ArticlePDF Available

Emotional demands, emotional labour and occupational outcomes in school principals: Modelling the relationships

Authors:

Abstract and Figures

Most research into emotional labour is focussed on front-line service staff and health professionals, in short-term interactions. Little exists exploring the emotional labour involved in repeated on-going interactions by educational leaders with key stakeholders. This study explored the relationships between emotional demands, three emotional labour facets, burnout, wellbeing, and job satisfaction in 1320 full-time school principals. Principals displayed significantly higher scores on emotional demands at work, burnout, and job satisfaction, and significantly lower wellbeing scores than the general population. Structural equation modelling revealed that emotional demands predicted elevated use of all emotional labour strategies. Surface Acting-Hiding emotions had an inverse relationship with burnout, wellbeing and job satisfaction. Surface Acting-Faking emotions had an inverse relationship with job satisfaction. Deep Acting demonstrated no significant associations with outcome variables. The findings of this study extend the current literature on the effects of emotional labor. The study also extends understanding about the separate effects of the facets of emotional labour, which will aid in the development of interventions to reduce high levels of burnout reported by educational leaders.
Content may be subject to copyright.
Article
Emotional demands, emotional
labour and occupational
outcomes in school principals:
Modelling the relationships
Aimee Maxwell and Philip Riley
Abstract
Most research into emotional labour is focussed on front-line service staff and health professionals,
in short-term interactions. Little exists exploring the emotional labour involved in repeated on-
going interactions by educational leaders with key stakeholders. This study explored the rela-
tionships between emotional demands, three emotional labour facets, burnout, wellbeing and job
satisfaction in 1320 full-time school principals. Principals displayed significantly higher scores on
emotional demands at work, burnout and job satisfaction, and significantly lower wellbeing scores
than the general population. Structural equation modelling revealed that emotional demands
predicted the elevated use of all emotional labour strategies. Surface Acting-Hiding emotions had
an inverse relationship with burnout, wellbeing and job satisfaction. Surface Acting-Faking emo-
tions had an inverse relationship with job satisfaction. Deep Acting demonstrated no significant
associations with outcome variables. The findings of this study extend the current literature on the
effects of emotional labour. The study also extends understanding about the separate effects of the
facets of emotional labour, which will aid in the development of interventions to reduce high levels
of burnout reported by educational leaders.
Keywords
Emotional labour, schools, leadership, principals, burnout, wellbeing, job satisfaction, emotional
demands
Introduction
School leaders’ accountability and performance demands have continuously increased in Australia
and internationally over the last two decades, affecting both leader and school (Earley et al., 2002;
Lingard et al., 2013; West et al., 2010). Increasing accountability has the effect of decreasing
decision latitude (Lingard et al., 2013) and autonomy (Fink and Brayman, 2006), and leads to
‘scrutiny stress’’ (Lasalvia, 2011). This negatively impacts psychosocial and physiological health
Corresponding author:
Aimee Maxwell, Faculty of Education, Monash University, 29 Ancora Imparo Way, Clayton, Victoria 3800, Australia.
Email: aimee@cleeland.org
Educational Management
Administration & Leadership
1–19
ªThe Author(s) 2016
Reprints and permission:
sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav
DOI: 10.1177/1741143215607878
emal.sagepub.com
by guest on May 18, 2016ema.sagepub.comDownloaded from
(Dewa et al., 2009; Kuper and Marmot, 2003), reciprocally affecting job performance and satis-
faction (De Nobile and McCormick, 2010; Johnson et al., 2005). When school principals’ well-
being declines, their ability to significantly impact school functioning, student engagement and
whole-school wellbeing also declines (Hallinger and Heck, 1998; Leithwood et al., 2008; Ten
Bruggencate et al., 2012).
The considerable job demands experienced by school principals (Riley and Langan-Fox, 2013;
Friedman, 2002; Phillips et al., 2007) include such diverse tasks as managing staff, organising
budgets and providing strategic organisational focus alongside high stakes testing (Billot, 2003;
Clarke, 2006; Lingard et al., 2013). Various studies have shown that these demands can be
perceived as stressful, via the influence of multiple variables; environmental, organisational,
individual and demographic (Boyland, 2011; De Nobile and McCormick, 2010; Friedman,
2002; Phillips et al., 2007). Further, chronic stress leads to feelings of burnout, affecting job
performance, satisfaction and the motivation to remain in the role.
School principals continuously meet multiple stakeholders at different developmental levels:
children, adult employees, peers, parents and supervisors/employers; all of whom may sometimes
display extremely high levels of emotional arousal. This is emotionally demanding. To keep a
school running effectively, they must also be sensitive to the needs of all these groups, balance
competing objectives and be able to switch seamlessly between stakeholder interactions, while
continuously managing the impression others have of them (Berkovich and Eyal, 2015). This
requires a great deal of emotional labour. In the following section we consider two of these
important components – emotional demands and emotional labour – and their impact on burnout
and job satisfaction.
Emotional demands
School principals are required to present a controlled and calm face to all stakeholders while
maintaining a balance between caring and managing (Berkovich and Eyal, 2015; Blackmore,
2010; Day et al., 2001; Eacott and Norris, 2014). However, some of the more stressful challenges
faced by principals are those that are accompanied by high emotional demands. Of the five main
sources of stress experienced by the principals identified by Gmelch and Swent (1984), two
involved high emotional demands; interpersonal relations and intrapersonal conflicts. Likewise,
Friedman (2002) reported that interactions with staff and parents affected burnout levels more than
role overload, while Poirel et al. (2012) found that interpersonal stress sources were second only to
administrative constraints.
School principals experience the full gamut of emotions in their work; responding to their own
and others’ emotions is a central part of the role (Beatty, 2000; Berkovich and Eyal, 2015; Black-
more, 1996; Crawford, 2009; James and Vince, 2001; Rajah et al., 2011; Zikhali and Perumal,
2015). For example, principals are expected to appropriately decide when to suppress or amplify
negative emotion when confronted with students or teachers who have transgressed rules, or
amplify positive emotions; behaving calmly in the face of problems to which they may not know
the solution, putting on a fake smile to influence others’ emotions and be positive for parents
(Crawford, 2007; Rhodes and Greenway, 2010). The successful management of widespread edu-
cation reforms that demand compliance (for example, decentralisation, along with increased high
stakes testing and accountability) could also be emotionally burdensome (Crawford, 2007; Lingard
et al., 2013). Moreover, there is a dominant ‘‘display rule’’ (Zapf, 2002) pressuring school leaders
to manage personal emotional responses so as to express their most rational selves (Berkovich and
2Educational Management Administration & Leadership
by guest on May 18, 2016ema.sagepub.comDownloaded from
Eyal, 2015). Taking a critical cultural perceptive, these changes to the educational milieu in
Australia and similar western countries in recent times, for example, the dominance of a rational
masculine discourse (Hofstede, 2001) and the pressures of market reforms (Ball, 2012; Lingard
et al., 2013), further justify the focus on this aspect of school leadership. It is, therefore, likely that
principals in the current study will report high levels of emotional demands, which in turn will
predict poor occupational functioning; surviving rather than thriving in the role.
