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Bee pollen is consumed for api-therapeutical, nutritional and medicinal properties. Its actions are attributed to its chemical composition and mostly phenolics, carotenoids, fatty acids and vitamins. For this study, bee pollen was freshly harvested and immediately placed at-18 0 C. Two different extraction solvents were used: ethanol and methanol, in three different dilutions (60, 70, 80%). 5%, 10% and 15% pollen concentrations in each solvent solution were carried out to determine the most efficient variant, possessing the highest antibacterial activity, using the disc diffusion method. Stock culture of Staphylococcus aureus bacteria was grown in Nutrient Broth at 37ºC for 24h in a shaker. The inhibition zones were different, according to the extraction solvent used and also the pollen concentration. Methanol extract (70%) of 15% pollen has the biggest inhibition diameter. Negative controls (methanol and ethanol) did not show an inhibitory effect on the tested bacteria, while positive control (Streptomycin) has the highest antimicrobial activity.
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Antimicrobial Activity of Bee Pollen Ethanolic and
Methanolic Extracts on Staphylococcus aureus
Bacterial Strain
odiciviuaniellore
uliatilia



.
ddezmirean@usamvcluj.ro



Abstract



        
        
 Staphylococcus aureus

           
 

Keywords: antimicrobial activity, bee pollen, ethanol extract, methanol extract
INTRODUCTION

      
     
    
      
     
et al., 
       
       
      
      
        
et al
      


et. al

et al., 
        
     
  et
al., 
79
Bulletin UASVM Animal Science and Biotechnologies 72(1) / 2015
     
et al.
    
    
     
        et
al        et al.,

 et al.     



in vitro
    
    Staphylococcus aureus

MATERIALS AND METHODS
     
     
     
      
      
       
     

Extract preparation.  
      


 
  et al., 2009  
       

Microbiological cultures.  
  Staphylococcus aureus 

 Staphylococcus aureus    

 sensitivity of microorganism to
     
et al.
    
      
     




in mm.
Antibacterial activity   
et al.
      

     
     
       
   


RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

to the extraction solvent used and also the pollen
     
     

       
Fig. 1.
Staphylococcus aureus
80
Bulletin UASVM Animal Science and Biotechnologies 72(1) / 2015
Staphylococcus aureus,   
    


     
      
   
      

et al., 

     

     
et al., 
   

     

et al., 
CONCLUSION
      
       
    

Acknowledgments.
      
   

REFERENCES
 
       


         
      
     

      
        
     

        
        
     
      

           
      
       

         
  



        
Aloe greatheadii
var. davyana 

        
       
     
     

    
      
    


        
     


       


