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Using signature strengths in pursuit of goals: Effects on goal progress, need satisfaction, and well-being, and implications for coaching psychologists

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... POSDC and POSSU), Trépanier et al. (2015) argue that employees can also invest personal resources, which are both psychological and behavioral. Linley et al. (2010) observed that strengths use, in a clinical setting, promote patients' need satisfaction and, in turn, psychological well-being. Recently, a quasi-experimental study demonstrated that promoting strengths use through strengths-oriented feedback has significant effects on need satisfaction and well-being . ...
... In sum, when people believe they act of free will and according to their core values, they are autonomously motivated (Gagné & Deci, 2005). The current literature on strengths indicates that strengths use is associated with need satisfaction (Linley et al., 2010) and autonomous motivation (Kong & Ho, 2016). Furthermore, research showed that participants engaged in a strength-based intervention reported higher need satisfaction and well-being, and this relationship was mediated by autonomous motivation . ...
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This study sheds light on the strengths-based approach and the deficit correction approach regarding training and development at work. The former is operationalized by perceived organizational support for strength use (POSSU) and strengths use behaviors (SUB), and the latter through perceived organizational support for deficit correction (POSDC) and deficit correction behaviors (DCB). Using self-determination theory (SDT), we argue that both approaches might enhance employees’ optimal functioning (i.e., task performance, contextual performance, and psychological well-being), by increasing autonomous motivation through need satisfaction and decreasing controlled motivation through need frustration. More precisely, this study tends to identify which approach has the most impact on performance and well-being within the workplace. Two independent samples were collected to test the proposed model: the first one explored the implication of POSSU and POSDC as antecedents of basic psychological needs, while the second examines SUB and DCB. In the first sample (N = 341), structural equation modeling (SEM) shows that POSSU increases autonomous motivation through need satisfaction and reduces controlled motivation by diminishing need frustration. While POSDC favors controlled motivation through need frustration. In the second sample (N = 454), SEM demonstrates that SUB increases autonomous motivation through need satisfaction and reduces controlled motivation by diminishing need frustration. While DCB favors controlled motivation through need frustration. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed.
... POSDC and POSSU), Trépanier et al. (2015) argue that employees can also invest personal resources, which are both psychological and behavioral. Linley et al. (2010) observed that strengths use, in a clinical setting, promote patients' need satisfaction and, in turn, psychological well-being. Recently, a quasi-experimental study demonstrated that promoting strengths use through strengths-oriented feedback has significant effects on need satisfaction and well-being . ...
... In sum, when people believe they act of free will and according to their core values, they are autonomously motivated (Gagné & Deci, 2005). The current literature on strengths indicates that strengths use is associated with need satisfaction (Linley et al., 2010) and autonomous motivation (Kong & Ho, 2016). Furthermore, research showed that participants engaged in a strength-based intervention reported higher need satisfaction and well-being, and this relationship was mediated by autonomous motivation . ...
Article
This study sheds light on the strengths-based approach and the deficit correction approach regarding training and development at work. The former is operationalized by perceived organizational support for strength use (POSSU) and strengths use behaviors (SUB), and the latter through perceived organizational support for deficit correction (POSDC) and deficit correction behaviors (DCB). Using self-determination theory (SDT), we argue that both approaches might enhance employees’ optimal functioning (i.e., task performance, contextual performance, and psychological wellbeing), by increasing autonomous motivation through need satisfaction and decreasing controlled motivation through need frustration. More precisely, this study tends to identify which approach has the most impact on performance and well-being within the workplace. Two independent samples were collected to test the proposed model: the first one explored the implication of POSSU and POSDC as antecedents of basic psychological needs, while the second examines SUB and DCB. In the first sample (N = 341), structural equation modeling (SEM) shows that POSSU increases autonomous motivation through need satisfaction and reduces controlled motivation by diminishing need frustration. While POSDC favors controlled motivation through need frustration. In the second sample (N = 454), SEM demonstrates that SUB increases autonomous motivation through need satisfaction and reduces controlled motivation by diminishing need frustration. While DCB favors controlled motivation through need frustration. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed.
... Since resilience integrates intrapersonal strength, interventions also often build upon the observation of strengths [20], where the focus is not on the use of strengths themselves, but on the individual's motivation and ability to discover strengths in others. The observation of strengths can thus be defined as the ability to identify and observe one's own and others' strengths [21,22], contributing to resilience. ...
... The papers were published between 1984 and 2021. However, most of them were published after 2000 (40), especially in the 2010s (22). Since there were only two papers which focused on international differences, most of the papers introduced their research results in light of a national or regional study. ...
