Los pescadores arcaicos de la desembocadura del río Loa (Norte de Chile): El Sitio Caleta Huelen 42. Chungara, 37(1), 5-19

Chungara: Revista de Antropología Chilena, ISSN 0716-1182, Vol. 37, Nº. 1, 2005, pags. 5-20 01/2013; DOI: 10.4067/S0717-73562005000100002
Source: OAI


The archaeological site of Caleta Huelén 42 is located on the northern edge of the mouth of the Loa river, in the northern Chile. The site relates culturally to the second phase of the Camarones Complex, as well as with the Quiani Complex. It represents an important southward continuum of the expansion of archaic fishing groups similar to Morro 1, Morro 1/6 and Camarones 14, towards the more southerly point of Punta Teatinos and El Cerrito. The materials that make up the collection were excavated in the 1970s by Núñez, Zlatar and Núñez; with osseous remains housed in the National Museum of Natural History (Santiago). the study is based on analysis of metric traits and indicators of pathology and traumas. Sexual dimorphism was measured through the one-way ANOVA method, and biological relationships with similar groups are inferred on the basis of multivariate analytical techniques (Morro 1, Morro 1/6, Morro Uhle, El Cerrito y Punta Teatinos). The results suggest that a third of these individuals had signs of infection in their lower limbs. The percentage of persons with signs of osseous trauma is comparatively low (8,3 %) and is linked to accident-type injuries. Only a small part of the sample hints at nutritional pathologies. No traces of artificial cranial deformation are present, and sexual dimorphism is found in half the measurements. While it is possible to establish a common ancestral origin for all five of the groups compared in this study, the closest relationships are established among samples from the Arid North (Caleta Huelén 42 and the Morro de Arica samples, such as Morro Uhle, Morro 1, Morro 1/6), rather than with the series from the Semi-Arid North (El Cerrito y Punta Teatinos) El sitio Caleta Huelén 42 está ubicado en la margen norte de la desembocadura del río Loa en el norte de Chile. Culturalmente se encuentra relacionado con la segunda fase del Complejo Camarones y con el Complejo Quiani. Constituye una importante conexión hacia el sur, vinculada con la expansión de los grupos de pescadores arcaicos semejantes a Morro 1, Morro 1-6 y Camarones 14 y que continúa hacia Punta Teatinos y El Cerrito, en el Norte Semiárido del país. Los materiales y restos humanos que componen la colección fueron excavados por Núñez, Zlatar y Núñez en la década de 1970, y los restos óseos fueron depositados en el Museo Nacional de Historia Natural de Santiago. El estudio de los individuos fue realizado mediante el relevamiento de un conjunto de rasgos métricos y de indicadores asociados con patologías y traumas. Se analiza el dimorfismo sexual a través del método ANOVA de una vía y se infieren relaciones biológicas con otros grupos semejantes (Morro 1, Morro 1/6, Morro Uhle, El Cerrito y Punta Teatinos) mediante el empleo de técnicas de análisis multivariado. Los principales resultados indican que un tercio de estos individuos muestra señales de infecciones en sus miembros inferiores. El porcentaje de personas con evidencias de traumatismo óseo es bajo, no sobrepasando el 8,3 % y la mayoría se relaciona con lesiones por accidentes. Las patologías nutricionales están presentes en una pequeña parte de la muestra. No fueron encontradas huellas de deformación craneana artificial. El dimorfismo sexual es demostrable en la mitad de las mediciones. Fue establecida una mayor relación entre las muestras del Norte Árido (Caleta Huelén 42 y las muestras de Arica tales como: Morro Uhle, Morro 1 y Morro 1/6) en comparación a las series del Norte Semiárido (El Cerrito y Punta Teatinos)

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