 th 

 et al
... bakterijų, kurios sukelia infekcinius susirgimus ligoninėse, yra atsparios bent vienam iš gydymui naudojamų antibiotikų [3]. Ši [4,5]. Mokslinės literatūros analizė atskleidė [4][5][6], kad analizuojamas žiedadulkių ekstrakto antimikrobinis veikimas įvairiose pasaulio šalyse. ...
... Ši [4,5]. Mokslinės literatūros analizė atskleidė [4][5][6], kad analizuojamas žiedadulkių ekstrakto antimikrobinis veikimas įvairiose pasaulio šalyse. Mažai atlikta tyrimų, kuriuose būtų nagrinėjamas Lietuvoje surinktų žiedadulkių ekstrakto antimikrobinis veikimas. ...
Article
Įvadas. Pasaulio sveikatos organizacijos (PSO) duomenimis, bakterijų atsparumas antibiotikams kelia didelę grėsmę visame pasaulyje ir sunkina infekcinių ligų gydymą [1]. Manoma, kad apie 70 proc. bakterijų, kurios sukelia infekcinius susirgimus ligoninėse, yra atsparios bent vienam iš gydymui naudojamų antibiotikų. Ši situacija skatina ieškoti kitų sprendimų, vienas iš jų – bičių produktus naudoti kaip natūralius antibiotikus dėl jų antimikrobinio veikimo. Tyrimo tikslas – nustatyti skirtingose Lietuvos vietovėse surinktų žiedadulkių ekstraktų antimikrobinį veikimą. Tyrimo metodika. Atliktas įvairiuose Lietuvos ūkiuose surinktų žiedadulkių skirtingos koncentracijos ekstraktų mikrobiologinis tyrimas. Nustatytas 50 žiedadulkių ekstraktų mėginių antimikrobinis poveikis dešimties etaloninių bakterijų kultūrų ir grybelio Candida albicans atžvilgiu. Tyrimo duomenų analizė atlikta naudojant aprašomąją statistiką, skaičiuojant dažnius bei grupių palyginimą pagal Kruskal Wallis, tyrimo duomenys apdoroti Microsoft Excel 2019 programa. Tyrimo rezultatai. Nustatyta, kad stipriausią antimikrobinį poveikį turėjo D žiedadulkių, surinktų Kaišiadorių rajone, ekstraktas. D ekstrakto antimikrobinis poveikis Staphylococcus epidermidis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Bacillus cereus, Listeria monocytogenes atžvilgiu nustatytas esant 0,025 ml ekstrakto 1 agaro ml. Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus vulgaris ir grybelį Candida albicans, išskyrus Escherichia coli, ekstraktas veikė esant jo 0,0375 – 0,05 ml agaro 1 ml. Žiedadulkių ekstraktas gramteigiamąsias bakterijas veikia stipriau, lyginant su gramneigiamosiomis. Šis skirtumas siejamas su gramteigiamų ir gramneigiamų bakterijų ląstelės sienelės struktūros skirtumais. Išvados. Stipriausią antimikrobinį veikimą turi žiedadulkės, surinktos Kaišiadorių rajone. Nustatyta, kad žiedadulkių ekstraktai stipriau veikia gramteigiamąsias bakterijas, lyginant su gramneigiamosiomis.
... streptococci and enterococci in PPA-treated rats is in good agreement with the work of Lee et al. [54] in which they reported almost 3 folds higher of these bacteria in ASD patients. The remarkable ameliorating effects of the bee pollen-protected group could be supported by considering the antimicrobial activity of bee pollen extracts on Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and other bacterial strains [56,57]. This might help to support the increasing interest regarding the effectiveness of the antimicrobial properties of bee pollen, due to the emerging antibiotic resistance developed by different pathogens as a future expected global health hazard. ...
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Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are neurodevelopmental disorders that clinically presented as impaired social interaction, repetitive behaviors, and weakened communication. The use of bee pollen as a supplement rich in amino acids amino acids, vitamins, lipids, and countless bioactive substances may lead to the relief of oxidative stress, neuroinflammation, glutamate excitotoxicity, and impaired neurochemistry as etiological mechanisms autism. Thirty young male Western albino rats were randomly divided as: Group I-control; Group II, in which autism was induced by the oral administration of 250 mg propionic acid/kg body weight/day for three days followed by orally administered saline until the end of experiment and Group III, the bee pollen-treated group, in which the rats were treated with 250 mg/kg body weight of bee pollen for four weeks before autism was induced as described for Group II. Markers related to oxidative stress, apoptosis, inflammation, glutamate excitotoxicity, and neurochemistry were measured in the brain tissue. Our results indicated that while glutathione serotonin, dopamine, gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), GABA/Glutamate ratio, and vitamin C were significantly reduced in propionic acid-treated group (p < 0.05), glutamate, IFN-γ, IL-1A, IL-6, caspase-3, and lipid peroxide levels were significantly elevated (p < 0.05). Bee pollen supplementation demonstrates protective potency presented as amelioration of most of the measured variables with significance range between (p < 0.05)-(p < 0.001).
... Bee pollen has been used in chemoprophylaxis of several infectious diseases as it has been shown to enhance the immunity of birds (Babaei et al., 2016), mice (Küpeli Akkol, Orhan, Gürubüz, & Yesilada, 2010), and humans (Filipic & Likar, 1976b). Although some studies have reported the antibacterial activity of extracts obtained from bee pollen against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, none of them has revealed its antiviral properties (Fatrcová-Šramková et al., 2013;M arg aoan et al., 2015). ...
Article
