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What Men Want in a Woman: Personality Is More Important than Academic Record or Athleticism

Psychology, 2015, 6, 942-947
Published Online June 2015 in SciRes.
How to cite this paper: Furnham, A., & McClelland, A. (2015). What Men Want in a Woman: Personality Is More Important
than Academic Record or Athleticism. Psychology, 6, 942-947.
What Men Want in a Woman: Personality Is
More Important than Academic Record or
Adrian Furnham1,2, Alastair McClelland3
1Research Department of Clinical, Educational and Health Psychology, University College London, London, UK
2Norwegian Business School (BI), Nydalveien, Olso, Norway
3Research Department of Experimental Psychology, University College London, London, UK
Received 31 March 2015; accepted 19 June 2015; published 23 June 2015
Copyright © 2015 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.
This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution International License (CC BY).
Two hundred and fifty eight male respondents with a mean age of 24.5 years were presented with
sixteen hypothetical females which they were asked to rate for suitability as long term partners.
The hypothetical females differed with respect to: academic record ability (high/average); athle-
ticism (high/low) and two personality variables; Extraversion (introvert/extravert) and Neuro-
ticism (stable/neurotic). Overall males preferred intelligent, athletic, extraverted, stable females
as potential long term partners. Effect sizes showed that being Extravert was seen as being the
most important characteristic and being athletic as the least important. However, there were also
a number of significant two- and three-way interactions between the characteristics of the poten-
tial dates. Limitations of the study are noted.
Mate Choice, Intelligence, Health and Personality
1. Introduction
There is an extensive literature on the topic of mate preferences and selection (Buss, 1989, 1994; Buss &
Schmitt, 1993; Botwin, Buss, & Shackelford, 1997; Prokosch, Coss, Scheib, & Blozis, 2009; Shackelford,
Schmitt, & Buss, 2005; Schwarz & Hassebrauck, 2012). Much of the recent literature has been driven by de-
bates on the power of the body mass index (BMI) over waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) in an attempt to determine the
universality of male mate preferences (Swami & Furnham, 2008).
A. Furnham, A. McClelland
There are various types of studies on the topic of mate choice: content analysis of “lonely hearts” columns
(Greenlees & McGrew, 1994); post “commercial date” speed interactions ratings (Kurzban & Weeden, 2005);
on-line daters research (Gebauer, Leary, & Neberich, 2012); psychometric studies on hypothetical, prototypic
people with known specified characteristics, as well as ratings of pictures/photographs of individuals (Wood &
Brumbaugh, 2009). Recent studies have looked at specific features of mate preferences (Fletcher, Simpson,
Thomas, & Giles, 1999); as well as trade-offs and compromises in mate choice (Shackelford et al., 2005); and
the effect of self-appraisal on mate choice (Kenrick, Groth, Trost, & Sadalla, 1995). Kurzban and Weeden (2005)
found the agreed-upon mate values for both sexes were related almost entirely to observable physical attributes
like age, attractiveness, BMI and height and not those less observable characteristics such as education, religion,
socio-sexuality or ideas about children.
Some research has examined personality factors (Wood & Brumbaugh, 2009) in mate selection. Gebauer et al.
(2013) found two individual difference dimensions namely agency and warmth, which were highly valued
cross-culturally. In Big Five terminology these appear to be the two traits of Extraversion and Neuroticism.
Furnham (2009) found females rated intelligence, Stability, Conscientiousness, height, education, social skills and
political/religious compatibility significantly higher than males, who rated good looks higher than females.
Furnham and Tsoi (2012) found that as predicted, females rated indicators of earning power significantly
higher than males, who rated good looks and heredity higher. Effects of similarity attraction were shown in
education and financial background, self-assessed attractiveness, values, and personality. Regressions showed
that sex, personality and self-ratings (aggression and patience) were consistently related to partner preferences.
More recently Neto, Pinto and Furnham (2012) replicated these findings in Brazil and Portugal.
Furnham and McClelland (2015) in a paper methodologically similar to this, found females preferred younger,
taller males from their own racial group and within a higher social class. Women showed a strong preference for
men their own age, ethnicity and especially height.