Emotional labour
Emotional Labour (EL) is generally described by two core processes: surface acting (SA), which
encompasses both the inhibition and manufacturing of emotions; and deep acting (DA), which is
considered an extension of true emotions, aligning one’s real emotions to the situation (Grandey,
2000, 2015; Hochschild, 1983). SA has two components: hiding or down regulating felt emotions
and faking false feelings (Brotheridge and Taylor, 2006; Lee and Brotheridge, 2011, Mann, 1999).
Acting is thought to cause emotional dissonance, which can affect wellbeing (Rafaeli and Sutton,
1987; Zapf, 2002). DA involves attentional deployment and cognitive change, while SA is aligned
with response modulation (Grandey, 2000; Gross, 1998). Therefore, the outcomes associated with
EL vary according to the type of EL performed.
Deep acting. Mixed effects have been found regarding DA. For example, personal accomplishment
has demonstrated positive (Brotheridge and Grandey, 2002), negative (Na¨ring et al., 2006) and no
significant associations (Lee et al., 2010) with DA. When people reported using DA>SA, it
positively predicted job performance (Hu
¨lsheger and Schewe, 2011) and truncated emotional
exhaustion up to one year later (Philipp and Schu
¨pbach, 2010). In a meta-analysis of EL, DA had
no generalisable significant relationships with negative occupational outcomes (Hu
¨lsheger et al.,
2011) though Grandey et al. (2013) did find an unusual positive association between DA (and SA)
and job satisfaction in college students and Taiwanese salespeople.
Surface acting. Grandey (2000) posited a model in which physiological stress theories could account
for the outcomes of SA, assuming that the cognitive and motivational demands induce job strain
(Demerouti et al., 2002). In support of this, Gross (2002) and Harris (2001) found that emotional
suppression increased cardiovascular activation. The negative outcomes of SA may also be attri-
butable to self-perceived inauthenticity or overloading personal resources from persistent mod-
ification of emotional expression (Grandey, 2000; Grandey et al., 2012; Hu
¨lsheger and Schewe,
2011). Positive associations between SA and poor outcomes such as burnout and declining job
satisfaction, psychological and physical health are well established (Brotheridge and Grandey,
2002; Kinman et al., 2011a; Pugliesi, 1999; Totterdell and Holman, 2003). For instance, emotional
exhaustion (a facet of burnout) has been associated with SA in physicians (Lee et al., 2010) and
teachers (Na¨ring et al., 2012), while the use of SA predicted increases in psychological strain after
two months in trainee teachers (Hu
¨lsheger et al., 2010). Hiding emotions is correlated with
emotional exhaustion and depersonalisation in service sector employees (Bayram et al., 2012),
and emotional exhaustion in doctors. However, only faking correlated with depersonalisation in
doctors (Lee et al., 2010).
To summarise, EL is used to manage internal emotions and manufacture external expressions of
emotions to specifically match organisational norms, expectations and demands (Diefendorff and
Gosserand, 2003). It is performed to elicit appropriate responses in clients, customers or other
Maxwell and Riley: Emotional demands, emotional labour and occupational outcomes 3
by guest on May 18, 2016ema.sagepub.comDownloaded from
stakeholders to achieve, or comply with, organisational aims. For example, school leaders use EL
for ‘‘impression management’’ (Rhodes and Greenway, 2010). Its use in educational leadership is
associated with: ‘‘macro- and micro-contextual factors’’ including gender relations or lack of
supervisor support; ‘‘leadership role factors’’ such as loneliness; and ‘‘mission-related factors’
such as ongoing experiences of social injustice (Berkovich and Eyal, 2015). Other caring profes-
sions such as nurses (Bartram et al., 2012), healthcare professionals (Grandey et al., 2012; Lee
et al., 2010), teachers and childcare workers (Lee and Brotheridge, 2011; Na¨ring et al., 2006;
Schutz et al., 2009; Yilmaz et al., 2015), aspirant school leaders (Gallant and Riley, 2013) and the
clergy (Kinman et al., 2011a) have all demonstrated differing levels of EL. For the current study
we sought to ascertain whether school principals’ levels of emotional demands predicted their use
of EL strategies. We hypothesise that emotional demands will be high and will predict an increased
use of EL strategies.
Burnout
Burnout is a multi-dimensional ‘ill-being’’ concept, defined as a state of emotional exhaustion with
follow-on and/or corresponding effects of depersonalisation and a diminished sense of personal
accomplishment due to protracted experiences of workplace stress (Federici and Skaalvik, 2012;
Lee et al., 2010; Maslach, 2003; Maslach and Jackson, 1986). Occupational stress theories posit that
burnout results from the combination of prolonged demands and/or effort and limited or over-used
resources (Bakker and Demerouti, 2007; Bakker et al., 2010; Hobfoll, 1989; Karasek, 1979; Lazarus,
1991). Studies of burnout across occupations and countries have demonstrated links with poor job
performance, and physical and emotional wellbeing (Maslach et al., 2001). Emotional exhaustion is
the first phase of burnout and has been suggested to be the central component of the syndrome
(Bakker et al., 2003; Maslach, 2003), and educational leaders are more likely to indicate burnout as
emotional exhaustion than either of the other facets (Combs and Edmonson, 2010). Further, signif-
icant negative associations have been found between SA and emotional exhaustion in teachers
(Yilmaz et al., 2015). Recently, Grandey and Gabriel (2015) suggested that investigating the effects
of EL through the lens of ill-being (as burnout) was limited and that whole-person wellbeing ought to
be assessed too. We have addressed this concern in the current study.
Leaders across industries report EL and burnout levels similar to those recorded for ‘‘people
work’’ occupations, such as nurses and social workers (Brotheridge and Grandey, 2002), and
leaders in managerial roles comparatively perform more SA than workers in non-managerial roles
(Sloan, 2012). Humphrey et al. (2008) reviewed EL leadership literature, finding that leaders use
EL more frequently and with more variation than service workers. They postulated that the
successful management of both one’s own and others’ moods could enhance a leader’s effective-
ness, while noting negative effects such as emotional exhaustion. Little research into EL in leaders
has been performed (Gooty et al., 2010; Haver et al., 2013; Humphrey, 2012). We hypothesise that
SA-Hiding and SA-Faking will be positively associated with burnout and negatively associated
with wellbeing.
Job satisfaction
Job satisfaction, commonly used as a key indicator of employee wellbeing (Page and Vella-
Brodrick, 2009), is defined as the positive emotional regard one holds for one’s job (Schaufeli
and Bakker, 2010). Across multiple professions, low job satisfaction is related to declines in
4Educational Management Administration & Leadership
by guest on May 18, 2016ema.sagepub.comDownloaded from
physical health and wellbeing (Johnson et al., 2005). Facets of SA have consistent negative
relationships with job satisfaction. Faking was found to have a significant negative relationship
with job satisfaction in a mixed group of public service workers including managers and teachers
(Hsieh et al., 2012). Hiding and Faking combined had negative correlations with job satisfaction in
academic and administrative university staff (Pugliesi, 1999), nurses and child-care workers (Seery
and Corrigall, 2009), teachers (Kinman et al., 2011b) and the clergy (Kinman et al., 2011a). We
hypothesise that SA-Hiding and SA-Faking will be negatively associated with job satisfaction.