The emergence of novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) in 2019 in China marked the third outbreak of a highly pathogenic coronavirus infecting humans. The novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) spread worldwide, becoming an emergency of major international concern. However, even after a decade of coronavirus research, there are still no licensed vaccines or therapeutic agents to treat the coronavirus infection. In this context, apitherapy presents as a promising source of pharmacological and nutraceutical agents for the treatment and/or prophylaxis of COVID-19. For instance, several honeybee products, such as honey, pollen, propolis, royal jelly, beeswax, and bee venom, have shown potent antiviral activity against pathogens that cause severe respiratory syndromes, including those caused by human coronaviruses. In addition, the benefits of these natural products to the immune system are remarkable, and many of them are involved in the induction of antibody production, maturation of immune cells, and stimulation of the innate and adaptive immune responses. Thus, in the absence of specific antivirals against SARS-CoV-2, apitherapy could offer one hope toward mitigating some of the risks associated with COVID-19.
... An antibacterial activity assessment of AgNPs-G was performed in comparison to chemically synthesized Ag NPs (AgNP-C) and ampicillin using ATCC strains of Gram positive organisms like B.subtilis and S.aureus as well as Gram negative organisms like P.aeruginosa and E.coli. Many studies have assessed the effect of methanolic and ethanolic bee pollen extract on different organisms, and one such study which assessed the antibacterial activity against S.aureus detected the highest zone of inhibition in the case of 70% methanol extract of 15% pollen [34]. Another study which evaluated the biological activity of Helianthus annuus L. bee pollen against Gram positive and negative organisms detected a good zone of inhibition against P.aeruginosa using both dried and frozen extracts [35]. ...
Article
Bee pollens are rich source of essential amino acids and are often considered as complete food for human beings. Herein, we exploited the potential reducing abilities of Bee pollens extract for the eco-friendly preparation of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs-G). The resulting NPs were characterized using a combination of microscopic and spectroscopic techniques. The analyses confirm the formation of spherical Ag NPs. AgNPs-G obtained from the aqueous extract of bee pollens was used to study their antibacterial properties against Gram-positive and Gram-negative microbes using the Minimum Inhibitory Concentration 50 (MIC 50) method. The antibacterial properties of AgNPs-G were compared to the properties of chemically synthesized Ag NPs (AgNPs-C) using sodium borohydride as a reducing agent. The green synthesized nanoparticles (AgNPs-G) exhibited a better antibacterial activity against most of the studied strains when compared to the chemically synthesized Ag NPs (AgNPs-C). In addition, the anti-cancer activity of Ag NPs was also studied against human liver and breast carcinoma cell lines by applying MTT-assay. The Ag NPs demonstrated considerable anticancer activity against the studied cell lines and exhibited high IC 50 values in both MCF-7 and HepG2 cell lines.
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Background Ethiopia is one of the plant species-rich countries in the world and the center of origin of many medicinal plants. Studying antimicrobial activities of pollen is vivacious to investigate plant resources for medicinal values and the study was conducted to evaluate antimicrobial properties of bee pollen against mentioned bacteria. Methods Completely Randomized Design was used for laboratory work. After adjusting turbidity, consistent growth of bacterial culture was made using a sterilized cotton swab. 20 grams of bee pollen was added to 200 ml of distilled water as well as ethanol and finally, the extract was filtered by Whatman filter by paper, dried and weighted and stock solutions were made as follows,3.6 gm. was added to 12 ml of distilled water to prepare stock solutions as follows 3.6:12 = 0.3 x \({10}^{6}\) = 3 x \({10}^{5}\) ppm stock solution and antimicrobial activities of pollen were tested against mentioned bacteria. Data were imported to R software version 3.44. Multilevel analysis was used to see the interaction between bacteria species and each concentration of pollen and Anova was used to see the significance of these concentrations on bacteria species. A p-value of < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results Results indicated that bacteria were more inhibited at 72 hours than 48 and 24 hours and the results showed an ethanolic extract of bee pollen had antimicrobial activities against both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria mentioned above. Time has significant effects on tested bacteria (p = 0.000) and treatments have significant effects on tested organisms (p = 0.000). The ethanolic extract inhibited the growth of more Gram-negative bacteria: Escherichia coli and Shigella boydii. Bacillus subtilis was mostly inhibited by aqueous extract of bee pollen than others. Conclusions Ethanolic extract of pollen had antibacterial activities against all tested bacterial strains even though it is concentration and time-based. The ethanolic extract inhibited more Gram-negative bacteria relatively while aqueous extract inhibited more Gram-positive relatively. Negative controls (sterilized water) didn’t show any antimicrobial properties, while positive control (Chloramphenicol) had antimicrobial activities. Further isolation and characterization of bioactive compounds from pollen are useful to develop a novel botanical formulation for further applications from the pollen of medicinal plants.