This study examines four factors, often ignored with respect to men’s preference: one cognitive/ability factor,
one physiological factor and two personality factors. The first factor was ability/intelligence as operationalised
by “academic performance”. Whilst there is considerable evidence that women seek out cognitively and emo-
tionally intelligent men there is also evidence that males can be inhibited by women more intelligent than them-
selves (Szymanowicz & Furnham, 2011). Academic ability is also in part determined by personality factors
namely Openness and Conscientiousness but more of the variance is determined by intelligence (Poropat, 2009).
Hence it was hypothesized that men would favour women of average, over those with superior, intelligence as
indicated by an average academic record (H1).
The second factor was fitness operationalized as a “sporty/athletic” dimension. This was taken as a proxy for
the degree of health and attractiveness. Whilst most sports require physical fitness and a low BMI though some-
times higher WHR this is not always the case. Considerable previous literature suggests that men are attracted to
fit, healthy, fertile young women (Swami & Furnham, 2008) therefore it was predicted athletic/sporty women
would be preferred over less or average sporty/athletic women (H2).
The third factor was trait Extraversion. Both males and females seek socially confident, warm optimistic
mates and would therefore favour signs of Extraversion over Introversion (H3).
The fourth variable was trait Neuroticism which concerns anxiety, depression, moodiness and proneness to
hypochondriasis. There is considerable evidence to suggest that Neuroticism is linked to poor academic and
work performance as well as mental and physical illness hence it was predicted that participants would chose
stable over unstable mates (H4).
It was also predicted that there would be significant interactions between Extraversion and Neuroticism with a
strong preference for Sanguine types. Of particularly interest in this study were standardized effect sizes meas-
ures, which it was hoped would provide an index of the relative strength of some characteristics over others.
2. Method
2.1. Participants
The participants in this study were two hundred and fifty eight males ranging in age from 14 to 42 years (M =
22.5, SD = 6.4). Within the sample 40.3% had A-levels (12th grade) as their highest qualification, 33.7% had a
bachelor’s degree and the remainder had a higher qualification. The sample consisted primarily of Caucasians
(70.4%) with 14.6% Asian, 7.3% African and 3.2% unspecified other. Just over half (51.4%) of the partici-
A. Furnham, A. McClelland
pants were single, 22.7% were with a long term partner, 16.9% with a short term partner, 6.3% were married
with 2.4% reporting their status as other(Response rate: 98.8%). In all, 95.5% said they were heterosexual,
2.4% homosexual and 1.2% bisexual (Response rate: 95.0%). Participants were asked to state the strength of
their religious beliefs on a 10 point scale (0 = Not at all; 9 = Very religious); the mean was 2.59 (SD = 2.97)
(Response rate: 98.1%). They were also asked to rate their political beliefs on a 10 point scale (0 = Very Left
Wing; 9 = Very Right Wing) and the mean was 3.96 (SD = 2.06) (Response rate: 95.4%). They also reported
their weight (Mean in kg = 77.38; SD = 15.6) and height (Mean in cm = 179.82; SD = 13.21).
2.2. Materials
All participants completed a two-part questionnaire comprising the Great Date questionnaire and a section of
demographic questions. The construction of the questionnaire was based on techniques used in previous studies
to assess patient prioritisation for the allocation of scarce medical resources (e.g., Furnham, Ariffin, &
McClelland, 2007). Participants were then presented with a short description of 16 hypothetical females, who
they rated for suitability using a 9-point scale (0 = Definitely No and 8 = Definitely Yes). Each female varied on
the following four characteristics: Academic record (high/average); Athleticism (high/low) and two personality
variables; Extraversion (introvert/extravert) and Neuroticism (stable/neurotic). Each female represented one par-
ticular examplar of the 16 possible combinations of the four characteristics. For example:
Laura 20, is very athletic and has an average academic record. She is generally bubbly but prone to being sensitive.
Amelia 22, does not perform well academically; is shy, moody and heavily involved in sports.