The relationship between DA and job satisfaction is less clear. One meta-analysis of the effects
of EL revealed consistent moderate negative correlations between job satisfaction and SA
(Hu
¨lsheger and Schewe, 2011), but no significant relationship between DA and job satisfaction.
However, another meta-analysis found the same moderate negative relationships between SA and
job satisfaction, but contrarily found a small positive effect of DA on job satisfaction (Wang et al.,
2011). We will explore the relationship between DA and job satisfaction in this study with no
directional hypothesis.
Empirical investigation
Research aims
We could find no research that specifically measured EL or determined the separate contributions of
hiding and faking emotions to burnout, wellbeing or job satisfaction in school principals, prompting
the current study. We aimed to identify the extent of emotional demands placed on leaders, assess the
types and amounts of EL they reported using, measure the positive and negative impacts of EL
strategies, and model these relationships. The hypothesised model is shown in Figure 1 below.
Methodology and participants
This study is part of a larger, on-going longitudinal project, which began annual data collection
from school principals in 2011. The background to the study, entire question set and progress
reports are available at [www.principalhealth.org/au]. A representative sample of full-time school
principals (N¼1320; 51.8%female, 48.2%male) was drawn from three parallel governance
sectors (Government, Catholic and Independent), across all states and year levels, in Australia.
Ages ranged from 26 to 73 years (M¼52.90, SD ¼6.78). Years of experience in leadership roles
ranged from 0 to 43 years (M¼14.90, SD ¼7.28).
Data collection
Data was collected using an online survey. Web-based surveys produce sound data when used on
target populations and/or when driven by non-consumer needs (Ganassali, 2008); therefore, no
monetary reimbursements were provided for participation. Careful survey design helps ameliorate
common method bias (CMB) when independent data sources are not available (Favero and Bul-
lock, 2015). To this end, issues concerning CMB were addressed ex-ante by separating scales of
interest within the larger survey (Favero and Bullock, 2015) and by the use of different scale
anchors for question sets (Podsakoff et al., 2012). Further, the respondents were aware that honest
answers were required to assist with future job design and were provided with detailed individual
wellbeing reports upon completion. These motivating factors can diminish the potential effects of
CMB (Podsakoff et al., 2012).
Maxwell and Riley: Emotional demands, emotional labour and occupational outcomes 5
by guest on May 18, 2016ema.sagepub.comDownloaded from
Respondents were invited into the study via their specific professional occupational organisa-
tions. Upon completion of the survey, a detailed, personalised report was made available to each
participant. The total number of participants in the entire dataset was 2084, representing *20%of
Australia’s school principals. Of these, 539 participants had registered and completed the survey
for the first time, and 1545 completed the survey for the second year (75.4%response rate to the
recontact invitation). Only data from respondents in full-time employment, as the overall school
leader, were used to create a homogenous group of leaders for analysis (N¼1320).
Measures
Four of the scales (emotional demands, quantitative demands, burnout and job satisfaction) were
drawn from the revised Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire (COPSOQ-II: Pejtersen et al.,
2010b). The COPSOQ-II scales have good reliability and validity (Bjorner and Pejtersen, 2010;
Pejtersen et al., 2010b; Rugulies et al., 2010. See Tables 1 and 2 for Cronbach alphas and
descriptive statistics).
Emotional demands were measured with four items: for example, ‘‘Is your work emotionally
demanding?’’ Two questions were measured on a five-level Likert scale where the response options
ranged from ‘‘Always’’ to ‘‘Not at all’’. The other two items were also measured on five-level Likert
scales with different anchors ‘‘To a very large extent’’ and ‘‘To a very small extent’’.
Quantitative demands was measured to account for workload, which has previously been seen
to affect outcomes. It was measured with four items: for example, ‘‘Do you have enough time for
your worktasks?’’ All questions were measured on a five-level Likert scale where the response
options ranged from ‘‘Always’’ to ‘‘Never/Hardly ever’’. One item was reverse scored.
Figure 1. Hypothesised model. Absence of a line implies no hypothesised significant effect.
6Educational Management Administration & Leadership
by guest on May 18, 2016ema.sagepub.comDownloaded from
Burnout was measured using four items, which relate directly to the Emotional Exhaustion
subscale of the Maslach Burnout Inventory (Maslach et al., 1996). An example item is ‘‘How often
have you been emotionally exhausted?’’ All items had the same five Likert-scale response options
ranging from ‘‘All the time’’ to ‘‘Not at all’’.
Job satisfaction was measured using four items, each beginning with the stem ‘‘Regarding your
work in general. How pleased are you with ...’, followed by four options. An example option was
‘your job as a whole, everything taken into consideration?’’. Items had the same four Likert-scale
response options ranging from ‘‘Very satisfied’’ (100) to ‘‘Very unsatisfied’’ (0).
Wellbeing was measured using the Assessment of Quality of Life scale (AQoL-8D: Richardson
et al., 2013). The AQoL-8D has 35 items and covers eight dimensions such as coping, relation-
ships, self-worth, mental health and happiness. Items have between four and six response levels.
Table 1. Descriptive statistics for the independent and dependent variables; population comparisons
where available.
Scale Principals M(SD) General population M(SD)
Teachers: Primary/
Secondary MManagers M
Emotional demands
a
69.54 (16.35) 40.7 (24.30) 69 / 48 47
Quantitative demands
a
59.44 (19.31) 40.2 (20.5) 48 / 39 49
Job satisfaction
a
74.47 (18.43) 65.30 (18.20) 63 / 64 73
Burnout
a
55.95 (21.22) 34.10 (18.20) 39 / 36 28
Wellbeing
b
79.24 (9.61) 81.04 (12.71)
SA-Hiding 3.27 (0.69)
SA-Faking 2.79 (0.83)
Deep Acting 2.52 (0.85)
Note: Comparison groups have different numbers. In this study N¼1320.
a
All the COPSOQ-II samples are from the Danish validation study: Population N¼3517; primary school teachers n¼120;
secondary school teachers n¼25; managers n¼107.
b
Australian Wellbeing sample N¼2731.
Table 2. Correlations between all variables and scale reliabilities.
12345678910
1. SA-Faking .91
2. SA-Hiding .62** .91
3. Deep Acting .50** .36** .90
4. Emotional demands .42** .44** .28** .79
5. Job satisfaction .28** .31** .16** .27** .84
6. Burnout .35** .39** .21** .48** .38** .91
7. Wellbeing .32** .38** .22** .36** .53** .59** .93
8. Quantitative demands .28** .32** .17** .38** .30** .46** .36** .79
9. Age .08** .08** .06
*
.09** .11** .19** .09** .07**
10. Male .05 .00 .03 .09** .09** .06
*
.02 .10** .09**
11. Years of experience .07** .06
*
.01 .03 .04 .09** .02 .04 .45** .23**
Note: Scale alphas are on the cross diagonal.
**p< .01 (2-tailed).
*p< .05 (2-tailed).
Maxwell and Riley: Emotional demands, emotional labour and occupational outcomes 7
by guest on May 18, 2016ema.sagepub.comDownloaded from
The AQoL-8D has good internal consistency and reliability (a¼0.96) (Richardson et al., 2013.