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Investigating parental involvement has moved to the foreground of research in the past two decades, and research results focusing on family engagement claim its positive impact on children's academic and non-academic achievement. However, less is known about parental involvement in the case of families with children with special needs. In our systematic review, we collected studies focusing on parental involvement which emphasised the role of resilience. Using the EBSCO Discovery Service, a total of 467 abstracts from 85 databases were screened, of which 28 papers published between 1984 and 2021 met the research criteria. Papers vary according to methodology (interview, focus group conversation, survey, case study, intervention programme and good practice) and disability group (general or specific). Resilience is interpreted in two ways: as a personality trait or a consequence. Four types of papers could be detected which dealt with the target group, specifically papers focusing on children, parents, teachers and professionals, and intervention programmes with multiple focuses. In conclusion, resilience is an element of parental involvement, either as a personality trait or a result. It is indispensable for the successful development of children in terms of academic and non-academic achievement as well. Programmes providing a wider collaboration with actors involved in the development of children seem to be more effective. In general practice, whether the goal is to build upon resilience as a personality trait or target its development as a consequence, strong collaboration between the parents, teachers and professionals concerned in the process can significantly contribute to the child's psychological, emotional and academic development.
... Similarly, positive correlations between character strengths and SWB have been found both in cross-sectional (Botha & Mostert, 2014;Douglass & Duffy, 2015;Harzer & Ruch, 2013;Huber et al., 2017;Linley et al., 2010;Littman-Ovadia et al., 2017;Proctor et al., 2011) and longitudinal studies (Wood et al., 2011). ...
... Our results regarding the relationship between virtues/character strengths and SWB are relatively similar to previous studies (Botha & Mostert, 2014;Douglass & Duffy, 2015;Harzer & Ruch, 2013;Huber et al., 2017;Linley et al., 2010;Littman-Ovadia et al., 2017;Proctor et al., 2011;Wood et al., 2011). Our highest correlation coefficients (hope, zest, and perspective) are somewhat similar to the studies by Lounsbury et al. (2009) andJackson et al. (2014), in which zest and hope are two of the highest correlations with SWB. ...
Chapter
Harmony is recognized as fundamental to being and functioning well in philosophical traditions and empirical research globally and in Africa. The aim of this study was to explore and describe harmony as a quality of happiness in South Africa (N = 585) and Ghana (N = 420). Using a qualitative descriptive research design, participants’ responses to an open-ended question from the Eudaimonic-Hedonic Happiness Investigation (EHHI, Delle Fave et al., Soc Indic Res 100:185–207, 2011) on what happiness meant to them were coded according to the formalized EHHI coding manual. Responses that were assigned any of the following codes were considered: codes from the “harmony/balance” category in the “psychological definitions” life domain; and codes from any other life domain containing the words “harmony”, “balance”, or “peace”. This resulted in 222 verbatim responses from South Africa and 80 from Ghana that were analyzed using content analysis to get a sense of the experiential texture of harmony as a quality of happiness. Findings showed that happiness was often expressed as harmony and balance within and between intrapersonal, interpersonal, transcendental, and universal levels of functioning, with wholeness, interconnectedness, and synergy implied. These findings, resonating with philosophical reflections on harmony from Africa and elsewhere, suggest that harmony as a quality of happiness is essentially holistic and contextually embedded and that context-sensitive interdisciplinary approaches to theory building and intervention development pertaining to harmony are needed locally and globally.
... Similarly, positive correlations between character strengths and SWB have been found both in cross-sectional (Botha & Mostert, 2014;Douglass & Duffy, 2015;Harzer & Ruch, 2013;Huber et al., 2017;Linley et al., 2010;Littman-Ovadia et al., 2017;Proctor et al., 2011) and longitudinal studies (Wood et al., 2011). ...
... Our results regarding the relationship between virtues/character strengths and SWB are relatively similar to previous studies (Botha & Mostert, 2014;Douglass & Duffy, 2015;Harzer & Ruch, 2013;Huber et al., 2017;Linley et al., 2010;Littman-Ovadia et al., 2017;Proctor et al., 2011;Wood et al., 2011). Our highest correlation coefficients (hope, zest, and perspective) are somewhat similar to the studies by Lounsbury et al. (2009) andJackson et al. (2014), in which zest and hope are two of the highest correlations with SWB. ...
