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A developmental and holistic perspective on athletic career development

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... In addition, developed a holistic model that assumes the interactivity and interdependence of sport career transitions, which crystallized into the holistic athletic career model (HACM; Wylleman et al., 2013;Wylleman, 2019). This model reflects (a) the concurrent, interactive, and reciprocal nature of the athlete's development across six dimensions (sporting, psychological, psychosocial, academicvocational, financial, and legal); (b) the normative transitions at each of the four developmental dimensions (initiation, development, mastery, and discontinuation or retirement); and (c) an approach focused on the concept of "global career, " as well as a perspective based on the development of the "person as a whole, " extending across several different aspects. ...
... This model reflects (a) the concurrent, interactive, and reciprocal nature of the athlete's development across six dimensions (sporting, psychological, psychosocial, academicvocational, financial, and legal); (b) the normative transitions at each of the four developmental dimensions (initiation, development, mastery, and discontinuation or retirement); and (c) an approach focused on the concept of "global career, " as well as a perspective based on the development of the "person as a whole, " extending across several different aspects. This interaction between dimensions and stages makes the model dynamic, which is a differentiating element compared with others (Wylleman et al., 2013;Torregrosa et al., 2016), facilitating study of this complex reality and representing one of the dominant theoretical frameworks of the last few years (Stambulova and Wylleman, 2019). ...
... In-depth interviews were conducted based on a semi-structured script focused on the psychological, psychosocial, academicvocational and financial levels of the HACM (Wylleman et al., 2013). The script addressed topics like the athletes' personal experiences in relation to DC, their sources of support, their motivations in relation to work, or their sources of income, following the underlying model that worked as a lens to (Debois et al., 2015). ...
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Researchers have studied the athletes’ dual career with the aim of helping them to combine the sport and the academic-vocational sphere. Most of these researches have addressed the study-sport combination, but there is a lack of studies on the work-sport combination. The main objective of this research is to explore the subjective perception of Spanish elite athletes when attempting to combine their career as professional athletes with a second profession or trade. Further, this study aims to identify the access to facilitating resources and the perception of obstacles and barriers to the development of a dual career. A qualitative approach has been chosen to address these research questions. Interpretative phenomenological analysis has been carried out on a sample of 18 elite athletes and the data has been collected using semi-structured interviews based on a set of superordinate and subordinate categories. The results showed that the athletes interviewed possess valuable resources such as the transference of sport values to the work sphere. However, important barriers, were highlighted such as the perception of sport institutions as absent entities in the work-sport combination. Thus, the study of this type of dual career seems to be one of the challenges for the interested scientific community for the next years.
... The Holistic Athlete Career model colleagues (2004, 2013) expanded upon previous work outlining normative transitions at the athletic level by also considering non-athletic domains. They suggest that athletes may experience different stages of development in five domains: athletic, psychological, psychosocial, academic/vocational, and financial (Wylleman, Reints, & De Knop, 2013). An adapted version of their model is shown in Figure 3.1, which highlights the stages of transition and, with a red rectangle, the anticipated transitions which may occur throughout athletes' careers. ...
... Wylleman and colleagues identify that following a period of time at the childhood level, which is characterized by the degree of their interest in competitive sport and their understanding of their role, responsibility, and relationships within their sport, athletes will transition into a stage of adolescence at the age of approximately 12. During adolescence, athletes are confronted with several developmental tasks which have to be managed effectively to ensure maturity, including managing and developing new and more mature relationships with peers, developing a masculine or feminine role in society, and attaining emotional independence from parents and others (Wylleman et al., 2004(Wylleman et al., , 2013. Athletes also start to develop an athletic identity. ...
... colleagues (2004, 2013) emphasized that the transition into (semi-professional) sport may occur at an earlier stage for some athletes than others. Additionally, they emphasize that, for some, if they have semi-professional status, they may also have to have additional vocational employment to fund their sport, creating additional pressure to balance competing demands on time (Wylleman et al. 2004(Wylleman et al. , 2013). ...
... Una de las dificultades añadidas en la gestión de las transiciones de la carrera deportiva es cuando se produce una concurrencia entre varias transiciones (Wylleman, Reints, & De Knop 2013). Se ha identificado que la transición cultural puede concurrir con transiciones en otros ámbitos de la vida del deportista (Ryba et al., 2015;Schinke, Stambulova, Si, & Moore, 2018) tal como sucede, por ejemplo, en las trayectorias de carrera deportiva (Pallarés, Azócar, Torregrosa, Selva, & Ramis, 2011), la carrera dual (e.g., Sánchez-Pato, 2015), y en la transición hacia la retirada (e.g., Javerlhiac, Pardo, Bodin, & Fernández, 2010). ...
... Se ha identificado que la transición cultural puede concurrir con transiciones en otros ámbitos de la vida del deportista (Ryba et al., 2015;Schinke, Stambulova, Si, & Moore, 2018) tal como sucede, por ejemplo, en las trayectorias de carrera deportiva (Pallarés, Azócar, Torregrosa, Selva, & Ramis, 2011), la carrera dual (e.g., Sánchez-Pato, 2015), y en la transición hacia la retirada (e.g., Javerlhiac, Pardo, Bodin, & Fernández, 2010). Siguiendo el modelo holístico de carrera deportiva (Wylleman et al., 2013), al transitar de una cultura a otra pueden concurrir transiciones a nivel psicológico (e.g., de la adolescencia a la juventud), psicosocial (e.g., de vivir con la familia a vivir en una residencia deportiva), educativo (e.g., del bachillerato a una universidad extranjera), laboral (e.g., ser profesional en equipos extranjeros), económico (e.g., contrato laboral) y legal (e.g., obtención de otra nacionalidad). Esta concurrencia entre transiciones puede generar dificultades al momento de gestionar, de manera efectiva, el proceso de adaptación durante la migración (Ryba et al., 2018). ...
... De acuerdo con el objetivo de investigación, este artículo se abordó desde una perspectiva postpositivista (Poucher, Tamminen, Caron, & Sweet, 2019). La evidencia empírica revisada y sintetizada fue analizada deductivamente desde marcos teóricos previamente establecidos, como el modelo de transiciones de carrera deportiva (Stambulova, 2003) y el modelo holístico de la carrera deportiva (Wylleman et al., 2013). ...
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The aim of the present study is to identify and synthesize the facilitators of the cultural transition of migrant athletes using a meta-synthesis. A meta-synthesis is a secondary analysis of primary qualitative research to reveal new knowledge concerning a specific phenomenon, the cultural transition in this case. A systematic research was performed in the databases SCOPUS, Web of Science, PsycINFO, SPORTDiscus, Scielo and Redalyc. The review included a total of 18 studies written in English (n =16) or Portuguese (n = 2). Five themes, that involve the facilitating factors was identified from the deductive thematic analysis synthetized in two categories: external and internal resources. External resources comprise (a) inclusive sociocultural context and (b) social support networks. Moreover, the internal resources include (c) migrant identity, (d) language, and (e) sport career abroad competencies. These results highlight the reciprocal nature of this transition characterized by the mutual influence between the sociocultural context and the migrant athlete. Considering that most of these studies were conducted in the receiving countries (n =16) and with samples of male participants (n = 16), future research conducted with female migrant athletes and from the perspective of the sending countries are required. Finally, practical recommendations to generate support strategies based on the cultural praxis of Cultural Sports Psychology are suggested.
... The scientific consensus exists that in order to adequately explain athletic career development across the lifespan, a more holistic perspective should be taken. [28][29][30] Taking a step into that direction, the dual career approach adds the perspective of a secondary occupation by also considering aspects outside of sport (i.e. education and vocation). ...
... The primary objective of this study is to find a comprehensive typology of elite athletes based on the holistic perspective. [28][29][30] Following this holistic line of thought, an athlete's life situation will be investigated while taking a person-oriented approach. 31 This approach focuses on the human development and functioning as an integrated organism 32 within the person-environment system, which can be further divided into various subsystems, each consisting of interacting operating factors. ...
... To further pursue the holistic idea within athletic career development, [28][29][30] it seems useful to collect not only objective, but also subjective data, notably elite athletes' evaluation of their life situation as well as psychological or psychosocial aspects of elite athletes. Recently, a study by Cartigny et al. 61 combined the dual career approach with the psychological constructs of identity and selfefficacy. ...
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Research concerning athletic career development in high-performance sport typically uses demographic data, sport characteristics or pursuing a dual career (i.e. having an educational or vocational career simultaneous to the athletic career) to identify developmental processes. In defiance of these attempts, considerable heterogeneity remains within these subgroups of the elite athlete population. In line with the person-oriented approach, the objective of this study was to develop a comprehensive typology of athletes with similar objective life situations by considering both sport-related as well as non-sport related aspects. To this end, data were collected about athletic performance level, weekly amount of working time (i.e. sport-related activities, education, and vocation), and financial information (i.e. gross annual income and income generated from sport). Based on a sample of 733 elite athletes, a cluster analysis was performed to divide the sample into groups of similar patterns on the aforementioned factors. Five different athlete patterns were found: (1) working dual career athletes, (2) high-income professional athletes, (3) medium-income professional athletes, (4) family-supported athletes, and (5) student dual career athletes. These findings support the dual career literature of separating dual career ( Cluster 1 and Cluster 5) from single career athletes, which, in turn, should also not be regarded as a single population, but further divided ( Cluster 2, Cluster 3, and Cluster 4). This typology may aid federations and practitioners within athletic career development in providing individual assistance for elite athletes.
... Third, we took inspiration from the context-driven practice approach (see JSPA Special Issue, 2017 edited by Schinke & Stambulova) defined as " … practice informed by reciprocal interactions between consultants, clients, and the cultural/sub-cultural contexts they are parts of" (Stambulova & Schinke, 2017, p. 131). Forth, we used the holistic athletic career model (Wylleman et al., 2013) promoting a whole person and a whole career approaches and outlining stages and transitions in athletes' athletic, psychological, psychosocial, academic-vocational, and financial developments. Fifth, we were inspired by the holistic ecological approach (Henriksen & Stambulova, 2017) advocating for a whole environment with micro-and macro-levels (e.g., club, federation), athletic and non-athletic domains (e.g., coaches, schoolmates)-all influencing athletes' career development directly or indirectly. ...