Georgia 21, is outgoing, can be quite touchy, does not enjoy playing sports/athletics and has an unimpressive academic record
Because this, like other studies in the area, used a within subject design some effort was made to use syn-
onymns for some of the four major variables of interest. In order to check the “correct classification” three peo-
ple were shown the 2 × 2 × 2 × 2 design and asked to place the people in the different categories. All did so cor-
2.3. Procedure
Ethical permission was first sought and obtained. All participants were instructed to complete the questionnaire
individually and anonymously. Following completion of the study, where possible, participants were fully de-
briefed. The task took around 10 minutes. The response rate was 97.1%.
3. Results
The mean ratings given to the 16 descriptions of the potential dates are presented in Table 1.
A repeated-measures ANOVA was conducted on the data with intelligence (as indexed by academic record),
athleticism, Extraversion and Neuroticism as independent variables, and the ratings as the dependent variable.
There was a significant main effect of academic record, F(1, 257) = 187.35, p < .001 (
= 42.2%) with aca-
demically stronger women (M = 4.78) being preferred to less academically able individuals (M = 3.94). This
disconfirms H1. There was a weaker but still highly significant effect of athleticism, F (1, 257) = 73.56, p < .001
= 22.3%) with more athletic females (M = 4.66) preferred over less athletic females (M = 4.05). This con-
firms H2. There was a strong main effect of Extraversion, F (1, 257) = 362.54, p < .001 (
= 58.5%) with Ex-
travert females (M = 4.97) being preferred to introvert females (M = 3.75). This confirm H3. Finally there was
another strong main effect of Neuroticism, F (1, 257) = 210.90, p < .001 (
= 45.1%) with stable females (M
= 4.83) preferred to neurotic females (M = 3.88). This confirms H4. Thus, three of the four hypotheses were
There were five two-way interactions between the characteristics of the potential dates. There was a signifi-
cant interaction between academic ability and athleticism, F (1, 257) = 18.34, p < .001 (
= 6.7%). Amongst
less academically able females, those who were athletic (M = 4.33) were preferred over those who were not ath-
letic (M = 3.54). The same pattern was evident for more academically able females, but the influence of athleti-
cism was far less marked (athletic: M = 4.99; not-athletic: M = 4.57). There was also an interaction between
A. Furnham, A. McClelland
Table 1. Mean ratings as a function of age, social class, ethnicity and height.
Academic Ability Athleticism Extraversion Neuroticism Mean SD
Extravert Stable 5.89 1.91
High Neurotic 5.35 1.60
Introvert Stable 5.29 1.95
High Neurotic 3.41 1.94
Extravert Stable 5.35 1.70
Low Neurotic 4.94 1.76
Introvert Stable 4.28 1.90
Neurotic 3.70 2.02
Extravert Stable 5.48 1.79
High Neurotic 4.90 1.73
Introvert Stable 4.49 1.74
Average Neurotic 2.48 1.90
Extravert Stable 4.82 1.73
Low Neurotic 3.04 1.97
Introvert Stable 3.08 1.87
Neurotic 3.24 2.21
Extraversion and athleticism, F (1, 257) = 26.68, p < .001 (
= 9.4%). Amongst Extraverts, athletic females
(M = 5.40) were preferred to non-athletes (M = 4.54), but this effect was far weaker amongst Introverts (athletic:
M = 3.92; not-athletic: M = 3.54). A very similar interaction was evident between stability and athleticism, F (1,
257) = 36.33, p < .001 (
= 12.4%). Amongst stable females, athletes (M = 5.29) were clearly preferred to
non-athletes (M = 4.38), but this effect was attenuated within Neurotic females (athletic: M = 4.03; not-athletic:
M = 3.73). There were two weaker (but significant) interactions between Extraversion and Neuroticism, F (1,
257) = 6.15, p < .05 (
= 2.3%), and between intelligence and Neuroticism, F (1, 257) = 4.54, p < .05 (
1.7%). With respect to the former, the results indicated that the negative influence of Neuroticism on attractive-
ness as partners within Extravert females (stable: M = 5.38; neurotic: M = 4.56) was slightly smaller than within
Introverted females (stable: M = 4.28; neurotic: M = 3.21). There was a similar pattern with respect to intelli-
gence and Neuroticism; the negative influence of Neuroticism on attractiveness within the more intelligent fe-
males (stable: M = 5.20; neurotic: M = 4.35) was slightly smaller than within the less intelligent females (stable:
M = 4.47; neurotic: M = 3.41).
