Self-medication is a specific therapeutic behavioral change in response to disease or parasitism. The empirical literature on self-medication has so far focused entirely on identifying cases of self-medication in which particular behaviors are linked to therapeutic outcomes. The term “zoopharmacognosy” is relatively new to the pharmacy field. This term is introduced in 1987. And it means animal self medication. It is the self medication process by an animal for any disease or wound by any plant or insect. The used plant or insect having the quality of curing the illness. Scientific investigation opened the doors for new medicines which were pointed out by the behavior of the animal towards self medication. Since the introduction of this study many new drugs are now in use which was found in the study of self medication behavior of an animal. So many new species are found which self medicate themselves for disease or other illness. This study will help us to increase our knowledge about the existence of the unknown drugs which are use by various animals.
... soap) (Baker, 1996;Bowler et al., 2015;Huffman, 1997;Pebsworth et al., 2021;Peckre et al., 2018). The ingestion or topical use of these items can serve as social communication or for self-medicative purposes, also known as zoopharmacognosy (Rounak et al., 2011). For example, in white-faced capuchin monkeys (Cebus capucinus) collective fur rubbing has been proposed as a way to socialise with other group members (Baker, 1996;Leca et al., 2007). ...
Fur rubbing, i.e. rubbing a substance or an object into the pelage, has been described in numerous Neotropical primate species, including species of titi monkeys, but it seems to be a rare behaviour. Here we describe a fur rubbing event in a wild coppery titi monkey (Plecturocebus cupreus) with Psychotria sp. (Rubiaceae) leaves observed and videotaped during a field study on vigilance behaviour between September–December 2019 in the Peruvian Amazon. Plants of the genus Psychotria contain a great diversity of secondary metabolites and are often used in traditional medicine. We suggest that the fur rubbing was an act of self-medication. This is the first record of fur rubbing in coppery titi monkeys in almost 4400 h of observation accumulated over more than 20 years.
... Piper marginatum stems, leaves, and seeds mixed with saliva to repel insects by rubbing it vigorously to their bodies[62,63]. Insecticidal activity against fire ant workers Solenopsis saevissima (Smith) was evaluated using Piper marginatum essential oil at a LC 50 of 122.4 and 167 mg/L for chemotype A and B, respectively. ...
Piper marginatum is a neotropical native plant found from Guatemala to Brazil including the Caribbean. This
species is known for its healing properties in traditional medicine. It is employed for treating inflammation,
malaria, wound healing, snakebites, pathologies related to bile or liver, dental caries, as a diurectic,
sudoriferous agent, haemostatic, and for its analgesic effects. In foods it is used as a flavouring agent and a
sweetener. It has been reported to have phytosanitary activity, thus it has been adopted as a botanical
insecticide. This study gathers information regarding its taxonomic, etnobotanical, phytochemical, and
toxicity properties. In addition, we apprise its phytosanitory activity and botanical insecticide use. Piper
marginatum is an important plant species for the development of future alternative medicinal products.
... The moose become weak and unhealthy, making them easy prey for wolves. In a complementary way, western science itself provides evidence that threatening activities cause stress in animal populations (Creel et al. 2002) and animals have the ability for self-medication (Rounak et al. 2011, Engel 2003. Michipicoten First Nation Elder John Tangie expresses this concern and frustration that something is wrong on the land (Quote 2). ...
This article provides forestry professionals with an improved understanding of why First Nations are opposed to the use of chemical herbicides for silvicultural purposes on their traditional lands, based on a case study in northeastern Ontario. Results were generated using a modified form of a focus group approach. First Nations opposition to herbicide use involved not only concerns over human and environmental health (concerns common among the general public) but also spanned from treaty rights, mistrust, and respect issues to herbicide use being incongruent with traditional First Nations worldviews. The results illustrate that the science-education approach typically used to address public opposition to herbicides is neither adequate nor appropriate for addressing First Nations concerns. Instead, a more in-depth engagement and approach, centred on genuine respect for First Nations rights, culture and history, is needed to arrive at solutions that are consistent with each First Nation community's values and terms.
Animals can give good indications on new sources of medicine. Field researchers have observed different species of animals seeking and using substances in order to enhance their own health. This behavior was called as animal self-medication, or zoopharmacognosy. This article presents a brief review on the subject and calls attention for future field studies, especially considering Brazilian faunal diversity.
The use of supplements has become commonplace in an effort to complement traditional therapy and as part of long-term preventive health plans. This article discusses historical and present uses of antioxidants, vitamins, and herbs. By complementing traditional medicine with holistic and alternative nutrition and supplements, the overall health and wellness of exotic pets can be enhanced and balanced. Further research is needed for understanding the strengths and uses of supplements in exotic species. Going back to the animals' origin and roots bring clinicians closer to nature and its healing powers.