... The aforementioned study of career experiences of professional Swedish handball players (both males and females) is presented in two papers. The first paper (Ekengren et al., 2018) described players' careers stage-by-stage emphasizing changes in Swedish handball context and related changes in their athletic, psychological, psychosocial, academic-vocational and financial developments outlined in the holistic athletic career model (Wylleman et al., 2013). The holistic athletic career model served as a prototype for consolidating the players' career experiences into the empirical career model of Swedish professional handball players (the ECM-H). ...
... In this paper we shared how the idea of a career-long psychological support service in Swedish handball was crystalized and how the CPS-H was developed and validated in three focus groups with potential end-users. We didn't find any examples in the literature that could be purely followed, and therefore, we took on board basic tenets on the cultural praxis of athletes' careers (Stambulova & Ryba, 2014), the scientist-practitioner model (e.g., Shapiro, 2002), the context-driven practice approach (Schinke & Stambulova, 2017), the holistic athletic career model (Wylleman et al., 2013), and the holistic ecological approach (Henriksen & Stambulova, 2017), complemented by recent focus on athletes' mental health in relation to their career development (Henriksen, Schinke et al., 2020;Schinke et al., 2018;Stambulova, 2017). We also relied on good practice examples from career assistance literature (e.g., Torregrossa et al., 2020). ...
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The authors of this paper share how they developed and validated an applied framework termed the career-long psychological support services in Swedish handball (CPS-H). The CPS-H is grounded in career research within Swedish handball and examples of efficient career assistance practice complemented by applied experiences of the first author. The authors used a heuristic approach to sketch the CPS-H initial version, which later was validated in three focus groups with end-users (handball players, coaches, and sport psychology practitioners) and transformed into the validated CPS-H. Promoting a combination of the proactive, educational, whole career, whole environment, and whole person approaches, the framework is structured as having interrelated parts addressing questions: where (changes in the contexts), when (ages, career stages), what (athletes’ needs and potential working issues), who (support providers), why (philosophy shared by the stakeholders), and how (forms of services) of psychological support. The authors further reflect on the CPS-H and its implementation and provide general and stage-specific recommendations for support providers. Although the CPS-H is contextualized in a specific sport and culture, some lessons can be applicable across countries and sport boarders.
... Athletic career development and transitions research has evolved over the last three decades, with greater emphasis being placed on athletes' within-career transitions and the adoption of a whole person approach by exploring a range of contextual factors influencing athletes engagement and progression within sport (Stambulova et al., 2009). Among the available career development frameworks, the holistic athletic career model (HAC) (Wylleman et al., 2013) has been recognized as the most comprehensive. The model highlights the transitions within an athlete's career across four stages: initiation (from 6 to 7 years), development (from 12 to 13 years), mastery (from 18 to 19 years), and discontinuation (from 28 to 30 years) (Wylleman and Rosier, 2016). ...
... The study was underpinned by the holistic athletic career model (HAC) (Wylleman et al., 2013). This study was grounded in an interpretivist philosophy, underpinned by ontological relativism and epistemological constructionism. ...
... All interviews were digitally recorded and were transcribed verbatim. The semi-structured interview guide was grounded on previous literature on athlete development and transitions in sport (Côté et al., 2007;Wylleman et al., 2013). The interview began with a general discussion of the participant's background information as listed within the demographic questionnaire (e.g., "What primary/secondary school or university did you attend etc.?"), to enable the participant to become comfortable with the interviewee and research process. ...
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Anecdotal reports within the Caribbean track and field fraternity have revealed that there is a high level of athlete dropout from competitive sport at the junior-elite level, and a poor transition to senior-elite status. Consequently, this qualitative investigation explored the key motives that may have contributed towards the unsuccessful transitions and ensuing dropout of Caribbean track and field athletes during the junior to senior transition period. Eleven former junior-elite track and field athletes (4 males, 7 females; Mage = 29, SD ± 4.2 years) from 4 English-speaking Caribbean islands participated in semi-structured interviews. Following an inductive and deductive thematic analysis, four higher order themes were identified: 1) “there’s not enough support”; 2) “felt pressure to make sure I committed”; 3) “it’s always competitive here”; and 4) “battle with the injuries”. For these former junior-elite Caribbean athletes, the decision on whether to continue within the sport was influenced by a combination of factors, although inadequate financial and organizational support had the most bearing on athletes’ decision to drop out during the crucial transition years. Implications for consideration by key stakeholders and policymakers within the region are discussed.
... This means that transitions occurring in one domain (e.g., athletic development) are concurrent and interact with transitions occurring in another domain of an athlete's life (e.g., academic studies). Therefore, although practitioners may instinctively focus on assessing and monitoring measures of physical performance, for the holistic development of youth athletes, it is imperative that considerations are also given to the academic/vocational, psychosocial and psychological domains [14]. ...
... More specifically, to ensure this healthy all-round development and minimise the potential negative impacts of intensified youth sport programmes highlighted above, a dual-career approach to athlete development has been encouraged. This proposes that youth athletes must successfully develop their athletic career alongside pursuing education and/or vocation, and other domains (e.g., social life [10,13,14]). Indeed, the combination of sport and education or vocational endeavours has been shown to have benefits such as improving coping with adversity, protecting against poor mental health or burnout, and maintaining perspective for athletes [15][16][17][18]. ...
... In light of the multiple and wide-ranging potential impacts of intensified youth sport programmes, the need for a holistic approach to an athlete's development has recently been advocated [10][11][12][13]. In response to these calls, researchers have increasingly followed Wylleman's [14] Holistic Athletic Career model where for healthy, all-round development, youth sport programmes should embrace the multidimensional nature of youth athlete development. As conceptualised by the Holistic Athletic Career model [14], throughout their sporting careers there are constant combination of competitive sports, education, and accommodation, sports schools could guarantee conditions that favour future top sporting performances while safeguarding opportunities for primary and secondary education [22] alongside allowing for more 'free time' through optimised time-schedules. ...
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Background To understand the multiple and wide-ranging impacts of intensified youth sport, the need for a holistic approach to athlete development has recently been advocated. Sports schools are an increasingly popular operationalisation of intensified youth sport, aiming to offer an optimal environment for holistic development by combining sport and education. Yet, no study has systematically explored the impacts associated with sports schools. Objectives The aims of this mixed method systematic review were to (1) determine the characteristics and features of sports schools; (2) identify the methods used to evaluate sports school impacts, and (3) evaluate the positive and negative holistic athlete development impacts associated with sports school programme involvement. Methods Adhering to PRISMA guidelines, eight electronic databases were searched until the final return in February 2021. Forty-six articles satisfied the inclusion criteria, were analysed thematically, and synthesised using a narrative approach. The methodological quality of included studies was assessed using the Mixed Methods Appraisal Tool. Results Findings indicated (1) sports school student-athletes receive considerable support in terms of academic and athletic services, more intensified training and competition schedules with high-level training partners, but regularly miss school; (2) multiple methods have been used to evaluate student-athlete impacts, making comparison across studies and developing consensus on the impacts of sports schools difficult; and (3) there are a multitude of immediate, short- and long-term positive and negative impacts associated with the academic/vocational, athletic/physical, psychosocial and psychological development of sports school student-athletes. Conclusions This study is the first to systematically review the research literature to understand the impacts associated with sports schools in terms of holistic athlete development. Practitioners should be aware that they can promote (positive) and negate (negative) health impacts through the design of an appropriate learning environment that simultaneously balances multiple training, academic, psychosocial and psychological factors that can be challenging for youth athletes. We recommend that practitioners aim to design and implement monitoring and evaluation tools that assess the holistic development of student-athletes within their sports schools to ensure they are promoting all-round and healthy youth athlete development.
... Career transition models differ from talent development models since the first mentioned describe factors, demands, coping processes and consequences of transition periods compared to development models, which focus on specific influential factors needed during a developmental stage (Coutinho et al., 2016). Consequently, the LTAD model was developed from a talent development perspective, while the transitioning perspective advanced a holistic view on athletic career development (Wing Hong To et al., 2013;Wylleman et al., 2013). A dearth of research emphasizes both perspectives simultaneously, therefore this study incorporated both models of athlete developmental pathways to investigate the combined elements that describe South African student-athletes' pathways. ...
... Alferman and Stambulova (2017) elaborated that the holistic development model defines athletes proceeding through career stages with specific transitions apparent throughout the athletic career. The transitions athletes experience are categorized according to the degree of predictability and labeled as normative or non-normative (Wylleman et al., 2013). Normative transitions are predictable and anticipated, and include, for example, the transition of athletes from junior to senior competition, from secondary to tertiary education (Wylleman et al., 2013). ...
... The transitions athletes experience are categorized according to the degree of predictability and labeled as normative or non-normative (Wylleman et al., 2013). Normative transitions are predictable and anticipated, and include, for example, the transition of athletes from junior to senior competition, from secondary to tertiary education (Wylleman et al., 2013). In contrast, non-normative transitions are unpredictable, unanticipated, and involuntary such as a serious injury, loss of a coach or being left out of the team (Wylleman et al., 2013). ...
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The past two decades witnessed increased participation in professional as well as amateur sport, giving impetus to concomitant amplified interest in long-term athlete development (LTAD). LTAD has been described as the structured and progressive growth of an athlete through different stages of development resulting in some athletes achieving elite sport status. Furthermore, the interest in athletic career development from a holistic perspective has contributed to management approaches underscoring sustainable talent development and participation in sport. The current study investigated youth sports development pathways through both models of development within a South African context. A descriptive quantitative cross-sectional design was used to generate a convenient sample of athletes (N = 267). The Talent Development Environment Questionnaire (TDEQ) was administered, which in previous studies produced acceptable psychometric properties. Principal factor analysis, confirmatory factor analysis, Monte Carlo parallel simulation, MANOVA, and hierarchical regression were performed to analyze the data. The TDEQ was validated for the South African context and was found to measure four components, namely supportive and challenging environment, development fundamentals, support networks, and long-term development. Respondents in the various developmental categories of novice, advanced and elite student-athletes were not statistically significantly influenced by any of the four factors. Controlling for the talent developmental phase, the model proposed did not statistically significantly predict the development pathway of youth athletes. The results provide evidence with some practical significance as supportive and challenging environment and long-term development focus reported a small effect. Further research is warranted to develop a more suitable measuring instrument to measure the talent development pathway within the investigated athlete environment.
... Athletes competing in individual sports initiate the JST process when they start or are about to start participating in senior competitions, while team sports athletes start the process of JST when they begin or are about to begin practising and playing with a senior team (Stambulova, 2009). Throughout this period, it is important to recognise that athletes face a variety of demands and challenges across their sporting, psychological, psychosocial and academic/vocational development (Franck et al., 2018;Stambulova et al., 2020;Wylleman et al., 2013;Wylleman, 2019). ...