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In a nanobiotechnology world with many applications in biomedicine, a novel combination of inorganic-organic materials is needed to prove a novel functionality. Natural compounds from bee pollen extract coated on magnetite nanoparticles could open up a new way in apitherapy field. Iron oxide nanoparticles have proved special requirements for biological applications like superparamagnetic properties, high biocompatibility and nontoxic material. Magnetite nanoparticles functionalized with natural bioactive substances extracted from bee pollen have been characterised and investigated for antimicrobial activity. Previous findings demonstrate that magnetite nanoparticles (MNPs) and pollen ethanolic extracts (PEE) exhibited antimicrobial activity against a large antimicrobial spectrum, including Grampositive, Gram-negative and antifungal microorganisms.
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Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is one of the greatest medical challenges the world faces. It was estimated recently that by 2050, AMR will account for 10 million extra deaths annually with additional economic costs in the region of $100 trillion. In order to combat this, novel antimicrobial agents with a broad spectrum of activity are required. Bee products, including; honey, propolis, defensins, royal jelly, bee pollen and venom have been used to treat infectious diseases for several centuries, although they were largely disregarded by Western medicine during the antibiotic era. There has since been a resurgence in interest in their antimicrobial properties, especially due to their reported activity against multi-drug resistant pathogens displaying high levels of AMR. In this paper we review the current scientific literature of honey, propolis, honey bee, defensins, royal jelly, bee pollen and bee venom. We highlight the antimicrobial activity each of these products has displayed and potential future research directions.
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a b s t r a c t Total phenolic phytochemical concentration was measured in 12 honeybee-collected pollens of selected floral species as well as their antioxidant capacity. The content of total polyphenols was measured spec-trophotometrically using the Folin–Ciocalteu reagent with gallic acid as standard. The antioxidant prop-erties were evaluated by 2,2-diphenyl-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging capacity (DPPH) assay, Trolox equivalent antioxidant Capacity procedure and Ferric ion reducing antioxidant power assay. A great var-iability regarding the correspondence between the antioxidant activity and the content of total polyphe-nols of honeybee-collected pollens with different botanical origin was found. Antioxidant activities were different for each floral species and were not clearly associated to their total phenolic content.
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Honey bee pollen is considered to be a food, and national pollen standards exist in different countries such as Brazil, Bulgaria, Poland and Switzerland. It is the aim of the present work to review pollen composition and the analytical methods used for the evaluation of high quality bee pollen. Based on the experience of different countries and on the results of published research, we propose quality criteria for bee pollen, hoping that in the future they will be used as world wide bee pollen standards.
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Bee pollen is a mix of bee-collected floral pollens which varies widely in composition. A systematic method for characterising bee pollens in terms of their constituent pollens is needed in view of the growing phytotherapeutic interest in bee pollen products. Studies involving three bee pollen samples collected from Portugal and New Zealand are reported. An approach based on flavonoid/phenolics profiles derived from high pressure liquid chromatography is demonstrated to be more precise and informative than traditional microscopy. This method provides a convenient means for identifying the contributing pollens, and for characterising bee pollens in terms of their predominant constituent pollens.The flavonoid/phenolics profiles obtained in the course of this work also highlight other observations of interest. For example: bees are shown to be highly selective pollen gatherers from the finding that bee pollens comprise pollen from only a few of the available species; pollen from only one floral source is found in each bee pollen pellet; and flavonoids are normally found as glycosides in pollens but are shown to occur naturally as aglycones in Eucalyptus globulus pollen. Two of these aglycones, tricetin and 3-O-methylquercetin, are reported as pollen constituents for the first time. © 1997 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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Pollen is a bee-product known for its medical properties from ancient times. In our days is increasingly used as health food supplement and especially as a tonic primarily with appeal to the elderly to ameliorate the effects of ageing. In order to evaluate the chemical composition and the biological activity of Greek pollen which has never been studied before, one sample with identified botanical origin from sixteen different common plant taxa of Greece has been evaluated. Three different extracts of the studied sample of Greek pollen, have been tested, in whether could induce proteasome activities in human fibroblasts. The water extract was found to induce a highly proteasome activity, showing interesting antioxidant properties. Due to this activity the aqueous extract was further subjected to chemical analysis and seven flavonoids have been isolated and identified by modern spectral means. From the methanolic extract, sugars, lipid acids, phenolic acids and their esters have been also identified, which mainly participate to the biosynthetic pathway of pollen phenolics. The total phenolics were estimated with the Folin-Ciocalteau reagent and the total antioxidant activity was determined by the DPPH method while the extracts and the isolated compounds were also tested for their antimicrobial activity by the dilution technique. The Greek pollen is rich in flavonoids and phenolic acids which indicate the observed free radical scavenging activity, the effects of pollen on human fibroblasts and the interesting antimicrobial profile.
