ArticlePDF Available

Abstract and Figures

The jaboticaba tree, Plinia trunciflora (O. Berg) Kausel, is popularly named " jabuticabeira " in Brazil and is used in folk medicine to treat diabetes and chronic inflammation of the tonsils, but studies evaluating the central effects of this species are limited. This study evaluated the antidepressant-like and antioxidant effects of P. trunciflora (PT) aqueous extract, in which five different anthocyanins were identified. PT showed significant ferric-reduction power and DPPH radical scavenging activity in vitro and reduced lipid peroxidation both in vitro and ex vivo. At the behavioural level, PT (400 and 800 mg/kg, i.p.) dose-dependently reduced immobility time in the tail suspension test in Swiss male mice. The identification of bioactive compounds accompanied by the in vitro and ex vivo antioxidant activity of PT suggests that these activities might be related to the antidepressant-like activity of P. trunciflora.
This content is subject to copyright. Terms and conditions apply.
Research Article
Antidepressant-Like and Antioxidant Effects of
Plinia trunciflora in Mice
Cassia Sacchet,1Ricieri Mocelin,1Adrieli Sachett,2Fernanda Bevilaqua,2Rafael Chitolina,2
Fernanda Kuhn,1Aline Augusti Boligon,3Margareth Linde Athayde,3
Walter Antonio Roman Junior,2Denis Broock Rosemberg,1,4 Jacir Dal Magro,1
Greicy Michelle Marafiga Conterato,1,5 andAngeloL.Piato
1Programa de P´
ao em Ciˆ
encias Ambientais, Unochapec´
o, Avenida Senador Att´
ılio Fontana 591E,
89809-000 Chapec´
o, SC, Brazil
ucleo de Fitoter´
ao em Ciˆ
encias da Sa´
ude, Unochapec´
o, Avenida Senador Att´
ılio Fontana 591E,
89809-000 Chapec´
o, SC, Brazil
orio de Fitoqu´
ımica, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Avenida Roraima 1000, 97105-900 Santa Maria, RS, Brazil
4Programa de P´
ao em Bioqu´
ımica Toxicol´
ogica, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Avenida Roraima 1000,
97105-900 Santa Maria, RS, Brazil
orio de Fisiologia da Reproduc¸˜
Campus Curitibanos, 89520-000 Curitibanos, SC, Brazil
6Programa de P´
ao em Farmacologia e Terapˆ
eutica, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul,
Avenida Sarmento Leite 500/305, 90050-170 Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil
Correspondence should be addressed to Angelo L. Piato;
Received  March ; Revised  June ; Accepted  June 
Academic Editor: Menaka C. ounaojam
Copyright ©  Cassia Sacchet et al. is is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License,
which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
e jaboticaba tree, Plinia trunciora (O. Berg) Kausel, is popularly named “jabuticabeira” in Brazil and is used in folk medicine to
treat diabetes and chronic inammation of the tonsils, but studies evaluating the central eects of this species are limited. is study
evaluated the antidepressant-like and antioxidant eects of P. t r u n c i  o r a (PT) aqueous extract, in which ve dierent anthocyanins
were identied. PT showed signicant ferric-reduction power and DPPH radical scavenging activity in vitro and reduced lipid
peroxidation both in vitro and ex vivo. At the behavioural level, PT ( and  mg/kg, i.p.) dose-dependently reduced immobility
time in the tail suspension test in Swiss male mice. e identication of bioactive compounds accompanied by the in vitro and ex
vivo antioxidant activity of PT suggests that these activities might be related to the antidepressant-like activity of P. t r u n c i  o r a .
1. Introduction
Depression is a common, serious, and recurrent chronic
affective disorder characterized by anhedonia, headache,
sleep disturbances, changes in sexual desire, and a loss of
energy []. is disease is among the ve most prevalent in
of disability in  []. e monoaminergic hypothesis
of depression [] does not provide a full understanding of
the progression, causes, and pharmacotherapy of depression.
New hypotheses have been postulated, and oxidative stress
has been suggested to be involved in the pathophysiology of
depression [].
Oxidative stress is a condition in which an imbalance
between the production of free radicals and endogenous
antioxidant defenses occurs [], culminating in decreased cell
antioxidant capacity. e superoxide anion (O2∙−)andhydro-
gen peroxide (H2O2) produced during respiratory chain may
generate the highly deleterious hydroxyl radical (OH) via
the Fenton reaction []. e overproduction of these species
is related to protein, DNA, and lipid oxidation []aswell
as the inactivation of important antioxidant enzymes, such
Hindawi Publishing Corporation
Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Volume 2015, Article ID 601503, 9 pages
Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine
as catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione
peroxidase (GPx), and thioredoxin reductase (TrxR) [].
e overproduction of ROS and oxidative stress have been
implicated in the pathophysiological processes related to
various diseases, including Alzheimer’s, Parkinsons, anx-
iety, and depression []. In this sense, plants emerge
as potential alternatives for the treatment of oxidative
stress-related diseases, considering that they are important
sources of carotenoids, avonoids, vitamins, and polyphe-
e Myrtaceae family consists of , species distributed
in  genera whose occurrence has been described in
subtropical and tropical regions of the world, mainly Cen-
tral and South America and Australia []. e jaboticaba
tree, Plinia trunciora (O. Berg) Kausel, a synonym of
Myrciaria trunciora O. Berg, Eugenia cauliora O. Berg,
and Myrciaria peruviana (Poir.)Mattosispopularlynamed
“jabuticabeira” in Brazil (source:
In folk medicine, species of Plinia have been used to treat
various diseases, such as diabetes and chronic inammation
of the tonsils []. However, studies that evaluate the eects of
this species on the central nervous system (CNS) are scarce in
the literature. erefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate
the antidepressant-like eect of P. t r u n c i  o r a aqueous extract
in the tail suspension test. e identication of bioactive
compounds and the in vitro and ex vivo antioxidant eects
of P. t r u n c i  o r a were investigated in order to establish if the
antidepressant-like eect of this plant could be related to
these properties.
2. Materials and Methods
2.1. Plant Material. e whole fruits of Plinia trunciora
󸀠.󸀠󸀠O), in September, and taxonomically identied by
Marcos Eduardo Guerra Sobral (botanical), where a voucher
has been deposited in the university herbarium (number
2.2. Preparation of Aqueous Extract of P. trunciora (PT).
e aqueous extracts of whole fruits were prepared based
on the methodology described by Kuskoski et al. []. e
whole fruit ( g) of P. t r u n c i  o r a was mixed with  mL
of distilled water and acidied with concentrated HCl until
pH .. Aer trituration for  min, the solution was cooled to
C over  h to extract the anthocyanins. e solution was
then centrifuged, and the supernatant was frozen and further
lyophilized. Prior to the in vitro and ex vivo experiments, the
lyophilized material was dissolved in ultrapure water (Milli-
Q) at the desired concentrations or doses.