See Table 2 for scale reliabilities).
Emotional labour. Three scales (SA-Faking, SA-Hiding; DA) were each measured with three items
from the Emotional Labour Scale – Revised which has good reliability (ELS-R: Brotheridge and
Lee, 2003; Lee and Brotheridge, 2011). All items had the stem, ‘‘On an average day at work, how
frequently do you ...’’, and the five response levels ranged from ‘‘Never’’ to ‘‘Always’’. An
example SA-Hiding question was ‘‘Hide my true feelings about a situation’’. An example SA-
Faking item was ‘‘Show emotions that I don’t feel’’. An example DA item was ‘‘Really try to feel
the emotions you have to show as part of your job’’ (see Table 2 for scale reliabilities).
Results
Preliminary analyses
As all dependent and independent measures were collected via the same survey, a confirmatory factor
analysis(CFA) marker test was initially applied to assess the effects of common method bias (Williams
et al., 2010). Another COPSOQ-II scale from the survey ‘Social responsibility’’ wa s c ho se n as a
marker variable, as it had the fewest theoretical links to the substantive variables. The scale comprised
three questions regarding levels of discrimination (race/religion, age and health) in the workplace (a¼
0.83, M¼76.28, SD ¼23.63). As per Williams et al. (2010), a set of increasingly constrained CFA
models were estimated to see if the marker variable would have relationships with the variables of
interest, even though there was no theoretical reason to think it would. This tests how much the data is
affected by the common method of administration. Chi-square difference testing established that the
marker variable only loaded on three items and that the common method accounted for 0.36%of the
variance. Thus, this test suggests that the effect of common method bias in the study is negligible.
Descriptive analyses
The first aim of the study was to identify the extent of emotional demands in school principals.
Descriptive statistics and comparisons with general population norms for the COPSOQ-II and
wellbeing variables are presented in Table 1. Bonferroni-adjusted independent t-tests were con-
ducted to compare the scores in this study with general population norms from the COPSOQ II. As
it can be seen in Table 1, the participants in this study reported significantly higher levels of
emotional demands (t
4835
, 39.86, p< .01), quantitative demands (t
4835
, 29.53, p< .01) and burnout
(t
4835
, 15.56, p< .01) compared to COPSOQ II norms. However, they also reported higher levels of
job satisfaction (t
4835
, 35.49, p< .01).
Limited comparisons can be made by occupational groupsas only group means are available from
the COPSOQ II validation study (Det Nationale Forskningscenter for Arbejdsmiljø, 2011; Pejtersen
et al., 2010b). Note that the comparison group sizes vary but all completed the same questionnaire.
School principals report emotional demands at a level similar to that of primary school teachers, but
higher than managers and secondary school teachers. Their quantitative demands and burno ut levels
are higher than in all comparison groups. They report job-satisfaction levels similar to those
of managers and higher than all teachers. Minimally Important Score Differences (MID) have
been established for the COPSOQ II scales. MIDs are as follows: emotional demands ¼12.9,
quantitative demands ¼8.6, job satisfaction ¼8.0 and burnout ¼9.1 (Pejtersen et al., 2010a).
For each scale, the mean differences compared to the general working population exceed the
8Educational Management Administration & Leadership
by guest on May 18, 2016ema.sagepub.comDownloaded from
recommended MID, indicating that the differences are of practical significance. The wellbeing
measure does not have occupationally specific information, but principals demonstrate sig-
nificantly lower wellbeing than the general population (t
4049
, 4.55, p<.01).
The second aim of the study was to assess the types and amounts of EL reported by school
principals. It can be seen in Table 1 that principals report hiding their emotions more than either
faking emotions or deep acting. Deep acting was the least-used strategy. Pearson correlations were
calculated between all variables (see Table 2). As it can be seen in Table 2, strong positive correla-
tions were found between SA-Faking and SA-Hiding, and between SA-Faking and DA. SA-Hiding
and DA have a moderate positive correlation. Further, there were significant relationships between
all three EL variables and each dependent variable. Increases in SA-Faking, SA-Hiding and DA
correlated with increases in burnout, and decreases in wellbeing and job satisfaction. The correlations
between years of experience and the variables of interest were very small or not significant in the
matrix, so only age, gender and quantitative demands were controlled in the subsequent analysis.
Regression analysis
The final aim of the study was to model the predictive relationships between emotional demands
and the three EL facets – burnout, wellbeing and job satisfaction. Simultaneous estimation struc-
tural equation modelling (SEM) using Mplus version 7.11 was performed to estimate the relation-
ships between emotional demands, EL and outcomes. A maximum likelihood parameter estimator
that is robust to violations of normality (MLM estimator) was used (Boomsma, 2000; Muthe´n and
Muthe´ n, 1998–2012). Unstandardised estimates were reported to ensure scale meaning was
Figure 2. The research model; significant unstandardised bestimates displayed only.
**p< .01 (2-tailed), *p< .05 (2-tailed). Absence of a line indicates no significant relationship.
Maxwell and Riley: Emotional demands, emotional labour and occupational outcomes 9
by guest on May 18, 2016ema.sagepub.comDownloaded from
retained; note that measures were scored on different scales (emotional demands, burnout, job
satisfaction and wellbeing: 0–100. EL variables: 1–5).
After estimation, it was seen that the proposed model had good fit (Root Mean Square Error of
Approximation (RMSEA) ¼.04, Comparative Fit Index (CFI) ¼.97, Tucker Lewis Index (TLI) ¼
.96, w
2
¼887.35; df ¼248, p<.001, scaling correction factor 1.05, Standardized Root Mean
Square Residual (SRMR) ¼.04) (Hu and Bentler, 1999). The w
2
was significant but this can
occur in large samples (West et al., 2012). Figure 2 shows the SEM model with significant
unstandardised bestimates displayed only.
As it can be seen in Figure 2, significant effects in the expected directions were found between
emotional demands and all other variables, providing support for those hypotheses. The level of
emotional demands positively predicted the increased use of all forms of EL, as well as amplified
burnout, diminished wellbeing and lowered job satisfaction. Regarding the EL hypotheses,
increased levels of SA-Hiding did predict higher burnout, lower wellbeing and lower job satisfac-
tion. However, the SA-Faking hypotheses were only supported with regard to negative impact on
job satisfaction. DA had no significant effects on burnout, job satisfaction or wellbeing.
Discussion
‘‘ ... As a leader I am expected to be everything to everyone ... trying to be positive all the time when
I just want to scream is hard work!’’ (Anonymous participant, this study)
This study examined the associations between emotional demands, three dimensions of EL and
outcomes – burnout, job satisfaction and wellbeing – in school leaders. While the themes that
emerged from the findings will be discussed separately, they co-occur in an everyday context, as
leaders simultaneously manage themselves, and collegial and student relationships, in providing
strategic direction and management of the whole school.