... While a review of the athletic career research to date is beyond the scope of this paper, Stambulova et al. (2020) have recently provided a detailed overview of the evolution of this body of research incorporating the major conceptualisations established within career transitions including the JST. This work highlighted a framework (Franck et al., 2018) that integrates the holistic athletic career model (Wylleman et al., 2013), the athletic career transition model (Stambulova, 2003) and the ecological perspective . The review also outlines specific phases that are important within the process of the JST: orientation, adaptation and stabilisation . ...
... In addition, the athletic career transition model was the basis for the development of the TMS (Stambulova et al., 2012). Second, the holistic athletic career model (Wylleman et al., 2013) provides an insight into the athletes' development, describing the "whole-person" approach. Stambulova's (2003Stambulova's ( , 2009) athletic career transition model describes this transition process, outlining the need for athletes to cope with a set of transition demands. ...
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The aim of this study was to investigate which factors contribute to the quality of the junior-to-senior transition (JST) which includes adjustment to senior level, sport and life satisfaction in Greek athletes. The sample consisted of 177 aspiring young Greek athletes who were in the process of JST. Participants completed a Greek version of the Transition Monitoring Survey (TMS) developed by Stambulova et al. (Stambulova, N., Franck, A., & Weibull, F. (2012). Assessment of the transition from junior-to-senior sports in Swedish athletes. International Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 10(2), 79-95). Multiple regressions were used to assess how key factors related to the JST contribute to the adjustment of athletes to senior level in sport, to their sport and life satisfaction. Results showed that personal resources (p < .0001), environmental support (p = .008) and transition demands (p = .02) were the strongest predictors of adjustment to senior level in sport. To facilitate the JST process, special attention needs to be given to the development of personal resources prior to the JST. Given the significant role demands play in adjustment, an environment which adopts an approach of "supported challenge" can help athletes be better prepared for the JST and facilitate progression towards senior level.
... In line with our philosophical position, the guides' semi-structured nature afforded the interviewer flexibility to ask a standardized set of questions and explore responses of interest where appropriate (Patton, 2015). The questions and prompts were underpinned by CMRT (e.g., transition demands and their situational properties; Lazarus, 1999), whilst also drawing on principles from transition models (e.g., concurrent transitions; Wylleman et al., 2013). ...
... Given their frequency and perceived importance in holistic athlete development, researchers have begun to examine the demands associated with within-career transitions (e.g., Henriksen et al., 2020;Wylleman et al., 2013). These investigations have so far provided a better understanding of the potentially adaptive or debilitative nature of within-career transition experiences (see Drew et al., 2019). ...
... Recently, researchers have begun to move beyond individual-focused models of transition (e.g., Wylleman et al., 2013) and investigate wider organizational culture or athletic talent development environments (ATDEs; Henriksen et al., 2020) in which transitions occur (e.g., JST; Morris et al., 2015). They have found in football organizations where the academy and senior team's talent development philosophies are incongruent, players do not receive the required psychosocial support to make a successful transition . ...
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Athletes experience a number of within-career transitions that expose them to a multitude of demands. The club-to-international transition (CIT) is one transition that has received minimal attention. Through cognitive-motivational-relational-theory (CMRT), we sought to address this gap by exploring the psychosocial demands, and their situational properties, football (soccer) players experience during the CIT. Fourteen age-group international players, and 10 coaches (four club; six international) were interviewed. Using thematic analysis, a range of performance (e.g., competition intensity), organizational (e.g., new organizational culture), and personal demands (e.g., evolving identity), and situational properties (e.g., novelty, ambiguity) were identified. Further, the CIT was perceived as a unique adversity, due to its fluctuating and ambiguous nature. For example, international selection is never guaranteed and is predicated on current performance at club and international level. To positively negotiate this transition, we suggest players need to develop key psychological resources (e.g., mental toughness, resilience) and rely on organizational relationships (e.g., clear feedback processes), which assist them in taking ownership over their development. Our research has worldwide reach through offering international level organizations novel insights to help support players making the CIT and facilitate bespoke interventions that will positively impact both individual player development and long-term performance success. Lay summary: We explored the psychosocial demands experienced by international youth footballers’ during the club-to-international transition. This transition was defined as an ongoing journey, with many ups and downs and no guaranteed outcome. A range of personal, organizational, and performance demands associated with ‘being an international footballer’ were also identified. • Implications for Practice • Relevant stakeholders need to be educated about the demands associated with the CIT and its effective management in order to facilitate a more positive and successful CIT experience. • Applied sport psychologists and coaches should convey strategies for the development of personal characteristics in players (e.g., mental toughness, resilience) that facilitate positive adaptations to CIT demands and thus support youth development. • National Governing Bodies (NGBs) in international football should develop a structured feedback process, involving clear communication channels between the player, international coach, and club coach regarding players’ needs during the CIT.
... En este estudio se ha tratado de conocer si una circunstancia concreta, que los progenitores de los deportistas de élite poseyeran o no EESS, podría relacionarse con que estos eligieran realizar CD y cómo realizarla. Para ello, nos hemos basado en el Modelo Holístico de Carrera Deportiva (Wylleman et al., 2013), que es considerado el modelo dominante actual en este tipo de investigación (Stambulova et al., 2019). Los resultados muestran que el que los progenitores de los deportistas de élite posean EESS, otorga unas ventajas implícitas a la hora de realizar CD (i.e. ...
... La investigación se centró en el nivel Psicológico, Psicosocial y Académico-Vocacional del modelode Wylleman et al. (2013). El fin fue explorar la percepción personal del deportista respecto a cómo podía influirles el hecho de que sus padres poseyeran o no (EESS) para hacer CD. ...
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The main aim of this study is to explore the relation of the educational level of the parents in the development of the elite athletes’ dual career. For this purpose, a qualitative study was designed through personal interviews with a sample of 20 athletes (10 retired and 10 active). Subsequently, a content analysis was carried out combining deductive and inductive approaches, and different representative categories were obtained. The results show that those athletes whose parents had a higher education develop a dual career including university studies. In addition, they usually choose a university degree not linked to sports, which seems to give them a multidimensional identity that facilitates the withdrawal of their sporting career. On the other hand, athletes whose parents did not have higher education, when they opt for a dual career, they do so by studying university degrees linked to sports, officially and non officially sanctioned-non regulated by law nor approved by the Education Ministry. This favors a one-dimensional identity exclusively focused on sports, hampering the transition to the athletic retirement.
... A pesar de lo expuesto en los dos párrafos anteriores, nuestra posición es que resulta difícil justificar una concepción puramente meritocrática del deporte y de la educación. Son diversas las publicaciones que, desde hace varias décadas, vienen señalando que el éxito deportivo no es únicamente individual, es decir, que no sólo depende de la existencia de un determinado talento deportivo y de una férrea disciplina de trabajo, sino que también es social e institucional (Anciaux et al., 1981;Reints;De Knop, 2013;De Bosscher et al., 2015). Por otro lado, tal y como criticaron en su día Bourdieu y Passeron (2009), el sistema educativo no funciona, ni mucho menos, como una plataforma orientada a la movilidad social. ...
... A pesar de lo expuesto en los dos párrafos anteriores, nuestra posición es que resulta difícil justificar una concepción puramente meritocrática del deporte y de la educación. Son diversas las publicaciones que, desde hace varias décadas, vienen señalando que el éxito deportivo no es únicamente individual, es decir, que no sólo depende de la existencia de un determinado talento deportivo y de una férrea disciplina de trabajo, sino que también es social e institucional (Anciaux et al., 1981;Reints;De Knop, 2013;De Bosscher et al., 2015). Por otro lado, tal y como criticaron en su día Bourdieu y Passeron (2009), el sistema educativo no funciona, ni mucho menos, como una plataforma orientada a la movilidad social. ...
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Siguiendo un ritmo de vida que apenas permite el descanso y la reflexión, el colectivo de estudiantes-deportistas de élite trata de equilibrar las cada vez más exigentes demandas del deporte de alta competición, los estudios y las relaciones sociales. Partiendo del trabajo realizado por Hartmut Rosa, este ensayo teórico se propone reflexionar sobre la configuración temporal de las sociedades "desarrolladas" y su efecto sobre el deporte y la educación. Por otro lado, se plantea una discusión sobre algunas repercusiones que, a partir de dicho régimen temporal, pueden afectar al colectivo de estudiantes-deportistas. El artículo finaliza animando al desarrollo de investigaciones que profundicen sobre la influencia de las sociedades aceleradas sobre el deporte de élite y la educación, y señala una serie de propuestas para la acción que, alineadas con investigaciones anteriores, pueden desarrollarse a nivel individual, psicosocial y político-cultural.
... Research (e.g., Stambulova & Ryba, 2013;Wylleman & Reints, 2010), however, has also indicated that this combination of high-level sport and education or work is one of the main challenges facing talented and elite athletes in the Member States in Europe because it involves athletes balancing a number of domains of their life and needing to give appropriate attention to each of these areas to be successful. To conceptualize further, Wylleman, Reints and De Knop (2013) indicated that the dual career 'education and sport' pathway is not uniform and consistent, but actually consists of a series of different stages and transitions (see Figure 1). ...
... From a holistic perspective, research has indicated that dual career athletes may not only be faced with challenges at academic and athletic level, but throughout their dual career, including at psychological, psychosocial, and financial levels (Wylleman et al., 2013). ...
... Research (e.g., Stambulova & Ryba, 2013;Wylleman & Reints, 2010), however, has also indicated that this combination of high-level sport and education or work is one of the main challenges facing talented and elite athletes in the Member States in Europe because it involves athletes balancing a number of domains of their life and needing to give appropriate attention to each of these areas to be successful. To conceptualize further, Wylleman, Reints and De Knop (2013) indicated that the dual career 'education and sport' pathway is not uniform and consistent, but actually consists of a series of different stages and transitions (see Figure 1). ...
... From a holistic perspective, research has indicated that dual career athletes may not only be faced with challenges at academic and athletic level, but throughout their dual career, including at psychological, psychosocial, and financial levels (Wylleman et al., 2013). ...