2.3. Total Phenolic Compounds (TPC). e total phenolic
compounds (TPC) in the PT were determined according to
the method described by Singleton and Rossi [], which
is based on the reduction of the phosphowolframate phos-
phomolybdate complex by phenolics to a blue product that
is measured at  nm. e results are expressed as gallic
acid equivalents (mg gallic acid equivalents/g fresh fruit),
2.4. Total Monomeric Anthocyanins (TMA). e total mon-
omeric anthocyanin (TMA) content was determined using
the pH dierential method []. e anthocyanin con-
tent was calculated using the molar absorptivity (𝜀)and
molecular weights (MW) of cyanidin -O-glucoside (𝜀=
, L/molcm; MW = . g/mol). e results are ex-
pressed as mg of cyanidin -O-glucoside equivalents/ g
fresh fruit.
2.5. Identication and Quantication of Anthocyanins in PT
2.5.1. Chemical, Apparatus, and General Procedures. All
chemicals were of analytical grade. Acetonitrile and formic
acid were purchased from Merck (Darmstadt, Germany).
Cyanidin chloride, malvidin chloride, cyanidin -O-gluco-
side chloride, malvidin -O-glucoside chloride, and delphini-
din -O-glucoside chloride were acquired from ChromaDex.
High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC-DAD) was
performed with a Shimadzu Prominence Auto Sampler (SIL-
A) HPLC system (Shimadzu, Kyoto, Japan) equipped with
Shimadzu LC-AT reciprocating pumps connected to a
DGU A degasser with a CBM A integrator, SPD-MA
diode array detector, and LC solution . SP soware.
2.5.2. Quantication of Compounds by HPLC-DAD. Reverse
phase chromatographic analyses were carried out under
gradient conditions using a C column (. mm × mm)
packed with 𝜇m diameter particles; the mobile phase was
water containing % formic acid (A) and acetonitrile (B),
and the composition gradient was % of B until  min
and changed to obtain %, %, %, %, %, %, and
[]. e P. t r u n c i  o r a aqueousextractandmobilephase
were ltered through a . 𝜇m membrane lter (Millipore)
aqueous extract was analyzed at a concentration of  mg/mL.
e ow rate was . mL/min, the injection volume was
 𝜇L, and the wavelength was  nm. Stock solutions of
standards references were prepared in the HPLC mobile
phase at a concentration range of . to . mg/mL.
e chromatography peaks were conrmed by comparing
their retention times with those of the reference standards
and DAD spectra ( to  nm). All chromatography
operations were carried out at ambient temperature and in
triplicate [].
2.6. Antioxidant Activity In Vitro
2.6.1. Determination of Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power
(FRAP). e FRAP assay was based on Benzie and Strain
[], by measuring the absorbance of the complex formed
between Fe2+ and Ferric-,,-tripyridyl-s-triazine (TPTZ)
at  nm aer incubation (C/ min) with PT (–
 𝜇g/mL).eincreaseintheabsorbancewascompared
to that induced by ascorbic acid (standard), and the results
Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine
experiments (𝑛=3).
2.6.2. 1,1-Diphenyl-2-2-picrylhydrazyl Radical Scavenging
Assay. e antiradical powers of the dierent concentrations
of PT (– 𝜇g/mL) and standard were determined by
measuring the decrease in the DPPH absorbance aer h
in the dark compared to a blank []. e same procedure
was followed for the ascorbic acid standard. is analysis was
carried out in triplicate (𝑛=3), and the results are expressed
as the means of % inhibition of the DPPH radical, which
Abs sample)/Abs control] ×. e concentration of PT
that could scavenge % of the DPPH radical (IC50)was
calculated via a nonlinear regression analysis using the
GraphPad Prism Program version ..
2.6.3. Protection against Lipid Peroxidation. A low-speed
supernatant ( min at  ×g) of brain homogenates
( mM Tris-HCl, pH .,  : ; w/v) was preincubated at C
for  h in the presence or absence of  𝜇MFeCl
PT (– 𝜇g/mL), and Tris-HCl  mM. Subsequently, the
amount of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS)
was determined []. e inhibitory concentration  (IC50),
which represents the concentration of PT that inhibits % of
lipid peroxidation, was determined via a nonlinear regression
analysis using the GraphPad Prism Program version ..
2.7. In Vivo Studies
2.7.1. Animals.  two-month-old male Swiss mice (– g)
were obtained from the Bioterism Center of Unochapec´
Sevenmicewerehousedpercage(× × cm) and
maintained in our own animal facility under controlled
environmental conditions ( ±C,  hr light/dark cycle,
free access to food (Nuvilab CR) and water). All procedures
were carried out in accordance with institutional policies on
the handling of experimental animals (approved by the ethics
committee, process /).
2.7.2. Drugs. Fluoxetine was used as commercial Daforin
orio EMS, SP, Brazil). All drugs were dissolved in
saline (NaCl .%). e drugs and saline were administered
intraperitoneally (i.p.) or orally (p.o.) at a constant volume of
. mL/ g body weight.
2.7.3. Ta i l S u s p e n s i o n Test ( T S T ) . e TST was used as
described by Steru et al. []. Mice (𝑛=710)wereorally
treated with vehicle (.% saline; w/v) or PT (,  or
 mg/kg). An additional group was treated with uoxetine
( mg/kg, i.p.). None of the selected doses modied locomo-
submitted to the TST for  or  min (for i.p. and p.o. treated
groups, resp.) aer treatments. Aer the TST, the animals
were euthanized, and their brains were removed immediately
in order to assess the oxidative stress parameter ex vivo.e
ex vivo analyses were performed in the PT  mg/kg group
because the behavioral eects of this dose were comparable
to those of uoxetine.