There were also a number of three-way interactions between the independent variables. There was a strong
interaction between Extraversion, athleticism and Neuroticism, F (1, 257) = 134.90, p < .001 (
= 34.4%).
Within Extraverted females, there was an interaction between athleticism and Neuroticism, F (1, 257) = 16.01, p
< .001 (
= 5.9%) such that the difference in attractiveness between stable athletic individuals (M = 5.68) and
stable non-athletic individuals (M = 5.08) was considerably smaller than the difference between neurotic athletes
(M = 5.12) and neurotic non-athletes (M = 3.99). Within Introverted females, the interaction between athleticism
and Neuroticism was much stronger, F (1, 257) = 142.02, p < .001 (
= 35.6%) and was of a different pattern.
Here there was a much larger difference in perceived attractiveness between stable athletic (M = 4.89) and
non-athletic females (M = 3.68) than between neurotic athletes (M = 2.94) and non-athletes (M = 3.47). There
was also a significant interaction between academic record, athleticism and Extraversion, F (1, 257) = 18.14, p
< .001 (
= 6.6%). Amongst Extravert females, there was an interaction between intelligence and athleticism,
F (1, 257) = 33.94, p < .001 (
= 11.7%). Within intelligent females, there was only a small difference in the
rated attractiveness as long-term partners between athletic (M = 5.68) and non-athletic (M = 5.14) individuals,
but a much larger difference for females of only average intelligence (athletic: M = 5.19, non-athletic: 3.93).
However, amongst Introverted females, there was no interaction between intelligence and athleticism, F < 1.
A. Furnham, A. McClelland
Thus the influence of athleticism is moderated by intelligence amongst Extravertedbut not Intro-
vertedfemales. A three-way interaction was also evident between intelligence, Neuroticism and Extraversion,
F (1, 257) = 34.60, p < .001 (
= 11.9%). Within extravert females there was a significant interaction between
intelligence and Neuroticism, F (1, 257) = 38.55, p < .001 (
= 13.0%). There was a smaller difference in at-
tractiveness between intelligent stable (M = 5.62) and neurotic (M = 5.15) individuals than between less intelli-
gent stable (M = 5.15) and neurotic (M = 3.97) individuals. Again, intelligence acted as a moderator with respect
to the Neuroticism variable amongst Extraverted females. Within Introverted females the interaction between
intelligence and Neuroticism was significant but weak, F (1, 257) = 4.52, p < .05 (
= 1.7%). Here the differ-
ence in rated attractiveness of the females as long term partners between stable (M = 4.78) and neurotic (M =
3.56) intelligent individuals was marginally larger than the difference between stable (M = 3.78) and neurotic
(M = 2.86) individuals with lower intelligencebut this effect was weak.
4. Discussion
The results of this study confirmed three of the four hypotheses. The lowest preference ratings were for an un-
stable, athletic, Introvert of average academic ability, followed by an unstable, non-athletic Extravert of average
academic ability. Interestingly the effect sizes were greater for personality than intelligence or athleticism. There
was a strong preference for Sanguine people (Stable Extraverts) who are classed as easygoing, responsive, and
lively, and an avoidance of Melancholic individualsunstable Introverts classified as anxious, rigid and reserved.
This certainly makes sense in terms of evolutionary theory. Nettle (2006) considered the positive benefits and
negative costs of the Big Five personality types. Thus Extraverts are attractive because they have big social
networks and are good at initiating, but not always maintaining relationships. They tend to be happy, though
somewhat impulsive. There are few positive benefits of being Neurotic save social sensitivity and hyper-
vigilance. There are however many costs associated with Neuroticism: anxiety, depression, poor mental and
physical health and stress sensitivity.
The study showed the relative power of personality variables over ability or health variables through the way
these were conceptualised for these results. It is possible that some males, particularly if unfit themselves would
be less attractive to a fit and possibly competitive female. This hypothesis warrants investigation. It also implies
an obvious interaction between the self-assessed characteristics of the male participant/potential mate and the
characteristics of the female he prefers.
