.d.). As the Internet’s new communicative affordances have benefitted “those who have crossed the digital divide,” (Bennett, 2003, p. 20) it is expected that the limitations of digital inequalities would reduce the numbers of potential online recipients and possible contributors. This, in turn, excludes the poorer and less-educated, and influences the contributors’ capabilities to support a viable form of influential ‘Internet-based’ activism. So, while the Internet and social media have expanded the toolkit for activists and enabled large numbers to assemble in loose networks with minimal resources, a hybrid ‘repertoire of collective action’ (McAdam, Tarrow, & Tilly, 2001) that fuses the virtual with the real is crucial should they aspire to acquire significant change and yield feasible outcomes for the collective. Social media, Hands (2011) writes, should be articulated as “a new element into the revolutionary process, in which new dynamics and new capacities need to be absorbed and understood.” This was evident in the configuration of the massive uprising of January 2011, which was arguably enabled by the creation of “a complex socio-technical system ….. not only between social media and the more traditional media, but also between mediated and face-to-face networks” (Lim, 2012, p. 244).
... And interactive television is the product of the television and digital characteristics. Based on Lekakos, Chorianopoulos, and Doukidis (2008) the Television is no longer restricted to one type of technology, one type of service, and one type of application, that is, television programming. But interactive digital television is composed of different technologies and a diversity of different applications, services, and contents. ...
Chapter
This chapter focuses on the problem of how television can continue to attract user attention and earn income from advertisers. As television is evolving from digital television toward interactive television, the media consumer market is changing too. The influence of web 2.0 and always-on devices empowers users and provides more information for advertisers. The core idea of this chapter is that user innovation is the key and Television managers have to create mechanisms for using users’ innovative ideas and develop structures for turning them into media products with professional quality. Using three theories of innovation in media, the authors present a thesis of innovation market as an inventory for innovative ideas from users. Television managers should invest in these markets to facilitate their development as professional contents which leads to the retention of advertiser expenditure in consumer markets
Conference Paper
It is a very challenging task to popularize a content based website with the users among the millions of available content websites. In particularly the news based content websites are constantly inventing new methods of delivering content to consume in order to keep their users engaged in their service as their core revenue is mainly based on paid subscriptions or advertisement on their websites. In todays modern world the news content is consumed in various methods due to the availability of various consuming channels like Smartphones, Smart TV, Social media platforms, wearable devices etc. The news content needs to be provided to the users in a more interactive and innovative ways to be consumed across various available channels rather than the simple traditional text and image only content. The news based content providers are well aware of the importance of user engagement to stay ahead of their competitors and constantly trying to adapt to these new innovative content delivery methods. The purpose of this study is aimed at developing and analyzing the success of new innovative and rewarding poll first content delivery method to consume news content on various delivery channels. A survey and a user testing of this new platform were conducted with the employees of a UK based company.
Article
New Media Ecosystem is deeply influenced by Globalization of Genres and Contents, Digitalization of Production and Distribution, Interactivity and Bottom-Up Participation, Audience Fragmentation, Media Convergence and Merger and Acquisition. These major trends beside the other changes appears due to technological advances caused media industry to experience revolutionary changes in almost any dimension, and naturally Policy making. Television as the most pervasive medium of our era-and near predicted future-has been the major concern for governments and political systems in case of control and management. Thus the subject of Television policy in the increasing globalized universe seems to have critical importance and deserve to study. The paper with a theoretical approach has illustrates the major effective factors contributing in the process of television policy making in the global media ecosystem. After a literature review about the upcoming changes in television, both in concept and function, and mention the above mentioned trends which make global media ecosystem, the policy making process and factors have discussed and a framework proposes. In this framework, Media Governance is the upper hand dimension in the process of policy making and consists of Funding, Regulation, Ownership, Expectations, Media Climate, and Soft Control. The policy results to the media mix involves the planning to use various types of Web, Mobile Technologies, Television and Traditional media and other specific media up to the policy makers' intentions and targets. Then after frameworks focuses on Television content mix based on the facilities and possibilities the global media ecosystem has prepared, includes the inside or outsourced production, implementation of global genres in local platforms, user generated contents and niche based production. The final output of television policy may be set all or any of mix audiences consist of global, nationwide, targeted or niches audiences. The framework provides the context for further studies on the television policy with focus on any part of the process.