... Athletes' career development, based on a holistic lifespan and ecological perspectives, positions mental health as an important resource for athletes' career decisions and transitions (Schinke, Stambulova, Si, & Moore, 2018). According to the Holistic Athletic Career Model (Wylleman, Reints, & De Knop, 2013), youth soccer players must deal with normative career transitions (i.e., simultaneous transition in sport and education), quasi-normative transitions (e.g., move to a training academy or club abroad), and nonnormative transitions (e.g., injury) on their pathway to the professional level. A career transition is a turning phase in athletes' development that brings a set of demands (usually appraised as stressors) and requires relevant coping strategies in order to continue in athletic and parallel careers (Van Rens, Borkoles, Farrow, & Polman, 2018). ...
... It has been acknowledged that the junior-to-senior transition is a critical phase in athletes' careers that impacts not only athletes' sporting development but also their general mental health state (Schinke et al., 2018;Wylleman et al., 2013). The current sample consisted of youth elite soccer players who were about to or had recently transitioned to the elite or professional leagues. ...
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The purpose of this study was (a) to investigate gender differences in mental health among Danish youth soccer players, (b) to discover the mental health profiles of the players, and (c) to explore how career progression and mental health are related. A total of 239 Danish youth elite soccer players ( M = 16.85, SD = 1.09) completed an online questionnaire assessing mental well-being, depression, anxiety, along with other background variables. Female players scored significantly lower on mental well-being and had four times higher odds of expressing symptoms of anxiety and depression than males. Athletes’ mental health profiles showed that most athletes experience low depression while having moderate mental well-being. Depression, anxiety, and stress scores generally increased when progressing in age, indicating that the junior–senior transition poses distinct challenges to players’ mental health, especially for female players. Different strategies to foster players’ mental health depending on their mental health profiles are proposed.
... Research (e.g., Stambulova & Ryba, 2013;Wylleman & Reints, 2010), however, has also indicated that this combination of high-level sport and education or work is one of the main challenges facing talented and elite athletes in the Member States in Europe because it involves athletes balancing a number of domains of their life and needing to give appropriate attention to each of these areas to be successful. To conceptualize further, Wylleman, Reints and De Knop (2013) indicated that the dual career 'education and sport' pathway is not uniform and consistent, but actually consists of a series of different stages and transitions (see Figure 1). ...
... From a holistic perspective, research has indicated that dual career athletes may not only be faced with challenges at academic and athletic level, but throughout their dual career, including at psychological, psychosocial, and financial levels (Wylleman et al., 2013). ...
... Research (e.g., Stambulova & Ryba, 2013;Wylleman & Reints, 2010), however, has also indicated that this combination of high-level sport and education or work is one of the main challenges facing talented and elite athletes in the Member States in Europe because it involves athletes balancing a number of domains of their life and needing to give appropriate attention to each of these areas to be successful. To conceptualize further, Wylleman, Reints and De Knop (2013) indicated that the dual career 'education and sport' pathway is not uniform and consistent, but actually consists of a series of different stages and transitions (see Figure 1). ...
... From a holistic perspective, research has indicated that dual career athletes may not only be faced with challenges at academic and athletic level, but throughout their dual career, including at psychological, psychosocial, and financial levels (Wylleman et al., 2013). ...
... 8 Second, the majority of the literature relating to dual athletes reports the existence of support 9 services but rarely extends to understand how they contribute (or not) to dual-career athletes 10 well-being and performance (Wylleman et al., 2013). Next, this paper will provide a more in-11 depth review of service-focused student-athlete research to substantiate these points and 12 further critique the literature relating to the current lack of insights relating to support 13 services and understanding their influence on dual-career athlete well-being and performance. ...
... We therefore recommend that universities allocate 8 resources to employing self-development staff, and offer resources, such as online learning 9 modules or workshops, to help student-athletes to develop soft skills (e.g., time management, 10 networking, teamwork, creative thinking, and conflict resolution). They will use these skills 11 in their student-athlete careers, and they will be critical to their transitioning to careers 12 beyond sport (Wylleman et al., 2013). 13 Place support was a service dimension with a significant positive impact on student- 1 using a staged approach in which transformative changes to student-athlete support services 2 are designed and offered progressively. ...
Article
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Purpose This paper aims to investigate capitalization support, an alternative perspective for theorizing social support in-service settings. In the service setting of the student-athlete experience, the relationships between capitalization support service dimensions (i.e. the academic, athletic, self-development and place dimensions), well-being and sports performance are examined through a transformative sport service research (TSSR) lens, a newly introduced form of transformative service research (TSR). Design/methodology/approach Data from an online survey of Australian student-athletes ( n = 867) is examined using partial least squares structural equation modeling. Findings The results support the theorized service dimensions of capitalization support, indicating their validity and relevance to the student-athlete experience. Further, the results demonstrate that all capitalization support dimensions except athletic support (i.e. academic support, place support and self-development support), have a direct effect on well-being and an indirect effect on sports performance. Originality/value This research is unique for several reasons. First, it introduces a new perspective, capitalization support, to theorizing about social support in services. Second, it is one of the first studies in both TSR and TSSR to empirically test and demonstrate a relationship between support services, well-being and performance in a single study. Insight into how to design services to optimize well-being in relation to other service objectives like performance thus emerges.
... Stressors from different life domains. Applying a holistic wholeperson perspective on athletes (Wylleman, Reints, & De Knop, 2013), we intended to assess athletes' general perception of stress stemming from the sports domain (e.g., competition, selection, pressure), the education/work domain (e.g., exams, deadlines, income), and the private life domain (e.g., relationships, daily hassles) on a scale from 1 (not at all affected) to 5 (very much affected). ...
... The languishing profile expressed stress levels above 4 (on a 5-point scale) concerning the private, sport, and educational domains. These findings highlight the need to apply a holistic whole-person view on athletes (Wylleman et al., 2013) regarding their mental health and to consider the interplay of the different life domains. Since different stressors are a natural part of every elite sports career (Arnold & Fletcher, 2012), interventions targeting stress-management and coping strategies can have beneficial effects in preventing depression (Nixdorf, Beckmann, & Nixdorf, 2019). ...
Article
Objectives The purpose of this study was (a) to investigate mental well-being and the prevalence of anxiety and depressive symptoms in Danish male and female elite athletes, (b) to identify latent profiles in athletes based on their mental health and ill health, and (c) to examine whether the different profiles vary in selected protective and risk factors concerning mental health. Methods A total of 612 Danish athletes (M = 18.99, SD = 4.29) from 18 different sports completed an online version of the Holistic Athlete Mental Health Survey that assessed well-being, depression, and anxiety together with potential risk and protective factors (e.g., injuries, stress, sleep, social support, sport environment). Results Overall, 13.9% of athletes reported moderate or severe anxiety symptoms while 21.1% reported moderate or severe depressive symptoms. Female athletes had a significantly higher prevalence of anxiety and depressive symptoms and lower mental well-being scores than male athletes. Through a latent profile analysis, three distinctive mental health profiles (flourishing, moderate mental health, languishing) were discovered. MANOVA following Kruskal-Wallis tests revealed substantial differences between these profiles regarding their perception of social support, sport environment, and stressors from different life domains. Conclusions: Danish elite athletes display similar levels of anxiety and depressive symptoms as the Danish general population. Flourishing athletes report lower stress levels, receive higher support from the private and sport domain, and perceive their sport environment as more supportive than athletes who are languishing. A tailored approach is proposed to support athletes' mental health.
... The context of education in high-performance sports requires the athlete, in addition to other demands inherent to sports training, to pursue with dedication a basic education or university degree, and this double affiliation is defined by the specific literature as a dualcareer (EC, 2012). Based on the holistic model proposed by Wylleman et al. (2013), the student-athlete's training process involves three bases: psychological development (corresponding to childhood, adolescence, and adulthood); social relationships (engagement with family members, coaches, teammates), and financial investment. The latter being fundamental for success in elite sports, defined as the first pillar of the Sport Policy factors Leading to International Sporting Success model (De Bosscher et al., 2006). ...
... International research has indicated the need to encourage a harmonious reconciliation between the several demands in the athlete's routine Miró et al., 2018;Torregrosa et al., 2016;Wylleman et al., 2013). In addition, a balanced routine is clearly important to prevent athletes from having either their academic or athletic careers jeopardized, or being penalized in their transition to the job market after the end of their career in sports (López de Subijana and Equiza Vaquero, 2018). ...
Article
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This study outlined the profile of athletes participating in the Athlete Scholarship Program of the Federal District to conduct a processual analysis of factors composing the holistic dual career model. The research sample included 25 athletes who benefited from the program in 2014. Data were collected through an online structured questionnaire about the topic under discussion. The main results indicate that the athletes present no educational delay, have high educational expectations, and that most belong to the highest socioeconomic class. Sporting and educational institutions must stimulate the organization of public policies, increasing public investments in high performance sports.
... T HROUGHOUT the athletic career, it would be extraordinary for an athlete to avoid the combination of their sporting career with either an education or a vocation. To conceptualise the overlap between educational or vocational development and sporting development, a dual career (i.e. the combination of education or vocation alongside a sporting career) has the potential to commence during compulsory education, approximately age 8-15 (depending on the sport), when young aspiring athletes transition from initiation to development stages of the athletic domain and commence their competitive sporting career (Wylleman et al., 2013). Additionally, many young athletes often continue their dual career into higher education. ...
Article
While the benefits of dual careers (i.e. the combination of education or vocation alongside a sporting career) are evident in the literature, research is still required to understand the environments that support dual career athletes. The aims of the current study are to: (a) identify the types of DCDEs present in the British system; and, (b) to provide practical considerations for dual career practitioners working within DCDEs in the UK. To achieve these aims, this study conducted documentary analysis, interviews and focus groups with dual career practitioners and experts. Results highlighted that there are eight types of DCDEs, which exist to differing extents across the UK. While the overarching UK setup reflects the overarching European one, the approaches to DCDEs are varied in England, Northern Ireland, Scotland and Wales. Based on the results, practitioners are required to navigate organisational barriers to integrating within an environment and building relationships with DC athletes. The research provides a framework for developing sport specific taxonomies and identifying gaps in dual career support.
... Oblinger-Peters and Krenn Perceptions of Tokyo 2020 Postponed whole person approach could be an important intervention for practitioners working with Olympic athletes and coaches in these challenging times (Wylleman et al., 2013;Schinke et al., 2020b;Stambulova et al., 2020). ...