2.8. Antioxidant Activity Ex Vivo
2.8.1. Antioxidant Enzymes. e antioxidant activity was
assessed ex vivo using homogenized mouse brains in 
centrifuged at  ×gand
supernatant for which all parameters were evaluated. e
SOD, CAT, and GPx activity were determined according to
Misra and Fridovich [], Aebi [], and Paglia and Valentine
[], respectively. e TrxR activity was determined using
,󸀠-dithiobis (-nitrobenzoic acid) (DTNB) and NADPH
[]. Gold (III) chloride trihydrate ( nM) was used to
inhibit the thioredoxin reductase activity [] and determine
the nonthioredoxin reductase DTNB reduction, which was
subtracted from the total DTNB reduction in order to obtain
the thioredoxin reductase activity. e amount of reduced
DTNB was calculated using an absorption coecient of . ×
2.8.2. Nonprotein iol Groups. e low-speed supernatant
fraction was mixed with % trichloroacetic acid ( :  v/v),
followed by the centrifugation and neutralization of the
supernatant (to pH .) with  M Tris. e nonprotein thiol
groups were immediately determined using a standard curve
of cysteine [].
2.8.3. Protein Quantication. e protein content was mea-
sured using bovine serum albumin as a standard [].
2.8.4. Lipid Peroxidation. Aer the addition of . mM
butylated hydroxytoluene to prevent further oxidation, the
supernatant was used to determine the amount of reactive
thiobarbituric acid []. e samples were extracted with n-
butanol, and the reaction product was determined at nm
using a standard curve of ,,,-tetraethoxypropane.
2.9. Statistical Analysis. e results (cumulative counts for
spontaneous locomotion, time in seconds for immobility, and
antioxidant activity in vitro and ex vivo) are expressed as the
mean ±S.E.M. Comparisons between the groups were made
by one-way ANOVA followed by Tukey’s post hoc test. e
dierences between the data were analyzed using Student’s
𝑡-test to assess the antioxidant activity in vitro (dierent
concentrations of PT ×dierent concentrations of ascorbic
acid). Results with 𝑝 < 0.05 were considered signicant. e
regression analyses were made using Statistica . soware
system (Statso Inc., ).
3. Results
e content of antioxidant compounds, such as total phe-
nolics and anthocyanins, was quantied. e total phenolic
compounds in the aqueous extract of P. t r u n c i  o r a were
. ±. mg GAE/ g, while the anthocyanins
Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine
0.0 10
520 nm, 4nm (1.00)
0.0 10 20
520 nm, 4nm (1.00)
0.0 10
520 nm, 4nm (1.00)
0.0 10
520 nm, 4nm (1.00)
0.0 10 20
520 nm, 4nm (1.00)
0.0 10 20
520 nm, 4nm (1.00)
F : Representative high performance liquid chromatography proles of the standards cyanidin chloride (a), malvidin chloride (b),
delphinidin -O-glucoside chloride (c), cyaniding -O-glucoside chloride (d), malvidin -O-glucoside chloride (e), and PT (f).
content was .±. mg cyanidin -O-glucoside equiv-
alents/ g.
e HPLC ngerprinting of the P. t r u n c i  o r a aqueous
extract (Figure ) revealed the presence of anthocyanins.
We identied cyanidin (Rt = 6.41 min; peak ), malvidin
(Rt = 9.73min; peak ), delphinidin -O-glucoside (Rt =
11.94min; peak ), cyanidin -O-glucoside (Rt = 15.08;peak
), and malvidin -O-glucoside (Rt = 20.57 min; peak ).
e composition of anthocyanins (mg/g) in the P. t r u n c i  o r a
aqueous extract was cyanidin (. ±.), malvidin (. ±
.), delphinidin -O-glycoside (. ±.), cyanidin -O-
glycoside (. ±.),andmalvidin-O-glycoside (. ±
A one-way ANOVA revealed that PT showed signi-
cant reducing power beyond a concentration of  𝜇g/mL
(Figure (a)). However, the ferric reducing power of ascorbic
Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Ascorbic acid
010 20 40 80 160
Concentration (𝜇g/mL)
Ascorbic acid
DPPH inhibition (%)
10 20 40 80 160
Concentration (𝜇g/mL)
F : Ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP (a)) and DPPHradical sc avenger activity (b) of PT. e results are expressed as the mean ±
S.E.M. 𝑛=3.(a)Dierent from ascorbic acid solution at the same concentration. 𝑝 < 0.05; Student’s 𝑡-test. Dierent symbols represent
dierent results within the PT group (𝑝 < 0.01, ANOVA/Tukey). (b) Dierent from DPPH radical scavenger activity of ascorbic acid
solution at the same concentration. 𝑝 < 0.001, Student’s 𝑡-test. Dierent symbols represent dierent results within the PT group (𝑝 < 0.05,
acid was higher than that shown by PT in all concentrations
evaluated, as evident from Student’s 𝑡test. Figure (b) shows
the DPPH radical scavenging antioxidant activity. Although
the DPPH radical scavenging ability of PT was lower than
evaluated concentrations. e calculated IC50 value for PT
was . 𝜇g/mL, compared to a value of . 𝜇g/mL for
ascorbic acid. At  and  𝜇g/mL, PT inhibited between
 and % of DPPH; at  𝜇g/mL, the inhibition increased
to % and exceeded % at concentrations of  and
 𝜇g/mL.
e extract inhibited the lipid peroxidation in a
homogenate of mouse brain at all concentrations (Figure ).
At  𝜇g/mL, PT inhibited approximately % of lipid
peroxidation, and the inhibition increased to % at  and
 𝜇g/mL and reached % at concentrations of  and
 𝜇g/mL. e calculated IC50 value for PT was . 𝜇g/mL.
e results in Figure  show the eects of PT (, ,
and  mg/kg, p.o.) and uoxetine ( mg/kg, i.p.) during
the tail suspension test in mice. PT signicantly reduced
the immobility time in the TST ( and  mg/kg, p.o.,
𝐹4,40 =48,𝑝 < 0.0001). Fluoxetine signicantly reduced the
immobility time in the TST. e PT ( mg/kg, p.o.) was
compared with uoxetine. e spontaneous locomotion of
groups treated with PT did not dier from the controls (data
not shown).