In this study (and in contrast to H1) males preferred more rather than less intelligent females as a possible
mate. Whilst previous studies have suggested females have a strong preference for more intelligent men, who
would presumably have higher paying occupations, some data suggest men can be intimidated by clever women
(Szymanowicz & Furnham, 2011). Again this variable may interact with participant self-estimated intelligence.
This study had limitations. Participants were not making real but hypothetical decisions, and it would have
been desirable to have details on the athleticism, intelligence and personality of the male participants in order to
examine possible matching effects. Further, the information presented to each participant about each hypotheti-
cal female is minimal and confined to just four variables. It is quite possible that there is other information that
the participants might have preferentially sought. One important problem associated with a within subject design
is to devise people descriptions which are sufficiently different from one another yet realistic. Therefore in this
study bubbly and outgoing were used as indicators of extraversion, shy for introvert and moody and unstable in-
dicators of neuroticism. Similarly athletic, sporty and fit were all considered equivalent which may not have al-
ways been the case. Despite the fact that we found that people could correctly categorise the 16 people accord-
ing to our design we recognise that some descriptors may have not been equivalent: i.e., sensitive, touchy, neu-
rotic. Therefore replication is encouraged, perhaps using a between subject design.
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... Costa and McCrae (1992) argued that people with low emotional stability tend to produce depressed emotions such as fear, anger and sadness [16]. Furnham (2015) studied the relationship between personality traits and work values based on the five factor model of personality, the study found that conscientiousness in the five factors had a positive predictive effect on the working relationship, and the extroversion had positive predictive effects on the inner work values. Openness in the five factor is negatively correlated with economic conditions and working conditions [17]. ...
... Furnham (2015) studied the relationship between personality traits and work values based on the five factor model of personality, the study found that conscientiousness in the five factors had a positive predictive effect on the working relationship, and the extroversion had positive predictive effects on the inner work values. Openness in the five factor is negatively correlated with economic conditions and working conditions [17]. Schneider and Dachler (1978) believe that employees' feelings about their work are related to their personality traits [18]. ...
... For example, the literature consistently suggests that men are attracted to healthy, fertile, young partners (Swami & Furnahm, 2008). Moreover, there is evidence that men are attracted to intelligent, extroverted, stable, athletic women when choosing a long-term partner (Furnham & McClelland, 2015). In addition, men view promiscuous behavior in a potential long term as undesirable (Buss & Schmitt, 1993). ...
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Previous research suggests that assessment of mate preferences has received relatively little psychometric attention from researchers, particularly in non-Western cultures. The current research was designed to (1) extend previous findings on long-term mate preferences by using a qualitative strategy, (2) develop a psychometrically sound scale for assessment of long-term mate preferences in men, and (3) develop a sex-neutral scale for assessment of long-term mate preferences. Six dimensions of mate preferences emerged for men: F = family/domesticity, A = attractiveness/sexuality, K = kindness/dependability, E = education/intelligence, R = religiosity/chastity, and S = status/resources. These male-specific dimensions of mate preferences showed satisfactory concurrent and convergent validity as well as high internal consistency coefficients. We mixed the female- and male-specific measures of mate preferences and arrived at 20 characteristics without culture- or sex-specific content. We further hypothesized that the 20-item scale of mate preferences would have a five-factor structure (i.e., kindness/dependability, attractiveness/sexuality, status/resources, education/intelligence, religiosity/chastity [KASER]) in men and women and that this model would replicate sex differences cited in the evolutionary psychological literature. Measurement invariance was evidenced across sexes and sex differences accorded with those in the literature. Therefore, the five-factor model of long-term mate preferences (i.e., KASER model) as measured by the Iranian Mate Preferences Scale-20 may be used to evaluate long-term mate preferences in men and women in Iran. Limitations are noted and future directions are discussed in the light of evolutionary perspective on human mating psychology.