Extent and effects of emotional demands
The results of this study suggest that school leaders face significantly increased emotional
demands compared to the general population, and this is associated with poorer psychosocial
health. Despite having many of the attributes that predict wellbeing, such as stable family back-
grounds, stable family relationships, approximately double the average income and secure employ-
ment (Riley, 2014), school leaders reported poorer wellbeing than the general population. Their
reported burnout was higher than either managers in other fields or teachers (Det Nationale
Forskningscenter for Arbejdsmiljø, 2011). These findings support current stress theories, predict-
ing that emotional exhaustion results when demands increase beyond available resources (Hobfoll,
1989; Karasek, 1979; Lazarus, 1991; Siegrist, 2001). This is a real cause for concern. The sustain-
ability of current educational systems relies, to a very large degree, on leaders’ remaining in
control of the demands, and these findings indicate that they may be nearing their capacity as the
requirements of the role continue to increase. Further, as Australia typically implements education
policies developed in the UK and USA (Ball, 2012; Lingard, 2010), these findings suggest replica-
tion studies in other jurisdictions may uncover similar issues that need to be addressed.
Job satisfaction was reported at similarly high levels to managers in other industries. While high
burnout and concomitant high job satisfaction is unusual, it has previously been seen in school
10 Educational Management Administration & Leadership
by guest on May 18, 2016ema.sagepub.comDownloaded from
principals (Darmody, 2011) and is also found in psychiatrists (Lasalvia, 2011). Both groups have
highly charged emotional interactions with multiple ‘‘clients’’ during a typical day, and both
regard their work as important. However, this finding suggests that job satisfaction does not appear
to be a protective factor for school leaders’ wellbeing, when the level of emotional demand is very
high. It may be that emotional demands are the important variable, rather than the amount of
emotional labour required to meet the demand, or the level of satisfaction produced by
accomplishment.
Amounts and types of EL used by school principals to meet the emotional demands
Our interest was whether this study could add some clarity to the mixed results produced by EL
research in teachers’ EL (Na¨ring et al., 2012; Yilmaz et al., 2015). The school principals in this
study consistently reported increased EL when emotional demands increased. They were more
likely to hide their real emotions, than either fake false ones or deeply act to align their own
emotional response to the situation. Perhaps the cognitive effort involved in deep acting is too
onerous or effortful given the constancy and duration of interactions in a principal’s day.
Relationships between emotional demands, EL and negative outcomes
We found that all forms of EL increase in conjunction with emotional demands, providing evi-
dence that the same mechanisms driving EL in other work roles also drive EL in school principals.
These findings support the job demands-resources (Bakker and Demerouti, 2007) and transactional
models (Lazarus, 1991). The negative effects for principals in long-term relationships are the same
as those for service industry workers in short-term interactions. It appears that for all workers, as
demands increase beyond the capacity of individuals to access appropriate resources, so the
symptoms of stress in the form of burnout and poor wellbeing follow. Our concern is that the
education sector is facing steadily increasing demands, while resources are diminishing (Lingard
et al., 2013) and principals’ wellbeing is being threatened as a result. Given that the education
sector employs the largest professional workforce, these findings are potentially costly. The
education industry health insurer recently reported that the cost of providing psychological
services to their members (N 130,000) had almost doubled in the last five years (Joyce,
2014). This suggests that replication studies are needed to determine whether, and to what extent,
these issues also affect teachers.
This study supports the literature that identifies a crisis in education as the reform agenda
promulgates from system to system (Ball, 2012), and provides evidence of potentially serious
health consequences for a substantial workforce through increasing emotional demands. It is not
drawing too long a bow to suggest that school principals find themselves in the current policy
milieu in a similar position to middle-ranking public servants who were the original subjects of the
Whitehall I and II studies. The long-term health consequences of increasing demands and dimin-
ishing resources, particularly decision latitude, and the emotional correlates of this change are
potentially very harmful (Kuper and Marmot, 2003).
Significant relationships in the expected directions between SA-Hiding emotions and all out-
comes were found. SA-Faking significantly negatively impacted job satisfaction, but did not affect
burnout or wellbeing. Previous studies using SA measures that combine hiding and faking emo-
tions implicitly suggest that they contribute equally to deleterious consequences. This study
demonstrates that this is not the case for school principals; the outcomes of hiding and faking are
Maxwell and Riley: Emotional demands, emotional labour and occupational outcomes 11
by guest on May 18, 2016ema.sagepub.comDownloaded from
different. Also, we found no significant effects between DA and burnout, wellbeing or job satis-
faction. Though DA is reported as a strategy and correlates with occupational outcomes, it does not
directly predict outcomes when all other variables are taken into account. These results support the
prior findings that deep acting does not have significant relationships with job satisfaction
(Hu
¨lsheger and Schewe, 2011) and are in opposition to others (Wang et al, 2011). Perhaps the
high levels of job satisfaction seen in the sample obfuscate potential relationships regarding DA.
Burnout/wellbeing. Hiding emotions is the only component of SA that predicts emotional
exhaustion and wellbeing in school principals. Like physicians (Lee et al., 2010), school leaders
report hiding emotions as the most frequently utilised EL strategy, which is associated with worse
outcomes than faking. It is also possible that when faking is performed with positive motives, as
would be the case with these participants, this reduces the negative effects. The high level of
burnout seen in this population and this association with emotional suppression is of particular
importance given the negative health consequences that can result from prolonged emotional job
stress (Grandey, 2000; Gross 2002; Harris, 2001, Lazarus, 1991).
Job satisfaction. Hu
¨lsheger and Schewe (2011) found a strong negative relationship between
the effects of SA and job satisfaction across occupations in their meta-analysis of EL research. This
study provides more detailed evidence, showing that hiding and faking separately predict reduced
job satisfaction. This could be explained via two simultaneous processes. When one fakes an
emotion, there is an outward expression as well as an inward suppression. Outward fake expres-
sions of emotions can lead to feelings of inauthenticity in the workplace (Brotheridge and Lee,
2003; Goldberg and Grandey, 2007). The resulting dissonance between the truth of felt emotion
and the mask of expressed emotion is obvious (Mann, 1999). The associated lack of authenticity
may threaten the sense of self. Perhaps when one’s sense of authentic self is impacted by workplace
stressors, then satisfaction with that workplace diminishes. Second, the simultaneous suppression
of true emotion (hiding) can lead to a stress response and perhaps associating work with feelings of
physical stress also contributes to workplace dissatisfaction.
Limitations and future directions
Limitations of this study include the use of self-report measures, which can be affected by things
such as social desirability. General job resources such as social support levels, autonomy or self-
efficacy were not held constant in this study. Future studies may wish to include these variables as
controls or to use them in a difference model as moderators. The valence and duration of the
emotions being hidden or faked was not specified and it is possible that there are differences in
outcomes depending, for instance, on whether the emotion being suppressed is positive or nega-
tive, or whether the emotionally laborious interaction is ongoing or fleeting. The COPSOQ-II was
validated in Denmark and cross-cultural contrasts may play some part in explaining the differences
in mean scores (Hofstede, 2001); replication studies will be needed, both in Australia and other
countries, to assess this possibility. Finally, this was a cross-sectional study, and though the
causative pathways modelled were based on theory and prior findings, future research could assess
the model longitudinally to more clearly ascertain the directionality of effects.