Article
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The current COVID-19 pandemic has affected the entire globe, including the world of high-performance sports. Accordingly, it has been widely assumed that the thereby caused postponement of the Tokyo 2020 Olympic Games could have negative psychological impacts for aspirants, since they were halted abruptly in the pursuit of their Olympic endeavors and their daily lives drastically altered. Considering the sudden nature of the pandemic, few researchers, if any, have yet scrutinized the individual experience of Olympic aspirants. This qualitative study examines the subjective perceptions of the Tokyo 2020 Olympic Games postponement among Austrian Olympic athletes and coaches. To this end, 21 Austrian athletes (13 male, 8 female; mean age = 26.67 ± 4.93 years) and six male coaches were recruited through a criterion-based purposive sampling strategy. Five athletes had already qualified for the Olympic Games in Tokyo 2020 and 15 athletes were still in an ongoing qualification process. Data was collected by means of short written statements, elicited via open-format questions on an anonymous online survey platform. In order to infer meaning from the text, a qualitative content analysis with an interpretative focus was conducted inductively, which allowed for deriving alternative explanations of findings. The results support the notion that the Olympic postponement was experienced in myriad ways by affected participants. Three general themes comprised of several meaning units of different levels of abstraction were created from the text data. Many respondents experienced an immediate emotional reaction to the postponement characterized by confusion, disappointment and/or relief. Participants associated multiple consequences with the postponement, such as the prolongation of physical and psychological pressure, a lack of motivation, concerns about future performance, living and their occupational career, but also the opportunity for performance improvement and recovery. Respondents displayed various coping strategies, such as distancing themselves from sports, cognitive reframing, appealing for acceptance, and planning behavior. This study gleans first insights into the idiosyncratic experience of the Olympic Games 2020 postponement among Austrian aspirants. The findings could serve to assist sport psychologists in their applied practice by informing them about athletes’ and coaches’ needs in their Olympic preparation during the ongoing pandemic.
... In the clubs where data were collected-and in general in Italian football clubs-coaches usually change the team they train every year; thus both players and coaches need the ability to create a positive relationship within a very short time frame. If such an ability could be easier for adults, this would not be the same for adolescents who need to be supported in such aspects of development, especially in early adolescence (Wylleman et al., 2013). ...
Article
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Well-being in youth sport is a growing topic in literature. Practicing sports at a youth level is recognized as an important opportunity for growth and development but also an experience that conversely can prove to be tiring and cause discomfort. Sometimes expectations and pressures make it a risky experience. This is emphasized even more when looking at very popular and spectacular sports, such as football in some European Countries; practicing football often solicits the hope of becoming champions one day and thus being able living thanks to the beloved sport. How do young Italian football practitioners feel? What role do relationships with significant others belonging to the world of sport and extra-sport play on the well-being of young athletes? On which specific aspects of psychological well-being (PWB) are these relationships based? Are there any differences between elite and amateurs levels? These are the questions upon which this paper focuses, considering a sample of young Italian football practitioners. Analysis reveals a strong and positive influence of some dimensions of the relationships with significant others on PWB, specifically team effort, coach closeness, and parental learning climate. Moreover, elite players perceive significantly better relationships than sub-elite and amateurs and have significantly higher levels of PWB. Those results provide a first evidence for the importance of good relationships within and outside sport for an effective development of youth football players since they positively influence players' PWB, which is higher in elite players. It emerges the necessity to further investigate different aspects of PWB and to deepen the knowledge about the meaning of relationship in developmental athletes according to a psychosocial approach.
... That is, to provide flexible and competent support to talented athletes so that they can achieve their potential not only as sportspersons, but also as valued individuals in other domains of their lives. According to the holistic lifespan perspective (Wylleman & Lavallee, 2004) and the holistic athletic career model (Wylleman, Reints, & De Knop, 2013) athletes are considered as individuals doing sports alongside other spheres of their lives. Within this perspective, an athletic career is seen as an integral part of a life-long career. ...
Article
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In the past 30 years, there has been extended research on athletes’ career development toward a promising dual career. Present research was focused on the description of the legal and educational framework about dual career athletes in Greece, as well as on identifying the obstacles, needs and challenges of elite young and former athletes, and stakeholders in the development of their dual careers. A survey was conducted on a total of eighty-four athletes and stakeholders residents of northern, southern, and central sport destinations of Greece. Young athletes, former athletes and stakeholders completed three different questionnaires. Demographics, attitudes, preferences and actual experiences about their athletic life and career were recorded in parallel with their educational life and professional career. Data analysis supported that elite athletes in Greece neither seemed to follow a common model proposed by the state or national policy nor seemed to be supported by national legislation leading to dual-career practices. It was remarkable that sport stakeholders in Greece indicated that dual-career program remained at an early stage and more effort from all participants was required. A SWOT analysis pointed out strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats for the dual-career status in Greece. Results focused on the lack of support by the government, sports institutions, educational and market structures to link all forces successfully for a sustainable dual career program. Comparing to European sport system and strategies, the study revealed similar weaknesses and mainly the absence of an official national legislation.
... The target population in this study are student athletes aged between 15 and 19-year-old who are in the 'development' or 'mastery' stage at athletic level, puberty/adolescence at psychological level, and the 'secondary education'/ 'higher education (e.g. Year 1 and 2)' at academic and vocational level (Knight, Harwood & Sellars, 2018;Wylleman, Reints & De Knop, 2013). These helped the researchers to identify the key words for the current study. ...
Article
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Balancing between two different commitments, sport and education, has been demonstrated as one of the significant challenges for dual career athletes, namely student athletes. Since EU guidelines on dual careers of athletes was published, a number of studies have been conducted on the topic of dual careers. One of the Erasmus+ Sport projects, Dual Career for Junior Athletes (DCJA), has been designed to identify three main aspects regarding the dual career of junior athletes, aged between 15 and 19-year-old: the barriers and challenges , resources and skills, and the roles and views of the support staff of the student-athletes. Applying a twofold methodology based on the literature and the EU funded projects reviews, the findings show that there is a clear need of further research on the topic of dual career focused on the junior athletes' needs, coping strategies development, and general aspects of their life. The findings in this study will inform following studies of DCJA project to fill the research gaps identified.
... Such a perspective is predicated on the assumption that all facets of an athlete's life (i.e., family, friends, school) influence their performance and well-being (Stambulova et al., 2021). Focusing on holistic talent development has been shown to be successful across all stages of an athlete's career (see e.g., Wylleman et al., 2013), but this involves a systems or ecological conceptualisation of the athlete's environment that incorporates both micro (e.g., athletic environment) and macro-level (e.g., cultural and societal) influences (see Henriksen et al., 2010). Therefore, senior leaders in the present study may have achieved greater success in their endeavours if they had broadened their influence to incorporate the wider or whole environment (Stambulova et al., 2021). ...
Article
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Objectives The aims of this study were to explore the features of the athletic environment that influence thriving within a British Olympic and Paralympic sport organisation and to understand the interconnectedness of these factors across a range of individuals and contexts. These aims were pursued within a decentralised organisation that was undergoing a leader-led cultural change strategy. Method To develop an understanding of the environmental factors that facilitate athlete thriving, a 16-month ethnography was conducted. Data analysis consisted of reflexive thematic analysis of observational notes, reflexive diaries, and interview transcripts. The findings are presented in an ethnographic tale. Results Alongside the complexities of implementing a culture change strategy across a decentralised organisation, the ethnographic tale details three key features of the athletic environment targeted by senior leadership to successfully influence the athletes’ ability to thrive within their silos. Underpinning these factors are three interconnected themes of understanding, openness, and trust. Conclusions This study demonstrates how empowering devolved leadership was impactful for organisational culture by reducing the homogeneity of leader-centric change initiatives. Further, harnessing an organisation-wide commitment to promoting relationships founded on understanding, openness, and trust can create athletic environments that facilitate thriving. Therefore, while a decentralised structure may present challenges for promoting a duty of care, it is possible to create an environment that supports athletes to thrive.
... Taking a whole person approach (Wylleman et al, 2004;Wylleman et al., 2013) acknowledges that players not only develop and face challenges within the athletic domain, but also within the psycho-social and educational-vocational domains. As such there are likely a multitude of developmental outcomes that contribute to a players' ability and sense of preparedness to deal with life beyond soccer. ...
... It is important to re-evaluate the relevance and effectiveness of present career support programs and interventions. Practitioners are encouraged to adopt a whole-person approach, considering the various levels of development (Wylleman et al., 2013). In addition, practitioners should be aware of the concurrent transitions or change-events the athlete is experiencing (e.g., a JST accompanied by the change of a coach; see Samuel, 2013). ...
Chapter
Over the last decade, the athlete’s career transition literature has shifted from a deterministic (or linear) to a probabilistic (nonlinear) perspective. Athletes’ careers can be perceived as a roller coaster ride, shaped by transitions (i.e., normative, nonnormative, quasi-normative, dual career, cultural, crisis), a change-event, appraisals, decision-making, coping, and environmental influences. Athletes can enjoy a fruitful and meaningful career as long as they positively adapt to the various transitional periods and changes encountered, potentially creating multiple career pathways. Furthermore, research has expanded to additional sport performers, including coaches and referees. Finally, the lives of sport performers have tremendously changed in the past decade as a result of the globalization process, social media, and migration, requiring career researchers to modify existing conceptualizations. This chapter, therefore, provides a critical examination of the recent developments in the career transition and change literature, mainly focusing on critical questions to be asked and a prospective view of this field.
... Recently, the athlete career sport psychology discourse (ACD, Stambulova et al., 2021) has emerged as a "historically constructed and shared body of athlete career knowledge…providing career researchers and practitioners with common grounds to understand each other, communicate, and cooperate on different levels" (Stambulova et al., 2021, p. 524). The foundation of the ACD includes, but is not limited to a conceptualization of: 1) the athlete as a whole person (Wylleman et al., 2013), 2) athletic development and (Wylleman, 2019) athletic environments as holistic (Henriksen et al., 2010), 3) the athletic career as only part of the life experience (Stambulova & Wylleman, 2014), and 4) career transitions as turning phases in career development (Stambulova & Samuel, 2020). ...