Article
Tendencies in convergence, integration and co-existence of several media technologies are creating new opportunities for the globalization of learning practices. Simultaneously, the lifelong learning phenomena, which will take place in a wide variety of contexts and locations, call for flexible environments. iTV holds a great potential in this scenario, but there is still limited research in terms of cognitive and interaction aspects. This paper presents a new paradigm to generate crossmedia dynamic learning contexts from iTV with the aim to link the mentioned opportunities in flexible, adequate and effective learning contexts. In order to better illustrate this paradigm an iTV system, (e-iTV), was designed. The system generates, via iTV, Crossmedia Online Personalized Learning Environments, also designated as COPLE or web lessons, accessible from several types of devices. The system is prepared to respond to communication needs of the viewers since and allows them to share their web lesson. In practical terms, the e-iTV system uses the TV set, not as the final medium, but as a starting point to new crossmedia dynamic learning and communications contexts. The motivations and goals of this work are presented, followed by a review of related work and concepts and the presentation of the conceptual framework. A description of the analysis, planning, development and evaluation of the e-iTV system is presented based on a specific HCI based model. The paper concludes by opening perspectives for future research and developments.
Chapter
This chapter tries to induce changes in the way we think about interfaces and currently interact with television today. Either in the comfort of our home, in public shared spaces, or on the go via personal mobile devices, interaction should be intuitive, simple, and undemanding. This chapter is a quest for creativity and invention, it is about bringing new ideas into current interaction paradigms as well as shifting the way we see TV interfaces today. Technology has been available for quite a while now providing mechanisms that allow us to play, record, store, archive, and stream TV-related information, but the way we interface such complex systems and mechanisms is still bound to dozens of buttons on one or more remote controls. When groups of people need to interact simultaneously with today’s TV set, the interface barrier immediately appears with all its inherent frustrations: lack of control at the desired time and no immediate availability of the interface; single-viewer and single-task interfacing; and limited or burdensome options for viewing, archiving, and sharing. The ultimate goal of this chapter is to encourage creativity in TV interface design with focus on today’s available and affordable technologies such as video cameras and computer vision, computer graphics, and projection equipment all under the same principle: keep the interaction as simple and intuitive as possible and add just a bit of fun to it to make it really captivating.
Conference Paper
Production and maintenance of interactive digital television (iTV) services can be a hard task due to the diversity of deployed digital television (DTV) platforms and the differences in terms of capabilities and functionalities between the receiver devices. The digital video broadcasting (DVB) portable content format (PCF) is a standard platform-independent service description which specifies the viewer experience in an iTV platform. It allows a unified authoring through a later transcoding to the final device. This paper proposes a workflow to produce and maintain platform-independent Web-based iTV services from the application design level to the final deployed service through that standard. Moreover, this paper details the main characteristics of an implemented PCF to Web-based platform transcoder, which can be applied to most IPTV and WebTV platforms.
Article
E-learning technologies have developed greatly in recent years, with considerable success. However, there is increasing evidence that web-based learning is not reaching the social sectors which are more reluctant to contact with the new technologies, thus leading to inequalities in the access to education and knowledge in the Information Society. By hiding the intricacies of computers behind the familiarity of household equipment, Interactive Digital TV (IDTV) is considered to play a key role in addressing this problem, and the term t-learning has been recently coined to mean TV-based interactive learning.Despite several approaches to t-learning have been proposed, works are missing that conceive it as a whole, delimit its scope in comparison with web-based learning and analyze the influence of the normalization of IDTV as a services platform. This paper addresses these issues, and introduces a framework for the development and deployment of t-learning services that promotes interoperability and reuse while taking into account the characteristic features of the IDTV medium.
Article
This article presents considerations about viability on reutilize existing web based e- Learning systems on Interactive Digital TV environment according to Digital TV standard adopted in Brazil. Considering the popularity of Moodle system in academic and corporative area, such system was chosen as a foundation for a survey into its properties to create a specification of an Application Programming Interface (API) for convergence to t-Learning characteristics that demands efforts in interface design area due the fact that computer and TV concepts are totally different. This work aims to present studies concerning user interface design during two stages: survey and detail of functionalities from an e-Learning system and how to adapt them for the Interactive TV regarding usability context and Information Architecture concepts.
Conference Paper
Semantic reasoning is being increasingly applied in Dig- ital TV as a means to provide personalized information ser- vices. The pioneering initiatives have opted to place the personalization engines in the service providers' side, be- cause the semantic mechanisms exceed --by far-- the com- putational power of DTV receivers. Unfortunately, this ap- proach has the drawback that it can expose data about the users' interests and preferences to commercial entities, rais- ing severe legal and ethical obstacles. Moreover, in a do- main where most of the information is transmitted through broadcast, there are many cases of intermittent, sporadic or null access to a return channel, which make the personal- ization features unavailable if lodged remotely. With these problems in mind, this paper introduces an architectural ap- proach to deliver personalized DTV services, downsizing a semantic reasoning process to match the capabilities of fixed and mobile receivers. Preliminary experiments are re- ported, showing up to what point the enhanced privacy and availability impinge on personalization quality.
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