Practical implications
The findings in this study extend the understanding of type and amount of emotional labour
performance across occupations, by demonstrating that school principals use a range of emotional
12 Educational Management Administration & Leadership
by guest on May 18, 2016ema.sagepub.comDownloaded from
labour strategies in executing their role. This study explored the direct paths from emotional
demands and EL to outcome variables. Hiding emotions predicts more poor outcomes than faking,
while DA had no consequences. As discussed earlier, DA is a form of cognitive reappraisal (Gross,
1998). This type of antecedent-focussed emotional regulation occurs before responding and, as
such, appears to be the most desirable form of EL. Therefore, one of the major implications of this
study is that DA should be the recommended EL strategy for leaders. Gross’ (2002) research
demonstrated that while suppression (hiding emotion) reduced the outward expression of emotion
successfully, it did not change the internal emotion. Cognitive appraisal changes expressed and felt
emotion, and does not activate cardiovascular stress responses (Gross, 1998; Harris, 2001).
However, schools are rife with emotionality, as they deal with people’s most important hopes,
fears and dreams on a daily basis: the lives and futures of children. It will never be possible to
either always express true emotions or reappraise them, so hiding and faking will continue.
However, explicit education to help leaders manage the effects of high emotional demands,
planned or reactive hiding and faking, and healthy post-interaction behaviours would provide
some inoculation against burnout and improve wellbeing. For instance, mindfulness has been
demonstrated to be effective in coping with emotional demands by reducing stress levels following
SA, reducing burnout and improving job satisfaction (Hu
¨lsheger et al., 2013). What is clear to us
following this study is that emotional demands and associated labour are essential aspects of the
school principal’s role and, given their potential to interfere with both individual and school
functioning, need more research attention.
Declaration of conflicting interests
The author(s) declared no potential conflicts of interest with respect to the research, authorship, and/or
publication of this article.
Funding
The author(s) disclosed receipt of the following financial support for the research, authorship, and/or publi-
cation of this article: Start up funds for this project were provided by Monash University. Funding to continue
the project has been provided by: Teachers Health Fund; Australian Primary Principals Association; Aus-
tralian Secondary Principals Association; Catholic Secondary Principals Association; and, The Association of
Heads of Independent Schools of Australia.
References
Bakker AB and Demerouti E (2007) The Job Demands-Resources model: State of the art. Journal of Manage-
rial Psychology 22: 309–328.
Bakker AB, Demerouti E, Taris TW, et al. (2003) A multi-group analysis of the job demands-resources model
in four home care organizations. International Journal of Stress Management 10: 16–38.
Bakker AB, van Veldhoven M and Xanthopoulou D (2010) Beyond the Demand-Control Model: Thriving on
high job demands and resources. Journal of Personnel Psychology 9: 3–16.
Ball SJ (2012) Global Education Inc.: New Policy Networks and the Neo-Liberal Imaginary. Abingdon:
Routledge.
Bartram T, Casimir G, Djurkovic N, et al. (2012) Do perceived high performance work systems influence the
relationship between emotional labour, burnout and intention to leave? A study of Australian nurses.
Journal of Advanced Nursing 68: 1567–1578.
Maxwell and Riley: Emotional demands, emotional labour and occupational outcomes 13
by guest on May 18, 2016ema.sagepub.comDownloaded from
Bayram N, Aytac S and Dursun S (2012) Emotional labor and burnout at work: A study from Turkey.
Procedia – Social and Behavioral Sciences 65: 300–305.
Beatty BR (2000) The emotions of educational leadership: Breaking the silence. International Journal of
Leadership in Education 3: 331–357.
Berkovich I and Eyal O (2015) Educational leaders and emotions: An international review of empirical
evidence 1992–2012. Review of Educational Research 85: 129–167.
Billot J (2003) The real and the ideal: The role and workload of secondary principals in New Zealand.
International Studies in Educational Administration 31: 33–49.
Bjorner JB and Pejtersen JH (2010) Evaluating construct validity of the second version of the Copenhagen
Psychosocial Questionnaire through analysis of differential item functioning and differential item effect.
Scandinavian Journal of Public Health 38: 90–105.
Blackmore J (1996) Doing ‘emotional labour’ in the education market place: Stories from the field of women
in management. Discourse: Studies in the Cultural Politics of Education 17: 337–349.
Blackmore J (2010) Preparing leaders to work with emotions in culturally diverse educational communities.
Journal of Educational Administration 48: 642–658.
Boomsma A (2000) Reporting analyses of covariance structures. Structural Equation Modeling: A Multi-
disciplinary Journal 7: 461–483.
Brotheridge CM and Grandey AA (2002) Emotional labor and burnout: Comparing two perspectives of
‘people work’’. Journal of Vocational Behavior 60: 17–39.
Brotheridge CM and Lee RT (2003) Development and validation of the Emotional Labour Scale. Journal of
Occupational and Organizational Psychology 76: 365–379.
Brotheridge CM and Taylor I (2006) Cultural differences in emotional labor in flight attendants. In: Zerbe WJ,
Ashkanasy NM and Ha¨rtel CEJ (eds) Individual and Organizational Perspectives on Emotion Manage-
ment and Display (Research on Emotion in Organizations, Volume 2). Emerald Group Publishing Lim-
ited, pp.167–191.
Clarke S (2006) From fragmentation to convergence: Shaping an Australian agenda for quality school
leadership. School Leadership & Management 26: 169–182.
Combs JP and Edmonson SL (2010) Professional burnout and job demands among high school principals: A
mixed methods study. In: Toward a Broader Understanding of Stress and Coping: Mixed Methods
Approaches. Charlotte, NC: IAP Information Age Publishing, pp.437–462.
Crawford M (2007) Rationality and Emotion in primary school leadership; an exploration of key themes.
Educational Review 59: 87–98.
Crawford M (2009) Getting to the Heart of Leadership: Emotion and Educational Leadership.Sage
Publications.
Darmody M and Smyth E (2011) Job Satisfaction and Occupational Stress among Primary School Teachers
and School Principals in Ireland. Ireland: The Teaching Council and ESRI.
Day C, Harris A and Hadfield M (2001) Challenging the orthodoxy of effective school leadership. Interna-
tional Journal of Leadership in Education 4: 39–56.
De Nobile JJ and McCormick J (2010) Occupational stress of Catholic primary school staff: A
study of biographical differences. International Journal of Educational Management 24:
492–506.
Demerouti E, Bakker AB, Nachreiner F and Ebbinghaus M (2002) From mental strain to burnout. European
Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology 11: 423–441.
Det Nationale Forskningscenter for Arbejdsmiljø [National Research Center for the Working Environment]
(2011) Psychological working environment, COPSOQ II data. Available at: http://olddata.arbejdsmiljo-
forskning.dk/Nationale%20Data/3DII.aspx?lang=da, accessed 1 April 2016.
14 Educational Management Administration & Leadership
by guest on May 18, 2016ema.sagepub.comDownloaded from
Dewa CS, Dermer SW, Chau N, et al. (2009) Examination of factors associated with the mental health status
of principals. Work 33: 439–448.
Diefendorff JM and Gosserand RH (2003) Understanding the emotional labor process: A control theory
perspective. Journal of Organizational Behavior 24: 945–959.