Chapter
Positive mental health, and the validity of its assessment instruments, are largely unexplored in the Ghanaian context. This study examined the factor structure of the Twi version of the Mental Health Continuum-Short Form and explored the prevalence of positive mental health in a sample of rural Ghanaian adults (N = 444). A bifactor exploratory structural equation modelling (ESEM) model fit the data better than competing models (confirmatory factor analysis [CFA], bifactor CFA, and ESEM models). We found a high omega reliability coefficient for the general positive mental health factor (ω = .97) and marginal reliability scores for the emotional (ω = .51) and social well-being (ω = .57) subscales, but a low reliability score for the psychological well-being subscale (ω = .41). Findings support the existence of a general mental health factor, and confirm the underlying three-dimensional structure of mental health, but suggest that caution should be applied when interpreting subscale scores, especially for the psychological well-being subscale. Based on Keyes’s criteria for the categorical diagnosis of the presence of positive mental health, 25.5% of the sample were flourishing, with 74.5% functioning at suboptimal levels (31.1% languishing, 41.4% with moderate mental health) and may benefit from contextually relevant positive psychological interventions, which may also buffer against psychopathology.
... However, classifying character strengths is more descriptive than prescriptive; individuals can resonate articulating their strengths through various methods, but there is no one conclusive approach or framework for application (Niemiec, 2013;Ruch, Niemiec, McGrath, Gander, & Proyer, 2020). Using strengths-based coaching with congruence to values has been generally validated and adopted for use in positive psychology interventions for well-being; in coaching, it is subjectively experienced (Fouracres & van Nieuwerburgh, 2020;Green & Palmer, 2019;Linley, Nielsen, Gillett, & Biswas-Diener, 2010;Ruch et al., 2020;Seligman, Steen, Park, & Peterson, 2005). In another method to evaluate values Passmore (2012) recommends psychometric assessments to understand individual values within the workplace culture for alignment. ...
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Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis was applied to explore coaches’ experience using a values-based coaching framework within an international non-profit organisation. The ‘Coaching for Alignment’ model facilitated values-based coaching through semi-structured interviews; the subjective experience and phenomenological thinking of values were explored. The participants' experience provided emergent themes of thought provocation, empowerment, and discomfort through the coaching dialogue. Preliminary insight into how coaching for values can support the coaches’ development in realising values congruence, interpreted through a positive psychology coaching lens, is offered. Values-based coaching in non-profits organisations can encourage self-reflection and empowerment in coaches supporting organisational coaching programmes.
... This involved asking a range of questions, such as the athlete's background, journey in the sport, and their career highs to date. Although there was a focus on a strengths-based approach to consultancy (Linley et al., 2010;Ludlam et al., 2015;Zhang et al., 2017), in line with the athlete's awareness of psychology and why someone would work with a psychologist, at times, there was a focus on deficit in the responses. There were a number of themes arising from the intake process; these included the chance to enhance the athlete's psychological literacy, to help them manage performance anxiety, to gain greater emotional control in competition or when under situations of stress, and finally, the opportunity to better balance the competing demands of sport and education at a critical time in the athlete's career. ...
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This article shares a joint reflection of three practitioners who provided specialist support to one elite motor sport athlete. The 9-month program began with the broad aim of making the driver better prepared for performance at the highest level using the practitioners’ experience. One practitioner specialized in athlete well-being and performance support, another in vision/perceptual training, and the final practitioner in heart rate variability. The practitioners developed a bespoke program of support, including vision training, slow-paced breathing, and self-awareness. Program effectiveness was determined through objective measures, such as physiological readings and subjective measures, including feedback from the driver and performance coach. Evaluation and reflections of the program suggest that the athlete successfully learned slow-paced breathing, improved functional vision, and enhanced preperformance preparation and in-race regulation. The athlete also perceived the support to be beneficial and had the desire to develop mind–body effectiveness in the future.
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The VIA Inventory of Strengths has become the most widely used instrument in the world for measuring the construct referred to character strengths. However, several limitations were noted in its original development. In response, the VIA Assessment Suite for Adults was developed as a battery of instruments intended to address those gaps. The suite includes two inventories providing dimensional measures of the character strengths: the VIA Inventory of Strengths-Revised and the Global Assessment of Character Strengths. Short forms were also developed for each. So far, five reasonably sized samples of adults (total N = 7,924) have provided evidence for the empirical validity of some subset of these instruments, making them the most thoroughly vetted measures of character strengths available today. This article aggregates previously available and new findings on their construct validity. Evidence concerning substantive validity, structural validity, and external validity is reviewed, and in some cases aggregated across samples. The findings generally support the construct validity of the instruments evaluated according to all three standards, with exceptions noted. Recommendations are offered for their use in research and applied settings.
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