Figure  presents the eect of PT ( mg/kg, p.o.) and
uoxetine ( mg/kg, i.p.) administration on the antioxidant
enzyme activities in the homogenate of mouse brains. PT
and uoxetine did not result in signicant changes in the
SOD (Figure (a)), GPx (Figure (b)), and TrxR (Figure (c))
Inhibition of lipid peroxidation (%)
010 20 40 80 160
Concentration (𝜇g/mL)
F : Inhibition of Fenton reaction-induced lipid peroxidation
ofPT.eresultsareexpressedasthemeans±S.E.M. 𝑛=
5.Dierent symbols represent dierent results within the PT group
(𝑝 < 0.05,ANOVA/Tukey).
activities compared to the controls; uoxetine signicantly
increased the CAT (Figure (d))activitycomparedtothe
Figure  shows the eect of PT ( mg/kg, p.o.) and u-
oxetine ( mg/kg, i.p.) on the lipid peroxidation and level of
nonprotein thiol groups (NPSH) in the homogenate of mouse
brains. Both the PT extract and the uoxetine attenuated lipid
peroxidation (Figure (a)). e levels of nonprotein thiol in
thePTextractanduoxetine(Figure (b))groupsdidnot
Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Immobility time (s)
FLU 32 PT 200 PT 400 PT 800
F : Eects of PT (, , and  mg/kg, p.o.) and uoxe-
tine ( mg/kg, i.p.) in the TST. Each column represents the mean ±
S.E.M. 𝑛=710.𝑝 < 0.0001 × saline. ANOVA/ Tukey.
4. Discussion
Depression has been associated with lowered concentra-
tions of several endogenous antioxidant compounds, such as
coenzyme Q, vitamins C and E, or antioxidant enzymes,
such as GPx []. In addition, ROS and RNS have been
neurobiology of depression []. In this context, this study
intended to evaluate the antidepressant-like eect of a P.
trunciora (PT) aqueous extract using the TST. Moreover,
considering that jaboticaba species are rich in avonoids and
related polyphenols [], the antioxidant eects of PT were
evaluated by in vitro and ex vivo assays.
and  mg/kg) had antidepressant-like activity in the TST.
is eect was dose related (𝑟 = −0.84,𝑝 < 0.001,
Pearson correlation analysis). Furthermore, the eect of PT
( mg/kg) was comparable to that of the antidepressant u-
oxetine ( mg/kg), a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor.
To avoid false positives in the TST, our results showed that
PT treatment did not alter locomotor activity in the open eld
test (Figure S, in Supplementary Material available online at.//).
Although the mechanisms of the antidepressant-like
activity of PT remain unclear, the bioactive compounds
currently identied as well as their antioxidant properties
may be involved in this eect. Flavonoids, such as antho-
cyanins, stand out among the major classes of phenolic
compounds of plants []. e cyanidin--O-glycoside (peak
) was the dominant anthocyanin present in our extract.
Other anthocyanins, such as delphinidin -O-glucoside and
cyanidin- -O-glucoside, were also detected. Importantly, the
antioxidant eects of these compounds have been described
in the literature []. Data of linear regression revealed a
substantial contribution of TPC and TMA for the reducing
antioxidant power of PT assessed by FRAP method (𝑅=
0.96 and 𝑅 = 0.97,𝑝 = 0.00001, resp.; see Figures S-S,
supplementary data). TPC and TMA also contributed to %
inhibition of DPPH and % inhibition of lipid peroxidation
(𝑅 = 0.83 and 𝑅 = 0.93, resp.), as demonstrated
by nonlinear regression (see Figures S–S, supplementary
e FRAP assay measures the ability of an antioxidant
substance to donate one electron []. Because the antioxi-
dant activity of a substance correlates with its reducing prop-
erties, the reduction of the ,,-tripyridyl-s-triazine-Fe(III)
complex due to PT indicates the presence of compounds that
ingly, the antioxidant properties of the Syzygium cumini fruit
skin may in part be due to the antioxidant vitamins, tannins,
phenolics, and anthocyanin compounds present in the fruit
e reducing power of PT was corroborated by the
DPPH radical scavenging assay, which also evaluates the
ability of antioxidants to transfer a single electron. is
armation is based on the fact that both the reducing and
the scavenging DPPH abilities of the extract were observed
in the entire evaluated concentration range (–𝜇g/mL).
erefore, these results strongly suggest that the DPPH
radical scavenging capacity of PT is related to its reducing
properties, as evidenced in the FRAP assay. Conversely, PT
could not remove H2O2or O2∙− nor avoid the H2O2-induced
oxidation of GSH (data not shown).
Lipid peroxidation is an index of oxidative stress and
may result in damage to components of the cell membrane,
which may lead to calcium inux and cell death. Lipid
peroxidation is associated with several diseases, including
neurodegenerative disorders [], and antioxidants may pro-
tect against lipid peroxidation by scavenging the free radicals
[]. e in vitro resultsofthecurrentstudyshowedthat
PT inhibited the lipid peroxidation at all concentrations.
is protective eect suggests that other possible mechanisms
of action of the antioxidant activity are associated with
the ability of this extract to scavenge the hydroxyl (OH)
radical. Interestingly, PT ( mg/kg) also attenuated lipid
peroxidation when administered to mice. is protection
was similar to that observed for uoxetine (mg/kg) and
occurred at a dose that showed an antidepressant-like eect.
Fluoxetine decreased lipid peroxidation probably due to the
increased CAT activity, which removes H2O2to reduce its
availability for the formation of the OH radical. Similarly,
uoxetine exerted a restorative action on the oxidative
eects in the peripheral defense cells of animals submitted
to the restraint stress model, which was also associated
with enhanced endogenous antioxidant defenses (CAT and
SOD) and the restoration of GSH levels []. Oxidative
damage to lipids and decreased antioxidant enzyme activ-
ity have been reported in patients with major depressive
disorder [], and preclinical studies have suggested that
antioxidants may have antidepressant properties []. Taking
into account these ndings, the inhibition of lipid perox-
idation by PT as well as the ability of PT to scavenge
free radicals strongly suggests a link between the antiox-
idant activity and the antidepressant-like eects observed
e present study showed the in vitro and ex vivo antiox-
idant and antidepressant-like eects of PT in mice. ese
antioxidant properties might be related to the antidepressant-
like activity of Plinia trunciora.
Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine
SOD (U/mg protein)
FLU PT 800
GPx (nmol NADPH/min/mg protein)
FLU PT 800
TrxR (nmol DTNB/min/mg protein)
FLU PT 800
CAT (k/g protein)
FLU PT 800
F : Eects of PT (  mg/kg, p.o.) and uoxetine ( mg/kg, i.p.) treatment on antioxidant enzyme activities SOD (a), GPx (b), TrxR
(c), and CAT (d) in homogenate of brain mice. e results are expressed as the means ±S.E.M. 𝑛=6.𝑝 < 0.05 × saline. ANOVA/Tukey.
TBARS (nmol MDA/mg protein)
FLU PT 800
NPSH (nmol NPSH/mg protein)
FLU PT 800
F : Eects of PT ( mg/kg, p.o.) and uoxetine ( mg/kg, i.p.) on lipid peroxidation (a) and nonprotein thiol groups (NPSH) level
(b). e results are expressed as the means ±S.E.M. 𝑛=6.𝑝 < 0.05 × saline. ANOVA/Tukey.
Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Conflict of Interests
[] A.J.Ferrari,F.J.Charlson,R.E.Normanetal.,“Burdenof
depressive disorders by country, sex, age, and year: ndings
from the global burden of disease study ,PLoS Medicine,
vol. , no. , Article ID e, .
[] A.J.Smith,I.Sketris,C.Cooke,D.Gardner,S.Kisely,andS.
E. Tett, “A comparison of antidepressant use in Nova Scotia,
Canada and Australia,Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety,
[] J. J. Schildkraut, E. K. Gordon, and J. Durell, “Catecholamine
metabolism in aective disorders. I. Normetanephrine and
VMA excretion in depressed patients treated with imipramine,
Journal of Psychiatric Research,vol.,no.,pp.,.
[] T. M. Michel, S. Frangou, D. iemeyer et al., “Evidence for
oxidative stress in the frontal cortex in patients with recurrent
depressive disorder—a postmortem study,Psychiatry Research,
vol. , no. -, pp. –, .
[] J. Nordberg and E. S. J. Arn´
er, “Reactive oxygen species,
antioxidants, and the mammalian thioredoxin system,Free
Radical Biology and Medicine, vol. , no. , pp. –, .
[] B. Halliwell, “Role of free radicals in the neurodegenerative
diseases: therapeutic implications for antioxidant treatment,
Drugs and Aging,vol.,no.,pp.,.
[] S. V. Avery, “Molecular targets of oxidative stress,Biochemical
[] P. Mecocci and M. C. Polidori, “Antioxidant clinical trials in
mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer’s disease,Biochim-
ica et Biophysica Acta,vol.,no.,pp.,.
[] M. Valko, D. Leibfritz, J. Moncol, M. T. D. Cronin, M. Mazur,
and J. Telser, “Free radicals and antioxidants in normal physi-
ological functions and human disease,International Journal of
Biochemistry and Cell Biology,vol.,no.,pp.,.
[] C. Vollert, M. Zagaar, I. Hovatta et al., “Exercise prevents sleep
deprivation-associated anxiety-like behavior in rats: poten-
tial role of oxidative stress mechanisms,Behavioural Brain
[] D. J. Mabberley, e Plant Book, Cambridge University Press,
Cambridge, UK, nd edition, .
[] L. C. Stasi and C. A. Hiruma-Lima, “Myrtales medicinais,” in
Plantas Medicinais na Amazˆ
and C. A. Hiruma-Lima, Eds., pp. –, Editora UNESP, S˜
Paulo, Brazil, nd edition, .
[] E. M. Kuskoski, A. G. Asuero, A. M. Troncoso, J. Mancini-Filho,
and R. Fett, “Aplicaci´
on de diversos m´
etodos qu´
ımicos para
determinar actividad antioxidante en pulpa de frutos,Ciˆ
[] V. L. Singleton and J. A. J. Rossi, “Colorimetry of total phenolics
with phosphomolybdic-phosphotungstic acid reagents,” Ameri-
can Journal of Enology and Viticulture, vol. , no. , pp. –,
total monomeric anthocyanin pigment content of fruit juices,
beverages, natural colorants, and wines by the pH dierential
method: collaborative study,Journal of AOAC International,
vol. , no. , pp. –, .
[] J. P. Kamdem, E. O. Olalekan, W. Hassan et al., “Trichilia catigua
(Catuaba) bark extract exerts neuroprotection against oxidative
stress induced by dierent neurotoxic agents in rat hippocampal
slices,Industrial Crops and Products,vol.,pp.,.
[] A. A. Boligon, T. F. Kubic
¸a, D. N. Mario et al., “Antimicrobial
and antiviral activity-guided fractionation from Scutia buxifolia
Reissek extracts,Acta Physiologiae Plantarum,vol.,no.,pp.
–, .
[] I. F. F. Benzie and J. J. Strain, “e ferric reducing ability of
plasma (FRAP) as a measure of ‘antioxidant power’: the FRAP
assay,Analytical Biochemistry,vol.,no.,pp.,.
[] W.Brand-Williams,M.E.Cuvelier,andC.Berset,“Useofafree
radical method to evaluate antioxidant activity,LWT—Food
Science and Technology,vol.,no.,pp.,.
[] H. Ohkawa, N. Ohishi, and K. Yagi, “Assay for lipid peroxides
in animal tissues by thiobarbituric acid reaction,Analytical
[] L. Steru, R. Chermat, B. ierry, and P. Simon, “e tail
suspension test: a new method for screening antidepressants in
[] H. P. Misra and I. Fridovich, “e role of superoxide anion in the
autoxidation of epinephrine and a simple assay for superoxide
dismutase,Journal of Biological Chemistry,vol.,no.,pp.
–, .
[] H. Aebi, “Catalase in vitro,” Methods in Enzymology,vol.,pp.
–, .
[] D. E. Paglia and W. N. Valentine, “Studies on the quantitative
and qualitative characterization of erythrocyte glutathione per-
oxidase,e Journal of Laboratory and Clinical Medicine,vol.
[] A. Holmgren and M. Bj¨
ornstedt, “ioredoxin and thioredoxin
reductase,Methods in Enzymology,vol.,pp.,.
[] Y. Omata, M. Folan, M. Shaw et al., “Sublethal concentrations of
diverse gold compounds inhibit mammalian cytosolic thiore-
doxin reductase (TrxR),Toxicol o g y I n Vit r o ,vol.,no.,pp.
–, .
[] G. L. Ellman, “Tissue sulydryl groups,Archives of Biochem-
istry and Biophysics,vol.,no.,pp.,.
[] O.H.Lowry,N.J.Rosebrough,A.L.Farr,andR.J.Randall,
“Protein measurement with the Folin phenol reagent,e
on the oxidative and nitrosative stress (O&NS) pathways
in major depression and their possible contribution to the
(neuro)degenerative processes in that illness,Progress in
Neuro-Psychopharmacology and Biological Psychiatry,vol.,
[] V. O. Kotan, E. Sarandol, E. Kirhan, G. Ozkaya, and S. Kirli,
“Eects of long-term antidepressant treatment on oxidative
status in major depressive disorder: a -week follow-up study,
Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology and Biological Psychia-
[] K. A. Reynertson, A. M. Wallace, S. Adachi et al., “Bioac-
tive depsides and anthocyanins from jaboticaba (Myrciaria
cauliora),Journal of Natural Products,vol.,no.,pp.