Thesis
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The aim of this PhD Project was to explore the nature of athletic talent development environments in underserved communities in the United States (UATDEs). Within sport psychology, athletic talent development is no longer in its infancy, and researchers, coaches, vested stakeholders, and athletes have dedicated significant resources to understand how such knowledge can contribute to team and individual athletic success. As such, the holistic ecological approach to athletic talent development (HEA, Henriksen et al., 2010) has emerged as a leading perspective for observing, investigating, and examining athletic talent development environments (ATDEs) by shifting attention away from individual athletes and towards the environments in which prospective athletes live and train. However, while the HEA has contributed much to our understanding of ATDEs, comparable research from a holistic perspective in the United States appears nonexistent. Consequently, the aim of this PhD Project was to explore the challenges and barriers facing ATDEs in American underserved communities and how successful environments in such communities manage to help athletes achieve athletic and personal success against the odds. Study 1 was an exploration of the career pathways to athletic success for ten American professional athletes with low socioeconomic background using a conversational career interview format. Within this study, four career stages (childhood years, middle/high school years, college years, professional years) and three themes (context, challenges, coping) were visible in the career pathways of the participants. Overall, the athletes highlighted the challenging circumstances they had to overcome to achieve athletic success, but also how developing inside a UATDE had lasting ramifications in their life. Study 2 incorporated interviews with 13 stakeholders to investigate the challenges faced and strategies implemented in UATDEs and examined how developing within such environments impacted athletes once they reached the college and professional levels of sports. The study found that those working within UATDEs must be aware of the inherent challenges the environment creates and how to best support the athletes who require increased psychosocial developmental attention. Further, the stress inducing traumatic events of their formative years will stay with them requiring that stakeholders at the university and professional levels provide support to those that need it as talent can suffer from trauma. Study 3 applied the HEA as a lens to examine a UATDE in the United States and the findings were summarized in two empirical models: 1) the CC-UATDE (community college underserved athletic talent development environment) co-constructed description, and 2) the CC- UESF (community college underserved environment success factors) functioning and outcomes. The operation of the UATDE was significantly influenced by the underserved community in which it was embedded, translating to a lack of financial and human resources, while the team’s roster was occupied by athletically talented, but psychosocially vulnerable players. These challenges were overcome, in part, by a dedicated support team as well as the cultural paradigm established by the head coach as a cultural leader. The findings of this PhD Project have theoretical, empirical, methodological, and applied implications not limited to: 1) the addition of a contextualized athletic career pathway within the United States, 2) the conceptualization of a UATDE, 3) two empirical models (the CC-UATDE and CC-UESF), 4) the understanding that athletes succeed in spite of trauma, not because of it, 5) highlighting the challenges that inherently exist in UATDEs and the strategies stakeholders can use to overcome them, and 6) recommendations for applied practitioners.
... Las transiciones no normativas son aquellos acontecimientos menos predecibles donde algunos se pueden llegar a dar con frecuencia (Alfermann y Stambulova, 2007), como las lesiones (Stambulova et al., 2009), la migración deportiva (Ely y Ronkainen, 2019), la vuelta a la práctica del deporte de élite después de una retirada temporal (Cosh et al., 2013) o el afrontamiento del confinamiento y el aplazamiento de unos juegos olímpicos (Zamora-Solé et al., 2022). Las transiciones cuasi normativas son aquellos acontecimientos más predecibles en según que categoría de deportistas, como la transición de deportistas de élite a un centro de alto rendimiento (Stambulova, 2016 Wylleman et al., 2013), permite evaluar desde una perspectiva global, a las deportistas y la relación que mantienen con los distintos niveles a lo largo de su trayectoria deportiva. Los seis niveles que proponen son: el nivel deportivo, el nivel psicológico, el nivel psicosocial, el nivel académico-vocacional, el nivel financiero y, por último, el nivel legal. ...
Article
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Changes in the Women’s Tennis Association (WTA) rulebook at the beginning of 2019 regarding the special ranking for pregnancy or parental start and the uprising in sports psychology investigations regarding this theme in elite sport, inspired this study. The aim was to explore whether the changes in the WTA regulations modifies the vision of the possibility to combine motherhood and professional tennis career in both current and former elite tennis players. Participants were 10 Spanish female elite tennis players, some mothers (n = 3) and others non-mothers (n = 7). For data collection, a semi-structured interview was used and, through thematic content analysis, three themes were defined: (a) game, set and match: is it enough just by changing the rules? (b) Centre court: to serve tennis player and mom vs. at the return tennis player and (c) warning coaching: tennis as a team sport. The results of the study revealed that motherhood and an elite tennis career is possible to combine even though it is still a feat for the mother athlete. Our study suggests strategies that could favour motherhood with an elite tennis career: (a) have the support from the athletes’ entourage, (b) having financial support or funding, (c) have some areas or rooms destined for children in tournaments and (d) provide basic services for children in tournaments. El cambio de normativa de la Women’s Tennis Association (WTA) a principios del 2019 sobre maternidad y el auge de investigaciones en psicología del deporte sobre este tema en el deporte de élite, inspiraron este estudio cuyo objetivo fue explorar si el cambio de normativa modifica la visión de la compaginación de maternidad y carrera tenística en tenistas profesionales en activo y retiradas, madres y no madres. Participaron 10 mujeres tenistas españolas, algunas madres (n = 3) y otras no (n = 7). Para la recolección de datos se utilizó una entrevista semi-estructurada y a partir de un análisis temático del contenido se definieron tres temas: (a) game, set and match: ¿es suficiente solo con cambiar la normativa? (b) Centre court: al servicio mama-tenista versus al resto tenista, y (c) warning coaching: el tenis como deporte de equipo. Los resultados revelan como las modificaciones del reglamento facilitan un primer paso hacia la compatibilización de la maternidad con el tenis de élite, pero aún hacen falta más medidas de acompañamiento como las sugeridas en este estudio: (a) contar con el apoyo del entorno psicosocial de la deportista, (b) disponer de una ayuda económica, (c) disponer de espacios para los hijos en el entorno deportivo y (d) facilitar elementos básicos para los niños en los torneos. A mudança nos regulamentos da Women's Tennis Association (WTA) no início de 2019 sobre a maternidade e o surgimento das pesquisas em psicologia do esporte sobre o assunto no esporte de elite inspiraram este estudo cujo objetivo foi explorar se a mudança nos regulamentos modifica a visão da combinação de maternidade e carreira de tênis em tenistas profissionais ativos e aposentados, mães e não mães. Participaram 10 tenistas espanholas, algumas mães (n = 3) e outras não (n = 7). Para a coleta de dados, foi utilizada uma entrevista semiestruturada e, a partir da análise temática de conteúdo, foram definidos três temas: (a) jogo, jogo e jogo: basta mudar o regulamento? (b) Quadra central: servir a jogadora-mãe contra o resto da jogadora, e (c) orientação de advertência: tênis como esporte de equipe. Os resultados revelam como as modificações nas normas facilitam um primeiro passo para compatibilizar a maternidade com o tênis de elite, mas ainda são necessárias medidas de apoio como as sugeridas neste estudo: (a) contar com o apoio do ambiente psicossocial da atleta, (b) ter auxílio financeiro, (c) ter vagas para crianças no ambiente esportivo e (d) fornecer elementos básicos para as crianças em torneios.
... Las transiciones no normativas son aquellos acontecimientos menos predecibles donde algunos se pueden llegar a dar con frecuencia (Alfermann y Stambulova, 2007), como las lesiones (Stambulova et al., 2009), la migración deportiva (Ely y Ronkainen, 2019), la vuelta a la práctica del deporte de élite después de una retirada temporal (Cosh et al., 2013) o el afrontamiento del confinamiento y el aplazamiento de unos juegos olímpicos (Zamora-Solé et al., 2022). Las transiciones cuasi normativas son aquellos acontecimientos más predecibles en según que categoría de deportistas, como la transición de deportistas de élite a un centro de alto rendimiento (Stambulova, 2016 Wylleman et al., 2013), permite evaluar desde una perspectiva global, a las deportistas y la relación que mantienen con los distintos niveles a lo largo de su trayectoria deportiva. Los seis niveles que proponen son: el nivel deportivo, el nivel psicológico, el nivel psicosocial, el nivel académico-vocacional, el nivel financiero y, por último, el nivel legal. ...
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RESUMEN El cambio de normativa de la Women's Tennis Association (WTA) a principios del 2019 sobre maternidad y el auge de investigaciones en psicología del deporte sobre este tema en el deporte de élite, inspiraron este estudio cuyo objetivo fue explorar si el cambio de normativa modifica la visión de la compaginación de maternidad y carrera deportiva en tenistas profesionales. Participaron 10 mujeres tenistas españolas, en activo y retiradas, algunas madres (n = 3) y otras no (n = 7). Para la recolección de datos se utilizó una entrevista semi-estructurada y a partir de un análisis temático del contenido se definieron tres temas: (a) game, set and match: ¿es suficiente solo con cambiar la normativa? (b) centre court: al servicio mama-tenista versus al resto tenista, y (c) warning coaching: el tenis como deporte de equipo. La interpretación de los resultados nos muestra cómo las modificaciones del reglamento facilitan un primer paso hacia la compatibilización de la maternidad con el tenis de élite, pero aún hacen falta más medidas de acompañamiento como las sugeridas en este estudio: (a) contar con el apoyo del entorno psicosocial de la deportista, (b) disponer de una ayuda económica, (c) disponer de espacios para los hijos en el entorno deportivo, y (d) facilitar elementos básicos para los niños en los torneos. Palabras clave: mujer; deportista de élite; transiciones; investigación cualitativa. ABSTRACT Changes in the Women's Tennis Association (WTA) rulebook at the beginning of 2019 regarding the special ranking for pregnancy or parental start and the uprising in sports psychology investigations regarding this theme in elite sport, inspired this study. The aim was to explore whether the changes in the WTA regulations modifies the vision of the possibility to combine motherhood and professional sports career. Participants were 10 Spanish female elite tennis players, both current and former players, some mothers (n = 3) and others non-mothers (n = 7). For data collection, a semi-structured interview was used and, through thematic content analysis, three themes were defined: (a) game, set and match: is it enough just by changing the rules? (b) centre court: to serve tennis player and mom vs. at the return tennis player and (c) warning coaching: tennis as a team sport. The interpretation of the results show how motherhood and an elite tennis career is possible to combine even though it is still a feat for the mother athlete. Our study suggests strategies that could favour motherhood with an elite tennis career: (a) have the support from the athletes' entourage, (b) having financial support or funding, (c) have some areas or rooms destined for children in tournaments, and (d) provide basic services for children in tournaments.
... The manner of these interactions could play a role in shaping irrational beliefs as they are exacerbated by key social agents whom we look to for guidance (Sharf, 1996). Adopting a whole-person and whole-environment perspective, athletes are subject to environmental influences from micro-and macro-levels of athletic and non-athletic domains which vary as the athlete transitions through their career (see the Athletic Talent Development Environment Model [Henriksen et al., 2010] and the Holistic Athlete Career Model [Wylleman et al., 2013]). The whole-person perspective frames the athlete as a person engaged in sport who has other non-sport endeavours. ...