Eacott S and Norris J (2014) Managerial rhetoric, accountability, and school leadership in contemporary
Australia. Leadership and Policy in Schools 13: 169–187.
Earley P, Evans J, Collarbone P, et al. (2002) Establishing the Current State of School Leadership in England.
London: Department for Education and Skills, 151pp.
Favero N and Bullock JB (2015) How (not) to solve the problem: An evaluation of scholarly responses to
common source bias. Journal of Public Administration Research and Theory 25: 285–308.
Federici R and Skaalvik E (2012) Principal self-efficacy: Relations with burnout, job satisfaction and motiva-
tion to quit. Social Psychology of Education 15(3): 295–320.
Fink D and Brayman C (2006) School leadership succession and the challenges of change. Educational
Administration Quarterly 42: 62–89.
Friedman IA (2002) Burnout in school principals: Role related antecedents. Social Psychology of Education
5: 229–251.
Gallant A and Riley P (2013) The Emotional Labour of the Aspirant Leader: Traversing School Politics. In:
Newberry M, Gallant A and Riley P (eds) Emotion and School: Understanding how the Hidden
Curriculum Influences Relationships, Leadership, Teaching, and Learning, pp.81–97.
Ganassali S (2008) The influence of the design of web survey questionnaires on the quality of responses.
Survey Research Methods 2: 21–32.
Gmelch W and Swent B (1984) Management team stressors and their impact on administrators’ health.
Journal of Educational Administration 22: 192–205.
Goldberg LS and Grandey AA (2007) Display rules versus display autonomy: Emotion regulation, emotional
exhaustion, and task performance in a call center simulation. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology
12: 301–318.
Gooty J, Connelly S, Griffith J, et al. (2010) Leadership, affect and emotions: A state of the science review.
The Leadership Quarterly 21: 979–1004.
Grandey AA (2000) Emotion regulation in the workplace: A new way to conceptualize emotional labor.
Journal of Occupational Health Psychology 5: 95–110.
Grandey AA (2003) When ‘the show must go on’’: Surface acting and deep acting as determinants of
emotional exhaustion and peer-rated service delivery. The Academy of Management Journal 46: 86–96.
Grandey AA (2015) Smiling for a wage: What emotional labor teaches us about emotion regulation. Psy-
chological Inquiry 26: 54–60.
Grandey AA, Chi N-W and Diamond JA (2013) Show me the money!Do financial rewards for performance
enhance or undermine the satisfaction from emotional labor? Personnel Psychology 66: 569–612.
Grandey AA, Foo SC, Groth M, et al. (2012) Free to be you and me: A climate of authenticity alleviates
burnout from emotional labor. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology 17: 1–14.
Grandey AA and Gabriel AS (2015) Emotional labor at a crossroads: Where do we go from here? Annual
Review of Organizational Psychology and Organizational Behavior 2: 323–349.
Gross JJ (1998) The emerging field of emotion regulation: An integrative review. Review of General Psy-
chology 2: 271–299.
Gross JJ (2002) Emotion regulation: Affective, cognitive, and social consequences. Psychophysiology 39:
281–291.
Hallinger P and Heck RH (1998) Exploring the principal’s contribution to school effectiveness: 1980–1995.
School Effectiveness and School Improvement 9: 157–191.
Maxwell and Riley: Emotional demands, emotional labour and occupational outcomes 15
by guest on May 18, 2016ema.sagepub.comDownloaded from
Harris CR (2001) Cardiovascular responses of embarrassment and effects of emotional suppression in a social
setting. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 81: 886.
Haver A, Akerjordet K and Furunes T (2013) Emotion regulation and its implications for leadership: An
integrative review and future research agenda. Journal of Leadership and Organizational Studies 20:
287–303.
Hobfoll SE (1989) Conservation of resources: A new attempt at conceptualizing stress. American Psychol-
ogist 44: 513–524.
Hochschild AR (1983) The Managed Heart – Commercialization of Human Feeling. Berkeley, CA: Univer-
sity of California Press.
Hofstede G (2001) Culture’s Consequences: Comparing Values, Behaviors, Institutions, and Organizations
across Nations. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.
Hsieh C-W, Jin MH and Guy ME (2012) Consequences of work-related emotions analysis of a cross-section
of public service workers. The American Review of Public Administration 42: 39–53.
Hu L-T and Bentler PM (1999) Cutoff criteria for fit indexes in covariance structure analysis: Conventional
criteria versus new alternatives. Structural Equation Modeling: A Multidisciplinary Journal 6: 1–55.
Hu
¨lsheger UR, Alberts HJEM, Feinholdt A, et al. (2013) Benefits of mindfulness at work: The role of
mindfulness in emotion regulation, emotional exhaustion, and job satisfaction. Journal of Applied Psy-
chology 98: 310–325.
Hu
¨lsheger UR, Lang JWB and Maier GW (2011) Emotional labor, strain, and performance: Testing
reciprocal relationships in a longitudinal panel study. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology 15:
505–521.
Hu
¨lsheger UR and Schewe AF (2011) On the costs and benefits of emotional labor: A meta-analysis of three
decades of research. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology 16: 361–389.
Humphrey RH (2012) How do leaders use emotional labor? Journal of Organizational Behavior 33: 740–744.
Humphrey RH, Pollack JM and Hawver T (2008) Leading with emotional labor. Journal of Managerial
Psychology 23: 151–168.
James C and Vince R (2001) Developing the leadership capability of headteachers. Educational Management
Administration & Leadership 29: 307–317.
Johnson S, Cooper C, Cartwright S, et al. (2005) The experience of work-related stress across occupations.
Journal of Managerial Psychology 20: 178–187.
Joyce B (2014) New research reveals Australian principals face increasing burnout, abuse and bullying [Press
release]. Available at: https://www.teachershealth.com.au/news/research-reveals-australian-principals-
face-increasing-burnout-abuse-bullying/.
Karasek RA (1979) Job demands, job decision latitude, and mental strain: Implications for job redesign.
Administrative Science Quarterly 24: 285–308.
Kinman G, McFall O and Rodriguez J (2011a) The cost of caring? Emotional labour, wellbeing and the
clergy. Pastoral Psychology 60: 671–680.
Kinman G, Wray S and Strange C (2011b) Emotional labour, burnout and job satisfaction in UK teachers: The
role of workplace social support. Educational Psychology 31: 843–856.
Kuper H and Marmot M (2003) Job strain, job demands, decision latitude, and risk of coronary heart disease
within the Whitehall II study. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health 57: 147–153.
Lasalvia A (2011) Occupational stress, professional burnout and job satisfaction among psychiatrists. In:
Langan-Fox J and Cooper CL (eds) Handbook of Stress in the Occupations. Cheltenham, UK: Edward
Elgar Publishing, pp.49–68.
Lazarus RS (1991) Psychological stress in the workplace. Journal of Social Behavior and Personality 6:
1–13.
16 Educational Management Administration & Leadership
by guest on May 18, 2016ema.sagepub.comDownloaded from
Lee RT and Ashforth BE (1993) A longitudinal study of burnout among supervisors and managers: Compar-
isons between the Leiter and Maslach (1988) and Golembiewski et al. (1986) models. Organizational
Behavior and Human Decision Processes 54: 369–398.