, .
Antioxidant activity, ascorbic acid and total phenol of exotic
fruits occurring in Brazil,International Journal of Food Sciences
and Nutrition, vol. , no. , pp. –, .
Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine
[] A. Casta˜
neda-Ovando, M. D. L. Pacheco-Hern´
andez, M. E.
andez, J. A. Rodr´
ıguez, and C. A. Gal´
“Chemical studies of anthocyanins: a review,Food Chemistry,
[] A. Banerjee, N. Dasgupta, and B. De, “In vitro study of
antioxidant activity of Syzygium cumini fruit,Food Chemistry,
“Oxidative stress and neurodegenerative diseases: a review of
upstream and downstream antioxidant therapeutic options,
Current Neuropharmacology,vol.,no.,pp.,.
[] M. Z. Gul, L. M. Bhakshu, F. Ahmad, A. K. Kondapi, I.
A. Qureshi, and I. A. Ghazi, “Evaluation of Abelmoschus
moschatus extracts for antioxidant, free radical scavenging,
antimicrobial and antiproliferative activities using in vitro
assays,BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine, vol. ,
article , .
[] S. Nov´
nez, G. Amigo, and M. Freire-Garabal,
“Eects of uoxetine on the oxidative status of peripheral
blood leucocytes of restraint-stressed mice,Basic and Clinical
Pharmacology and Toxicology,vol.,no.,pp.,.
[] A. Sarandol, E. Sarandol, S. S. Eker, S. Erdinc, E. Vatansever, and
S. Kirli, “Major depressive disorder is accompanied with oxida-
tive stress: short-term antidepressant treatment does not alter
oxidative–antioxidative systems,Human Psychopharmacology,
vol. , no. , pp. –, .
[]A.Zar,A.Ara,andN.Banu,“In vivo antioxidant status: a
putative target of antidepressant action,Progress in Neuro-
Psychopharmacology and Biological Psychiatry,vol.,no.,pp.
–, .
... Intraperitonial (i.p.) injections of the extract or of saline were administered 1, 24, 48, and 72 h after HI. PTE was dissolved in sterile saline (0.9%) and administered at a concentration of 10 mg/kg in the Sham + PTE and HI + PTE groups; this dosage was chosen based on a previous study where the Plinia trunciflora extract showed antidepressant-like activity associated with antioxidant potential in vivo [38], and on the successful schedule of administration of another plant extract in the HI model [20]. The Sham + Sal and HI + Sal groups received i.p. saline injections according to their body weight. ...
... HI animals are more susceptible to lipid damage due to the increased production of reactive oxygen species resulting from mitochondrial failure [9], which could also underlie vulnerability to age-dependent injury [58]. Furthermore, it was observed that PTE prevented lipoperoxidation in the cerebral cortex and attenuated this effect in the hippocampus, well in accordance with previous reports on a PTE dose-dependent effect on lipid damage, in both in vivo and in vitro studies [31,38]. ...
... Otherwise, PTE-treated animals showed a similar open/closed ratio to control animals, indicating the possible modulation of anxiety-like behavior. In this context, Sacchet et al. (2015) [38] demonstrated that PTE promoted anxiolytic effects in an animal model of stressful situations. Spatial memory deficits caused by HI are well-described in the literature [49,72,73]. ...
Full-text available
The disruption of redox homeostasis and neuroinflammation are key mechanisms in the pathogenesis of brain hypoxia–ischemia (HI); medicinal plants have been studied as a therapeutic strategy, generally associated with the prevention of oxidative stress and inflammatory response. This study evaluates the neuroprotective role of the Plinia trunciflora fruit extract (PTE) in neonatal rats submitted to experimental HI. The HI insult provoked a marked increase in the lipoperoxidation levels and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity, accompanied by a decrease in the brain concentration of glutathione (GSH). Interestingly, PTE was able to prevent most of the HI-induced pro-oxidant effects. It was also observed that HI increased the levels of interleukin-1β in the hippocampus, and that PTE-treatment prevented this effect. Furthermore, PTE was able to prevent neuronal loss and astrocyte reactivity induced by HI, as demonstrated by NeuN and GFAP staining, respectively. PTE also attenuated the anxiety-like behavior and prevented the spatial memory impairment caused by HI. Finally, PTE prevented neural tissue loss in the brain hemisphere, the hippocampus, cerebral cortex, and the striatum ipsilateral to the HI. Taken together our results provide good evidence that the PTE extract has the potential to be investigated as an adjunctive therapy in the treatment of brain insult caused by neonatal hypoxia–ischemia.
... The hydroalcoholic extract of Plinia trunciflora leaves was evaluated for its antioxidant potential using the FRAP and DPPH methods. It was found to exhibit high activity, primarily due to the presence of cyanidin and cyanidin-3-O-glucoside [26]. jaboticaba peels on antioxidant activity in rat plasma, the results revealed an increase in plasma antioxidant capacity (1.7-fold by the TEAC method and 1.3-fold by the ORAC method). ...
... The hydroalcoholic extract of Plinia trunciflora leaves was evaluated for its antioxidant potential using the FRAP and DPPH methods. It was found to exhibit high activity, primarily due to the presence of cyanidin and cyanidin-3-O-glucoside [26]. A positive and significant effect (p-value < 0.05) was observed with the increase in ultrasound energy density. ...
Full-text available
This study evaluated the chemical profile and bioactive compounds in Tapirira guianensis juice samples under high-intensity ultrasound (US) effects. T. guianensis juices were produced and processed using the US with varying ultrasound energy (0, 0.9, 1.8, 2.7, and 3.6 kJ·cm−3) for 10 min. The treated juices were evaluated for total acidity, color, pH, total phenolic compounds, anthocyanins, carotenoids, antioxidant capacity, in vitro digestibility, as well as quantification of bioactive compounds by HPLC-DAD. The hydromethanolic extract obtained from T. guianensis exhibited the presence of two major categories of polyphenols, specifically galloylquinic acids and flavonols. Overall, US technology was responsible for inducing some negative changes, such as carotenoid degradation, but also some positive changes in the chemical profile of the beverages, such as increased phenolic content, improved antioxidant capacity, and increased anthocyanin content. However, the beneficial effects were prominent, thus opening opportunities to develop new functional beverages using this fruit with limited scientific studies.