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Crude extracts from Inula aucherana, Fumaria officinalis, Crocus sativus, Vicum album, Tribulus terestris, Polygonatum multiflorum, Alkanna tinctoria and Taraxacum officinale were screened for their in vitro antioxidant and antimicrobial properties. Total phenolic content of extracts from these plants were also determined. beta-carotene bleaching assay and Folin-Ciocalteu reagent were used to determine total antioxidant activity and total phenols of plant extracts. Antimicrobial activity was determined by using disk diffusion assay. Antioxidant activity and total phenolic content varied among plants used and Viscum album and Crocus sativus had the highest antioxidant (82.23%) and total phenolic content (42.29 mgGAE/g DW), respectively. The methanol extracts from Vicum album and Alkanna tinctoria showed antimicrobial activity against 9 out of 32 microorganisms, however extract from Inula aucherana showed antimicrobial activity against 15 out of 32 microorganisms. The results provided evidence that the studied plant might indeed be potential sources of natural antioxidant and antimicrobial agents.
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Samples of natural bee-bread and bee-pollen from different aromatic and medicinal plants were studied for their antimicrobial activities on antibio-resistant bacterial strains isolated from human pathology. Four samples of bee-bread, two samples of fresh bee-pollen and two samples of dried bee-pollen were collected from different regions in Morocco. Dilutions of bee-bread and bee-pollen from 1/2, 1/4, 1/8 and 1/16 were tested by the agar well diffusion method on various strains of bacteria including E. coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Results revealed that most of strains were inhibited by the dilution 1/2 and 1/4. The Gram positive bacteria were more sensitive to bee-bread and bee-pollen than Gram negative bacteria. All the samples showed strong antimicrobial activities on the bacterial strains, which were first tested for their resistance to antibiotics. The results showed that bee-bread and bee-pollen samples were inhibitory than dried bee-pollen.
Article
The “in vitro” antibacterial activities of Turkish pollen and propolis extracts were investigated against 13 different species of agricultural bacterial pathogens including Agrobacterium tumefaciens, A. vitis, Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis, Erwinia amylovora, E. carotovora pv. carotovora, Pseudomonas corrugata, P. savastanoi pv. savastanoi, P. syringae pv. phaseolicola, P. syringae pv. syringae, P. syringae pv. tomato, Ralstonia solanacearum, Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris and X. axonopodis pv. vesicatoria. Among the tested bacteria, A. tumefaciens was the most sensitive one to 1/5 concentration of pollen extract, and the sensitivity of the bacteria followed the sequence A. tumefaciens > P. syringae pv. tomato, X. axonopodis pv. vesicatoria > E. amylovora, P. corrugata, R. solanacearum, X. campestris pv. campestris > A. vitis, C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis > E. carotovora pv. carotovora, P. savastanoi pv. savastanoi, P. syringae pv. phaseolicola > P. syringae pv. syringae. P. syringae pv. phaseolicola was the most sensitive one to 1/10 concentration of propolis extract, and the sensitivity of the bacteria followed the sequence P. syringae pv. phaseolicola > P. savastanoi pv. savastanoi, P. corrugata, R. solanacearum > E. carotovora pv. carotovora, P. syringae pv. syringae, E. amylovora, A. tumefaciens, A. vitis, C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis, P. syringae pv. tomato, X. campestris pv. campestris, X. axonopodis pv. vesicatoria. The least active concentrations towards the tested bacteria were 1/100 of the pollen extract and 1/1000 of the propolis extract. This study is the first report on the antibacterial activities of pollen and propolis against the plant pathogenic bacteria.
Article
Aloe greatheadii var. davyana is the most important indigenous South African bee plant. Fresh, bee-collected and stored pollen of this aloe was collected and analysed for its nutritional content, including amino acid and fatty acid composition. Highly significant differences were found between the three types of pollen. Collection and storage by the bees resulted in increased water (13-21% wet weight) and carbohydrate content (35-61% dry weight), with a resultant decrease in crude protein (51-28% dry weight) and lipid content (10-8% dry weight). Essential amino acids were present in equal or higher amounts than the required minimum levels for honeybee development, with the exception of tryptophan. Fatty acids comprised a higher proportion of total lipid in fresh pollen than in bee-collected and stored pollen. This study is the first to compare the changes that occur in pollen of a single species after collection by honeybees.
Collins and Lynes Microbiological Methods. 7 th Edn
  • Ch Collins
  • Pm Lyne
  • Jm Grange
Collins CH, Lyne PM, Grange JM (1995). Collins and Lynes Microbiological Methods. 7 th Edn. Butterworth. Heinman Oxford. pp.493.