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According to Rational Emotive Behaviour Therapy (REBT), humans have a strong biological tendency to adopt self-defeating irrational beliefs which are subsequently driven by the socio-cultural environment one lives in Ellis (J Individ Psychol 32:145–168, 1976). Sport of all levels presents a unique environment which may serve to explain sport-related irrationalities harboured by athletes given that sport seems to endorse irrationality evident by the language used by key personnel and outlets (e.g., coaches and the media; (Turner in Front Psychol 7(9):1–16, 2016. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2016.01423). An athlete’s beliefs and philosophies are shaped by a myriad of people within and outside of sport with whom they look to for guidance, such as coaches, medical professionals, parents, and the media. These key social agents within an athlete’s micro- and macro-environment harbour and model irrationality through their behaviour, language and processes. These irrationalities may then be internalized, giving rise to the development and maintenance of irrational beliefs in athletes. Research has consistently demonstrated the association between irrational beliefs and deleterious mental health outcomes in athletes, such as psychological distress (e.g., Turner in Bernard and Dryden (eds.) REBT: advances in theory, research, prevention, promotion, Springer Press, pp. 307–335, 2019). Therefore, the aim of our commentary is twofold: (1) to critically explore how key stakeholders within an athlete’s micro- and macro- environment contribute to the development, maintenance, and strengthening of irrational beliefs in athletes and, (2) to provide guidance to key stakeholders on weakening irrational beliefs and strengthening rational beliefs, thereby promoting a healthy and successful sport environment and positive mental health outcomes in athletes.
... Researchers in this area always emphasise that careers should be examined holistically (e.g. Wylleman and Lavallee, 2004;Wylleman et al., 2013). In the present study, an attempt was made to examine the vocational careers of former high-performance athletes as holistically as possible. ...
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For many high-performance athletes, competing in the Olympic Games is a major goal. Achieving this goal requires more than ever substantial investments of time and personal resources towards the sports career over several years. Thus, some athletes neglect other areas of life (e.g. education), which can pose a problem for the time after high-performance sport, while other athletes pursue a dual career. Previous studies have shown that former high-performance athletes achieved higher levels of education and better vocational positions than the general population. Due to the advancing professionalization and commercialization of high-performance sport, the question emerges whether these results are valid for athletes that are more recently retired. In addition, cross-cultural generalisability of these findings are of interest. For this purpose, 341 former athletes representing Switzerland at the Olympics were surveyed about their athletic, educational, and vocational careers. It turns out that these athletes obtained more degrees of higher education than the general population. Relative to their siblings, they have higher school-leaving certificates and work in more prestigious occupations. Following the holistic-interactionistic paradigm, person-oriented analyses was performed and revealed nine – mostly satisfactory – vocational career patterns. Hence, involvement in high-performance sport facilitates rather than hinders a successful vocational career.
... A semi-structured interview guide, inspired by a whole person approach (Wylleman et al., 2013) and migrants' developmental tasks from the temporal model of cultural transition (Ryba et al., 2016), was developed to facilitate storytelling of the first interview. Thus, athletes were invited to share their experiences related to four general sections: (a) the sports career from its beginnings to the present moment; (b) the Olympic dream and the need to migrate; (c) the management of sports and academic calendars in Colombia and at the destination; and (d) the sense of belonging and the sense of home throughout the different migratory experiences. ...
Article
Objective Despite a growing body of literature on cultural transitions, little is known regarding how emigrant elite athletes experience and intra-act with the non-human environment in the host country, and how this affects their sense of home. This study explores the relationships between the material world and the embodied narratives, both personal and socio-cultural, regarding the process of assembling a new sense of home. Design and Methods Seven Colombian emigrant elite athletes (4 female and 3 male), that emigrated pursuing the Olympic Dream, participated in this study. The philosophical concept of assemblage, from New Materialism approach, was used as a companion and extension of narrative dialogical analysis to analyse life-story interviews. Results Emigrant athletes define home as a place of refuge where they can express emotions, behave, and communicate in ways that ‘feel natural’. During cultural transitions, these athletes assembled a sense of home in two environments: the housing and the sport facilities. The relationships with (a) architectural spaces, (b) objects, (c) food, (d) technological apparels and (d) sport materiality facilitated or hindered the process of assembling a new sense of home in the host country. Conclusions The transformation of housing and the sport facilities into Home is a crucial process to improve the quality of emigrant athlete's cultural transition. A deeper appreciation of materiality in research and applied practice is needed.
... From the researchers' point of view, the results of the current study may present an important springboard for further instrument development utilising a multidimensional framework including both affective and cognitive dimensions. This could allow for a deeper understanding and provide tools to assess the engagement process from a holistic perspective (Hastie et al., 2020;Wylleman et al., 2013). ...
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Although engagement is key to predicting burnout and dropout, few existing instruments measure this phenomenon in the sports context. As part of a larger three-year Lower Secondary Sports Schools Pilot Project (LSSSPP) in Finland, we conducted two studies as part of the present research with the major aims of (a) constructing the Sport Engagement Instrument (SpEI) and (b) validating the new instrument in the Finnish dual career context. In the preparatory study, an expert panel constructed the SpEI, a questionnaire comprising 37 items intended to measure cognitive and affective sports engagement. The main study utilised questionnaire data collected from two independent samples (n1 = 992 and n2 = 465) of lower secondary school student athletes aged 13 and 14 years to validate the SpEI. Six competing factorial structures with differing numbers and subsets of the 37 items were analysed using a series of confirmatory factor analyses. The results indicate that 18 items dispersed along with four affective engagement factors and either two first-order or one second-order cognitive engagement factor described the sports engagement phenomenon most accurately in both samples. Higher levels of sport burnout correlated negatively and behavioural engagement positively with affective and cognitive dimensions of engagement, which supported the instrument’s validity. Although further validation is needed, the SpEI, in combination with coach and parental observations of changes in behavioural signs, might be useful in identifying athletes with low sports engagement and developing subsequent interventions accordingly.
... Generally speaking, the DC of an athlete begins when they are in elementary education and start to pursue a sport professionally. However, balancing sport and education becomes increasingly difficult once the athlete matures in their sport (Wylleman et al., 2013). Mentoring programmes for elite athletes aim to help the transition from a sporting career to a professional career. ...
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Research question: Many elite athletes pursue higher education or professional employment alongside their sport career. Formal mentoring relationships help athletes to balance the demands of a dual career. Thus, the purpose of this study is to investigate the interrelationship between mentoring, values conveyed in mentoring, and the satisfaction with sporting and non-sporting career goals from a mentee and mentor perspective. This research contributes to the existing literature by examining how mentoring can help athletes attain their dual career goals from a holistic perspective. Research method: Elite athletes (i.e. competing in international competitions; n=105) and business professionals who function as mentors (n = 101) are surveyed regarding their satisfaction with the mentoring relationship and career goals. Logistic regression analyses assessed the proposed interrelationships. Results and Findings: The career development function and conveying performance are positively associated with mentees’ multiple sporting and non-sporting career goals. Greater investment into mentees’ career development and the conveyance of performance and trust is positively associated with mentors’ satisfaction (i.e. supporting the mentee and achieving personal career benefits). Implications: Conveying performance as value is crucial for increased positive outcomes for mentees, such as easy integration into the workplace and society. A mentor investing more time and consideration into the mentoring relationship increases the mentor and mentee’s satisfaction. A mentoring relationship founded on trust is precious for the mentor.
... The research area emphasises athletes who combine sports and education in normal schools, sports classes, sports schools, or universities (Stambulova & Wylleman, 2015). European DC research show an emphasis on athletic career development (Stambulova et al., 2009;Wylleman et al., 2013), challenges and demands in combining sport with education (Christensen & Sørensen, 2009;Ryba et al., 2016), and risk and resilience factors related to the construction of DC pathways (Ryba et al., 2016). ...
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Student athletes are expected to succeed simultaneously in school and sports. Research findings mainly come from upper secondary and university students, while research on younger adolescent student athletes has been largely overlooked. Drawing upon rich qualitative data derived from individual interviews with student athletes from grade eight (n = 15), teachers (n = 4), principals (n = 2), and nonparticipant observations (n = 7) at five schools, this study examines how young student athletes succeed in school and sports and in combining these two. The data was analysed using collaborative qualitative data analysis to find themes describing these student athletes. The main findings indicated that most student athletes had high ambitions and showed strong orientations in their school approaches. For some student athletes, the student and athlete roles conflicted, and they prioritized sports over educational success. A similar variation in student athletes’ sport commitments was found: from having a goal to become a professional athlete to pursuing sport as a leisure activity. Student athletes in this study were in the beginning of a developmental dual career process, and they needed to be recognized as a heterogeneous group with individual pathways. Finally, the sport school provided more opportunities for practice and a flexibility in school-related issues. The findings indicated the demanding nature of the dual commitment of student athletes in lower secondary sport schools. Consequently, it is difficult to form a consistent picture that fit every context because the student athlete role is individual and to some extent conflicting.
... Dette er saerlig utbredt på videregående skole, og overgangen fra junior til senioridrett er ansett som den kanskje vanskeligste overgangen innen idrett (Stambulova, 2006;Stambulova et al., 2020). Mens denne overgangen vanligvis skjer ved rundt 19-års alder, viser Wylleman et al. (2013) til at denne overgangen kan bli ekstra kreven-de for utøvere som gjennomfører overgangen på et tidligere tidspunkt. Videre har Saether (2017) påpekt at samarbeidet mellom skole og klubblag vil vaere sentralt for spillernes utvikling. ...
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Talent development at upper secondary school: A retrospective study of youth football players experience of combining school and football The purpose of this study was to gain insight into how young football players experience combining sports-related upper secondary education with being a player at a high national level. More specifically, this study will look at players' experience of the opportunity to complete a "dual career" (Stambulova & Wylleman, 2015) in the form of time and facilitation of investment in both football and school, and regulation of organized training in the form of deliberate practice (Ericsson et al., 1993) to optimize players' opportunities for development as football players. The participants consist of eight in-formants who have all attended a sports study program in upper secondary school and were included in the senior squad of a club in Norwegian top football. The informants were interviewed about their experience of how it affected their development as football players. The results showed that the players' motives for choosing a sports discipline were mainly based on sporting motives and to a lesser extent school-related, where in many ways they consider the sports program study program only as a tool to prioritize football and increase their commitment to a football career. The players also described a large degree of facilitation for sporting development with a holistic approach, although they sometimes describe large amounts of training, which they perceived as positive for their development, but also as a tough physical strain. The results showed a clear difference in favor of the best players who had a better organized everyday life compared to players with a lower skill level. Even though the school tried to facilitate the school subjects, this arrangement worked, according to the players, somewhat worse than the sporting one. An important function in this context was that the players had a contact person between the club and the school, who arranged between the two parties, to some frustration among the teachers according to the players, who perceived that the facilitation went too far. It may seem that the sports-related fields of study fulfill their purpose of facilitation, but mainly on the basis of the sporting and to a lesser extent in relation to the school subjects, with the exception of the study-specific subjects.