... In their 2015 study, Sacchet et al. observed that Plinia trunciflora fruit aqueous extract in mice showed comparable results at 800 mg/kg dosage to fluoxetine at 32 mg/kg dosage in reducing immobility time in tail suspension test (TST) [18]. A similar result was achieved by Gapski et al., whose results showed that blueberry extract at 300-400 mg/kg yielded results comparable to fluoxetine 10 mg/kg treatment in the same test [19]. ...
... Preparations containing anthocyanin has shown to exert antidepressant-like effect on model animals in multiple scenarios [18,19,20,21,22,23] and diseases [24,25,26,27]. While the majority of the test shows anthocyanins also have anxiolytic properties [20,21,26,29], some have shown no significant difference compared to the control group [25] or even outright negative results in form of higher anxiety-like behaviors [30]. ...
... Results for the H. speciosa species are similar to those observed by Rufino et al. (2010) that demonstrated in their study that hydroethanolic extract of H. speciosa fruit presents an antioxidant activity in iron ion reducing, corroborating with the results obtained in this study. P. glomerata also showed a significant reduction of iron ion, which is characteristic of the genus as demonstrated in study conducted by Sacchet et al. (2015), that evaluated P. trunciflora fruit aqueous extract and demonstrated antioxidant potential. ...
Full-text available
Abstract The present study verified the presence of phytoconstituents and evaluated antioxidant (DPPH, FRAP, NO and TBARS tests) and antiglycation (REM test) activities of unconventional wild edible fruits Chrysophyllum cainito, Hancornia speciosa and Plinia glomerata. It was verified the presence of phenolic compounds for all fruits and flavonoids were observed only for C. cainito, which presented in its peel the highest total phenols (90.34 μg GAE mg-1) and flavonoids (30.4 μg RE mg-1) content. Sugar concentration was significant for all fruits, where H. speciosa showed the highest reducing sugar content (576.12 mg g-1) and C. cainito pulp showed the highest total sugar content (858.67 mg g-1). All fruits presented vitamin C and carotenoids, highlighting P. glomerata with the best results for ascorbic acid (2260.94 mg 100 g-1) and carotenoids (59.62 µg g-1). Extracts presented antioxidant activity, highlighting C. cainito peel that presented 65.64% (DPPH), 231.34 µM TE L-1 (FRAP), 49.34% (NO) and 22.56% (TBARS), while in antiglycation evaluation, P. glomerata showed evident activity. Therefore, it was possible to determine different phytoconstituents, and antioxidant and antiglycation activities of the fruits. These data provide subsidies for application of these fruits in new studies, to increase knowledge and preservation of these species.
... Emex spinosa was recognized as a capable fodder plant in a comparative evaluation of its nutritional properties [22]. The presence of bioactive substances such as phenolic compounds, flavonoids, tannins, and terpenoids in these plants contributes to their potential [23]. E. spinosa has long been utilized in herbal medicine for its antiinflammatory and pain-relieving properties [24]. ...
... Emex spinosa was recognized as a capable fodder plant in a comparative evaluation of its nutritional properties [22]. The presence of bioactive substances such as phenolic compounds, flavonoids, tannins, and terpenoids in these plants contributes to their potential [23]. E. spinosa has long been utilized in herbal medicine for its antiinflammatory and pain-relieving properties [24]. ...
Full-text available
In this research antidiabetic, analgesic and antiulcer potential of traditional ethnomedicinal plant: Emex spinosa (L.) Campd. (Family Polygonaceae) was evaluated by extracting its phytoconstituents using methanol (MeOH) solvent through maceration protocol. The quantitative phytochemical analysis of the extract revealed flavonoids were highest in leaf extract (15.63±0.93 mg/mL) and with (11.5±0.57 mg/mL) in stem. Alkaloids and tanins were also present in the samples in various conc. while saponins were absent. To confirm pharmaceutical potential of plant against ulcer, diabetes and analgesic infirmities, a model experimental animal wistar albino rats (Rattus norvegicus) were used. In antiulcer study, using hot plate method the maximum results were observed with 250 mg/kg in the 2.5 hours of study. The leaf extract showed a 40.41±2.73 latency time and the fruit with a 36.77±2.41, and the stem with a 27.85±3.09, which was comparable to the standard drug Aspirin, i.e., 47.5±0.57. For analysis of antiulcer potential of the plants parts doses of 250 and 500 mg/kg was applied to check the reclamation of ethanol-induced acute ulcer and of Aspirin-induced chronic ulcer of stomach. In order to confirm efficacy of the drug potential of plant following parameters like microscopic evaluation, gastric volume, total acidity, mucosa weight, ulcer index, pH and histopathology of stomach were analyzed. In antidiabetic analysis, in an acute study after a single dose of 500 mg/kg extract after 2hrs the blood glucose levels were 367±51.09958 NS , 416±59.79548 NS , 437.5±61.96437 NS mg/dL for leaf, stem and fruit, respectively. After4hrs 351.75±88.27644 NS mg/dl, 448.25±25.64948 NS mg/dl, 445.25±27.07205 NS mg/dl and after 6hrs 354.5±92.70428 NS , 442±24.60691 NS , a440±33.16625 NS mg/dl, respectively. The analgesic activity was explored by applying hot plate, tail flick and formalin paw licking method. In hot plate method the maximum results were observed with 250mg/kg in the 2.5 hours of study. The leaf extract showed a 40.41±2.73 latency time and the fruit with a 36.77±2.41 PLOS ONE
... Excessive reactive oxygen species (ROS) buildup and insufficient antioxidant enzymes can cause significant cellular damage. As a result, illnesses such as depressive disorders may develop [8,9]. Many synthetic antioxidants are widely prescribed, but they must be used under strict legislation because of their potential risks in vitro. ...
Full-text available
Background The current study evaluates the free gallic acid (GA) and GA-loaded mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs) antidepressant efficacy in a rat model of depression caused by reserpine. Methods By using a scanning electron microscope (SEM), dynamic light scattering (DLS), and zeta potential, MSNs and GA-loaded MSNs were characterized. The efficiency of encapsulation and the release of GA-loaded MSNs were also investigated. The effect of GA, either in its free form or loaded on (MSNs) on oxidative stress biomarkers and monoamine neurotransmitters levels (serotonin (5-HT), norepinephrine (NEP), and dopamine (DA)), were evaluated in these areas (cortex, hippocampus, striatum, and hypothalamus) of control, a depression model of rat, a depression model of rat treated with either free GA, MSNs or GA loaded MSNs. The forced swimming test (FST) also the open field test (OFT) were carried out to evaluate the behavioral changes in all groups. Results Reserpine caused a decrease in the time spent in motor and swimming activity besides increasing the time of immobility, as demonstrated by OFT and FST. Significantly reductions in 5-HT, NEP, and DA were obtained in the cortex, hippocampus, hypothalamus, and striatum of reserpine-treated rats. Free GA was more effective in increasing the serotonin level in the cortex, hippocampus, and hypothalamus, while GA-loaded MSNs were more effective in increasing it in the striatum. GA-loaded MSNs also increased the level of NEP in the four studied brain areas. Free GA increased dopamine levels in the cortex and striatum, whereas GA-loaded MSNs increased DA levels in the hippocampus and hypothalamus compared with the depressed untreated group. Conclusions MSNs can be used as a drug delivery system to target GA selectively to specific brain areas.