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Heterosexual participants (M=175) rated the desirability of 21 characteristics categorized into six areas (ability, personality, character, physical, resources, and values) in a possible long-term partner, and completed a self-evaluation questionnaire regarding how the characteristics described themselves. Participants also completed a Big Five personality inventory. As predicted, females rated indicators of earning power significantly higher than males, who rated good looks and heredity higher. Effects of preferences for similarity were shown in education and financial background, self-assessed attractiveness, values, and personality. A regression analysis showed that sex and self-ratings were consistently related to partner preferences for wealth, occupation, and education. Political, rather than religious beliefs of the participants, played a strong role in many preference ratings. Limitations of this methodology are discussed.
A number of studies have described different preference patterns typically found for women and men when selecting a long-term partner. Despite the number of investigations on the topic, one must be careful not to generalise because most studies use samples of North American undergraduates. In this study, heterosexual participants from Brazil and Portugal rated the desirability characteristics in a possible long-term partner. The sample was composed of 402 participants, of whom 187 were Brazilian (92 women and 95 men) from Brasília University, Brazil; and 215 were Portuguese (121 women and 94 men) from Porto University, Portugal. Participants of each culture responded to the same 18 items, measuring four factors: personality, physical attractiveness, resources, and abilities. As predicted, women rated indicators of personality, resources, and abilities significantly higher than men, who rated physical attractiveness higher. Brazilian students rated resources higher than did Portuguese students. The findings are discussed in the context of some evolutionary and sociocultural notions posited in explanations of mating behaviour. Limitations of this methodology are discussed.
This study looked for evidence of cultural stereotypes regarding the different intellectual abilities of men and women. The effects of participants' gender, gender role and the target's sex on the perception of an intelligent person and attitudes towards disclosing high IQ were investigated. Some 121 participants wrote a story following a verbal lead about a highly intelligent male or female. They then answered three questions about IQ disclosure and filled out a Bem Sex Role Inventory. Content analysis showed most differences emerged in participants' views about consequences of high intelligence for one's intimate interpersonal relationships. More negative consequences were predicted for female than male targets. This bias was especially strong for females and feminine participants.
People differ regarding their "Big Three" mate preferences of attractiveness, status, and interpersonal warmth. We explain these differences by linking them to the "Big Two" personality dimensions of agency/competence and communion/warmth. The similarity-attracts hypothesis predicts that people high in agency prefer attractiveness and status in mates, whereas those high in communion prefer warmth. However, these effects may be moderated by agentics' tendency to contrast from ambient culture, and communals' tendency to assimilate to ambient culture. Attending to such agentic-cultural-contrast and communal-cultural-assimilation crucially qualifies the similarity-attracts hypothesis. Data from 187,957 online-daters across 11 countries supported this model for each of the Big Three. For example, agentics-more so than communals-preferred attractiveness, but this similarity-attracts effect virtually vanished in attractiveness-valuing countries. This research may reconcile inconsistencies in the literature while utilizing nonhypothetical and consequential mate preference reports that, for the first time, were directly linked to mate choice.
This study aimed to determine whether participants used different criteria to allocate scarce medical resources depending on the medical condition. Allocations of HIV antiretroviral treatment and heart-transplant surgery were examined. Participants completed 2 questionnaires requiring them to prioritize 16 hypothetical patients. Demographic data on hypothetical patients varied on 4 dimensions: age, gender, sexual orientation, and promiscuity. There were significant main effects of age, sexual orientation, and promiscuity in both medical conditions. Young people were favored over old, heterosexuals over homosexuals, and monogamous over promiscuous patients. Stronger effects of sexual orientation and promiscuity were found in the HIV treatment condition. Participants used a more utilitarian approach in their allocation decisions and demonstrated prejudice against homosexuals and promiscuous patients.
Two hundred and fifty participants (110 male, mean-age 22.23 yrs) completed a five-part, two page questionnaire about mate selection. They described themselves and their ideal partner in their own words; rated 14 desirable characteristics classified under five headings (ability, personality, physical, social and values) completed a short measure of the Big Five personality traits and specified various personal details. Females rated intelligence, stability, conscientiousness, height, education, social skills and political/religious compatibility significantly higher than males, who rated good looks higher than females. Regressions showed that sex, personality and ideology were consistently related to partner preference. Political and religious compatibility was powerfully related to participants’ beliefs and values.