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The European sport policy has been focused on fostering links between sport and education systems with the aim to establish an integrated dual career pathway for athletes who attempt to combine their athletic careers with education or work. Partners of the collaborative Erasmus+ sport project entitled “Ecology of Dual Career” (ECO-DC) conceptualized dual career development environments (DCDEs) as purposefully developed systems that aim to facilitate athletes’ investment in combining their competitive sporting career with education or work, and, therefore include both (sporting and educational or vocational) career aspects within them (Morris et al. 2020). The current study drew on national data with the aims to identify the different types of DCDEs in Finland and to evaluate the prevalence of different DCDE success features in Finnish sports high schools. Twelve types of DCDEs were identified which can be categorized into sports based, education based and work based environments. To evaluate success features of the sports high school´s environment, 48 support staff members (e.g., teachers, coaches, principals, physiotherapists) and 21 student-athletes participated in the online survey. Strengths of the Finnish sports high schools, as evaluated by the support staff and student-athletes, were dual career support team, access to expert support, empowerment approach and flexible dual career solutions. The support staff evaluated the whole person approach, flexible dual career solutions and care of dual career athletes’ mental health and well-being higher compared to student-athletes’ evaluations. Keywords: Athlete development, dual career, sports high schools
Article
Aim Dual career development environments (DCDEs) support athletes' effort in combining their competitive sporting careers with education or work. The characteristics of the environments may differ across cultures. The aim was to identify essential features of DCDEs based on a cross-case analysis of seven European DCDEs in Belgium, Denmark, Finland, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, and the United Kingdom within the Erasmus+ Sport project “Ecology of Dual Career”. Design The study was designed as a multiple case study and based on two holistic ecological working models (Henriksen et al., 2020). The cross-case analysis included series of focus group discussions, in which two-three researchers from each partner country and four dual career (DC) support providers compared the findings across seven national cases with a primary focus on similarities rather than differences. Results A list of ten essential features of the DCDEs, structured into two overarching themes. (1) Holistic structure with five subthemes: Dedicated DC support team, Integration of efforts across the whole environment, A clear understanding of DC issues and support from across the environment, Role models and mentorship, and Access to expert support. (2) Shared DC philosophy also had five subthemes: A whole-person approach, An empowerment approach, Flexible DC solutions, Care of DC athlete's mental health and wellbeing, and An open and proactive approach to the development of the environment. Conclusion The features are introduced in the manner of discussions, thus providing detailed information about the DCDEs without losing (too much) contextual information. These features can help researcher-practitioners to understand DCDEs and guide their optimization.
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Background: During last two decades, researchers have become more interested in psychological development of para-athletes. In fact, psycho-social benefits of para sport are apparent in psychosocial development of para-athletes that needs further consideration. Objective: The objective of this study was to study psychological characteristics of Iranian para-athletes. Methods: A number of 60 purposefully selected Paralympic and Para-Asian athletes (40 males and 20 females) participated in a quasi-structured interview; data were analysed thematically. Results: After preliminary processes, para-athletes’ psychological characteristics were categorized in four groups: Athletic identity, mental skills, virtuous relationships, and needs for consultation; each category covers several codes. Conclusions: Findings are discussed in relation to their significance in para-athlete’s mental health, well-being, and performance. Using psychological characteristics of para-athletes as models to train younger athletes and employing a comprehensive approach to train sport psychologist are suggested.
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Afrontar con éxito el proceso de transición en la consolidación del talento deportivo es fundamental para adaptarse y lograr una estabilidad en el deporte de alto nivel. Las habilidades psicológicas adquieren una gran importancia en este periodo, ya que mediatizan el rendimiento deportivo. El objetivo de esta investigación ha sido analizar las habilidades psicológicas de los deportistas promesas y talentos guipuzcoanos. La muestra estuvo compuesta por la totalidad de los 146 deportistas integrantes del programa de Desarrollo del Talento Deportivo (DTD) de la Diputación Foral de Gipuzkoa. El instrumento utilizado para evaluar las habilidades psicológicas fue el cuestionario de Características Psicológicas Relacionadas con el Rendimiento Deportivo (CPRD). Los resultados obtenidos indican la existencia de diferencias estadísticamente significativas en función del género (p < ,05) en todas las variables psicológicas analizadas: control de estrés (C.E), influencia de la evaluación de rendimiento (I.E.R), motivación (M), habilidad mental (H.M) y cohesión de equipo (C.EQ). No se evidenció ninguna relación significativa entre las habilidades psicológicas y la edad, pero sí en función de la categoría del deportista (promesa / talento): los deportistas promesas mostraron una menor H.M (p < ,05) que los talentos deportivos. Abstract. Successfully facing the transition process in the consolidation of sports talent is fundamental to adapt to the highest level and achieve stability in the sports career. Psychological skills become very important in this period, as they mediate sports performance. The aim of this study has been to analyse the psychological skills of promising athletes and talents from Gipuzkoa. The sample consisted of all 146 athletes who were members of the Provincial Council of Gipuzkoa for the development of sports talent. The instrument used to evaluate the psychological skills was the questionnaire of Psychological Characteristics Related to Sports Performance. The results obtained indicate that there are statistically significant differences between men and women (p < ,05) in all the psychological variables analyzed: stress control, influence of performance assessment, motivation, mental ability and team cohesion. Likewise, differences were found in mental ability (p < ,05) between promising athletes and talents, while no statistically significant relation was found between the age and the psychological skills of the sample.
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Successfully facing the transition process in the consolidation of sports talent is fundamental to adapt to the highest level and achieve stability in the sports career. Psychological skills become very important in this period, as they mediate sports performance. The aim of this study has been to analyse the psychological skills of promising athletes and talents from Gipuzkoa. The sample consisted of all 146 athletes who were members of the Provincial Council of Gipuzkoa for the development of sports talent. The instrument used to evaluate the psychological skills was the questionnaire of Psychological Characteristics Related to Sports Performance. The results obtained indicate that there are statistically significant differences between men and women (p < ,05) in all the psychological variables analyzed: stress control, influence of performance assessment, motivation, mental ability and team cohesion. Likewise, differences were found in mental ability (p < ,05) between promising athletes and talents, while no statistically significant relation was found between the age and the psychological skills of the sample.
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O objetivo do presente estudo foi apresentar e analisar o perfil dos estudantes atletas da Universidade de Brasília (UnB) que representaram a instituição em competições universitárias entre 2017 e 2018 mediante utilização de um questionário estruturado de autoaplicação com amostra definida em 76 indivíduos. A análise exploratória foi conduzida por meio de estatística descritiva no software SPSS e da análise textual por meio do software IRaMuTeQ. Os resultados apresentam o êxito na política de representação promovida pela UnB e relativo sucesso na conciliação da dupla jornada dos estudantes atletas, apesar de a maioria dos atletas terem alcançando resultados nacionais e internacionais. Apontamos a necessidade de aprofundamento do tema a nível universitário e a urgente organização de estatutos institucionais que qualifiquem o esporte de representação e de elite na UnB.
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This PhD Project with a specialization in sport psychology is inspired by the cultural praxis of athletes’ careers paradigm. This implies that the Project blends theory, research, and practice within the context of Swedish handball, by investigating career pathways of professional players providing empirically based, and context specific, implications. The overarching aim of the Project is twofold: (a) to examine the career experiences of Swedish professional handball players and consolidate them into the empirical career model of Swedish professional handball players (ECM-H), and (b) based on the ECM-H, to develop, validate, and test an applied framework promoting career-long psychological support services in Swedish handball (CPS-H). The first aim is covered by Study I and II, and the second aim is met in Study III and IV. The dissertation is designed as a collection of four articles with one article per study. Study I focused on a qualitative exploration of career experiences from 18 Swedish professional handball players including major career stages and transitions in their athletic and non-athletic development. The players’ accounts were consolidated into the ECM-H describing the context-specific features and pathways throughout the handball career. When developing the ECM-H, gender-specific issues appeared of interest for further investigation. Gender issues were addressed in Study II by re-analyzing the data from Study I. Two composite vignettes were created describing the career pathways of nine male and nine female players. Study III initiated a move from research to practice. Based on the ECM-H, applied sport psychology literature and experiences of the research team led by the first author, the applied framework CPS-H was heuristically developed and validated in three focus groups with end users; professional players, coaches, and sport psychology practitioners. The validated version of the CPS-H is presented with general and career stage-specific recommendations for its implementation among support providers (i.e., where, when, what, who, why, and how of psychological support service). Study IV was designed as an instrumental case study for testing a part of the CPS-H framework. More specifically, the mastery career stage. A career assistance program (CAP) named Life as a professional handball player was developed for, implemented with, and evaluated by a Swedish League team. The program included eight workshops dealing with various aspects of the players’ athletic and non-athletic life (e.g., performance, training, lifestyle, recovery, future planning), together with crisis-related issues (e.g., coping with uncertainty). These workshops were delivered by the first author during 12 weeks of a competitive season. The mixed-methods evaluation revealed a perceived improvement in players’ personal coping resources (e.g., increased awareness) and a decrease in their fatigue and stress. This Project contributes to the athlete career sport psychology discourse and the emerging athlete mental health discourse by presenting the ECM-H and CPS-H frameworks, and the CAP Life as a professional handball player, grounded in the cultural context of Swedish handball. The frameworks and CAP can serve as inspiration for future research and practice, informed by a cultural praxis. The Project shows the usefulness of working as a scientist-practitioner and establishing theory researchpractice-context links for the promotion of culturally informed implications, and supports the work of facilitating a holistic understanding of athletes’ striving for healthy, successful, and long-lasting careers in sport and life. Keywords: Career assistance program, Career development, Career transitions, Cultural praxis, Empirical career model, Handball.
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