Full-text available
Almond skins are known for their antioxidative and anti-inflammatory properties, which are mainly due to the presence of polyphenols. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of almond skin extract (ASE) obtained from the Sicilian cultivar "Fascionello" and to evaluate the possible mechanisms of action using an in vitro model of human monocytic U937 cells as well as an in vivo model of carrageenan (CAR)-induced paw edema. The in vitro studies demonstrated that pretreatment with ASE inhibited the formation of ROS and apoptosis. The in vivo studies showed that ASE restored the CAR-induced tissue changes; restored the activity of endogenous antioxidant enzymes, such as superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione; and decreased neutrophil infiltration, lipid peroxidation, and the release of proinflammatory mediators. The anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects of ASE could be associated with the inhibition of the pro-inflammatory nuclear NF-κB and the activation of the nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) antioxidant pathways. In conclusion, almond skin could reduce the levels of inflammation and oxidative stress and could be beneficial in the treatment of several disorders.
Full-text available
Objetivo: Descrever compostos bioativos presentes em três espécies da Plinia sp. e investigar os seus benefícios à saúde. Métodos: Estudo de revisão de literatura com busca no Pubmed/Medline e ScienceDirect a partir dos descritores ('jabuticaba' OR 'jaboticaba' OR 'Plinia sp.' OR ') AND ('composition' OR 'characterization') AND ('benefícios a saúde') sem limite de tempo. Os critérios de inclusão foram artigos publicados em português, espanhol e inglês que avaliassem qualquer parte da fruta de três espécies de Plinia sp. (P. cauliflora, P. trunciflora e P. jaboticaba). Resultados: A fruta é rica em compostos fenólicos totais com grande quantidade de antocianinas na casca. A capacidade antioxidante das três espécies foi demonstrada por diferentes métodos e a atividade biológica foi relatada em 20 estudos. Além disto, foram demonstrados efeitos benéficos no metabolismo lipídico, glicídico, efeitos antiobesidade e anti-inflamatório, bem como ação benéfica nos sistemas cerebral e cardíaco. Ademais, apresentam ação contra bactérias patogênicas e melhora no microbioma, sem apresentar toxicidade. Considerações finais: Plinia sp. tem potencial para ser utilizada pela indústria farmacêutica por suas características bioativas devido à presença de compostos funcionais, ou na indústria alimentícia pelos altos teores de antocianinas.
Full-text available
The consumption of a high-fat diet can cause metabolic syndrome and induces host gut microbial dysbiosis and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). We evaluated the effect of polyphenol-rich jaboticaba peel and seed powder (JPSP) on the gut microbial community composition and liver health in a mouse model of NAFLD. Three-month-old C57BL/6 J male mice, received either a control (C, 10% of lipids as energy, n = 16) or high-fat (HF, 50% of lipids as energy, n = 64) diet for nine weeks. The HF mice were randomly subdivided into four groups (n = 16 in each group), three of which (HF-J5, HF-J10, and HF-J15) were supplemented with dietary JPSP for four weeks (5%, 10%, and 15%, respectively). In addition to attenuating weight gain, JPSP consumption improved dyslipidemia and insulin resistance. In a dose-dependent manner, JPSP consumption ameliorated the expression of hepatic lipogenesis genes (AMPK, SREBP-1, HGMCoA, and ABCG8). The effects on the microbial community structure were determined in all JPSP-supplemented groups; however, the HF-J10 and HF-J15 diets led to a drastic depletion in the species of numerous bacterial families (Bifidobacteriaceae, Mogibacteriaceae, Christensenellaceae, Clostridiaceae, Dehalobacteriaceae, Peptococcaceae, Peptostreptococcaceae, and Ruminococcaceae) compared to the HF diet, some of which represented a reversal of increases associated with HF. The Lachnospiraceae and Enterobacteriaceae families and the Parabacteroides, Sutterella, Allobaculum, and Akkermansia genera were enriched more in the HF-J10 and HF-J15 groups than in the HF group. In conclusion, JPSP consumption improved obesity-related metabolic profiles and had a strong impact on the microbial community structure, thereby reversing NAFLD and decreasing its severity.
Full-text available
The rate of autoxidation of epinephrine and the sensitivity of this autoxidation to inhibition by superoxide dismutase were both augmented, as the pH was raised from 7.8 → 10.2. O2⁻, generated by the xanthine oxidase reaction, caused the oxidation of epinephrine to adrenochrome and the yield of adrenochrome produced per O2⁻ introduced, increased with increasing pH in the range 7.8 → 10.2 and also increased with increasing concentration of epinephrine. These results, in conjunction with complexities in the kinetics of adrenochrome accumulation, lead to the proposal that the autoxidation of epinephrine proceeds by at least two distinct pathways, only one of which is a free radical chain reaction involving O2⁻ and hence inhibitable by superoxide dismutase. This chain reaction accounted for a progressively greater fraction of the total oxidation as the pH was raised. The ability of superoxide dismutase to inhibit the autoxidation of epinephrine at pH 10.2 has been used as the basis of a convenient and sensitive assay for this enzyme.
This collaborative study was conducted to determine the total monomeric anthocyanin concentration by the pH differential method, which is a rapid and simple spectrophotometric method based on the anthocyanin structural transformation that occurs with a change in pH (colored at pH 1.0 and colorless at pH 4.5). Eleven collaborators representing commercial laboratories, academic institutions, and government laboratories participated. Seven Youden pair materials representing fruit juices, beverages, natural colorants, and wines were tested. The repeatability relative standard deviation (RSDr) varied from 1.06 to 4.16%. The reproducibility relative standard deviation (RSDR) ranged from 2.69 to 10.12%. The HorRat values were ≤1.33 for all materials. The Study Director recommends that the method be adopted Official First Action.