Lee RT and Brotheridge CM (2011) Words from the heart speak to the heart: A study of deep acting, faking,
and hiding among child care workers. Career Development International 16: 401–420.
Lee RT, Lovell BL and Brotheridge CM (2010) Tenderness and steadiness: Relating job and interpersonal
demands and resources with burnout and physical symptoms of stress in Canadian physicians. Journal of
Applied Social Psychology 40: 2319–2342.
Leithwood K, Harris A and Hopkins D (2008) Seven strong claims about successful school leadership. School
Leadership & Management 28: 27–42.
Lingard B (2010) Policy borrowing, policy learning: testing times in Australian schooling. Critical Studies in
Education 51: 129–147.
Lingard B, Martino W and Rezai-Rashti G (2013) Testing regimes, accountabilities and education policy:
Commensurate global and national developments. Journal of Education Policy 28: 539–556.
Man S (1999) Emotion at work: To what extent are we expressing, suppressing, or faking it? European
Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology 8: 347–369.
Maslach C (2003) Job burnout: New directions in research and intervention. Current Directions in Psycho-
logical Science 12: 189–192.
Maslach C and Jackson SE (1986) Maslach Burnout Inventory: Manual. Palo Alto, CA: Consulting Psychol-
ogists Press.
Maslach C, Jackson SE and Leiter MP (1996) MBI: Maslach Burnout Inventory Manual. Palo Alto, CA:
Consulting Psychologists Press.
Maslach C, Schaufeli WB and Leiter MP (2001) Job burnout. Annual Review of Psychology 52:
397–422.
Muthe´n LK and Muthe´ n BO (1998–2012) Mplus User’s Guide. Los Angeles, CA: Muthe´ n and Muthe´n.
Na¨ring G, Brie¨t M and Brouwers A (2006) Beyond demand–control: Emotional labour and symptoms of
burnout in teachers. Work and Stress 20: 303–315.
Na¨ring G, Vlerick P and Van de Ven B (2012) Emotion work and emotional exhaustion in teachers: The job
and individual perspective. Educational Studies 38: 63–72.
Page KM and Vella-Brodrick DA (2009) The ‘what’, ‘why’ and ‘how’ of employee well-being: A new model.
Social Indicators Research 90: 441–458.
Pejtersen JH, Bjorner JB and Hasle P (2010a) Determining minimally important score differences in
scales of the Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire. Scandinavian Journal of Public Health 38:
33–41.
Pejtersen JH, Kristensen TS, Borg V, et al. (2010b) The second version of the Copenhagen Psychosocial
Questionnaire. Scandinavian Journal of Public Health 38: 8–24.
Philipp A and Schu
¨pbach H (2010) Longitudinal effects of emotional labour on emotional exhaustion and
dedication of teachers. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology 15: 494–504.
Phillips SJ, Sen D and McNamee R (2007) Prevalence and causes of self-reported work-related stress in head
teachers. Occupational Medicine 57: 367–376.
Podsakoff PM, MacKenzie SB and Podsakoff NP (2012) Sources of method bias in social science research
and recommendations on how to control it. Annual Review of Psychology 63: 539–569.
Poirel E, Lapointe P and Yvon F (2012) Coping with administrative constraints by Quebec school principals.
Canadian Journal of School Psychology 27: 302–318.
Pugliesi K (1999) The consequences of emotional labor: Effects on work stress, job satisfaction, and well-
being. Motivation and Emotion 23: 125–154.
Maxwell and Riley: Emotional demands, emotional labour and occupational outcomes 17
by guest on May 18, 2016ema.sagepub.comDownloaded from
Rafaeli A and Sutton RI (1987) Expression of emotion as part of the work role. The Academy of Management
Review 12: 23–37.
Rajah R, Song Z and Arvey RD (2011) Emotionality and leadership: Taking stock of the past decade of
research. The Leadership Quarterly 22(6): 1107–1119.
Rhodes C and Greenway C (2010). Dramatis personae: Enactment and performance in primary school head-
ship. Management in Education 24: 149–153. DOI: 10.1177/0892020610379145.
Richardson J, Iezzi A, Khan M, et al. (2013) Validity and reliability of the Assessment of Quality of
Life (AQoL)-8D multi-attribute utility instrument. The Patient – Patient-Centered Outcomes
Research:112.
Richardson J, Khan M, Chen G, et al. (2012) Population norms and Australian profile using the Assessment of
Quality of Life (AQoL) 8D utility instrument. Melbourne, Australia: Monash University.
Riley P and Langan-Fox J (2013) Bullying, stress and health in school principals and medical professionals:
Experiences at the ‘front-line’. In: Burke R, Cooper CL and Fox S (eds) Human frailties: Wrong turns on
the road to success Farnham, UK: Gower, pp.181–199.
Riley P (2014) The Australian Principal occupational health, safety and wellbeing survey: 2011–2014 data.
[Report]. Available at: http://www.principalhealth.org/au/2011-14%20Report_FINAL.pdf.
Rugulies R, Aust B and Pejtersen JH (2010) Do psychosocial work environment factors measured with scales
from the Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire predict register-based sickness absence of 3 weeks or
more in Denmark? Scandinavian Journal of Public Health 38: 42–50.
Schaufeli WB and Bakker AB (2010) Defining and measuring work engagement: Bringing clarity to the
concept. In: Work Engagement: A Handbook of Essential Theory and Research. New York: Psychology
Press, pp.10–24.
Schutz PA, Aultman LP and Williams-Johnson MR (2009) Educational psychology perspectives on teachers’
emotions. In: Schutz PA and Zembylas M (eds) Advances in Teacher Emotion Research. Springer US, pp.
195–212.
Seery BL and Corrigall EA (2009) Emotional labor: Links to work attitudes and emotional exhaustion.
Journal of Managerial Psychology 24: 797–813.
Siegrist J (2001) A theory of occupational stress. In: Dunham J (ed.) Stress in the Workplace: Past, Present,
and Future. Philadelphia, PA: Whurr, pp.52–66.
Sloan MM (2012) The consequences of emotional labor for public sector workers and the mitigating role of
self-efficacy. The American Review of Public Administration 44: 274–290.
Ten Bruggencate G, Luyten H, Scheerens J, et al. (2012) Modeling the influence of school leaders on student
achievement. Educational Administration Quarterly 48: 699–732.
Totterdell P and Holman D (2003) Emotion regulation in customer service roles: Testing a model of emo-
tional labor. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology 8: 55–73.
Wang G, Seibert SE and Boles TL (2011) Synthesizing what we know and looking ahead: A meta-
analytical review of 30 years of emotional labor research. Research on Emotion in Organizations 7:
15–43.
West DL, Peck C and Reitzug UC (2010) Limited control and relentless accountability: Examining historical
changes in urban school principal pressure. Journal of School Leadership 20: 238–266.
West SG, Taylor AB and Wu W (2012) Model fit and model selection in structural equation modeling. In:
Hoyle RH (ed.) Handbook of Structural Equation Modeling. Guilford Press.
Williams LJ, Hartman N and Cavazotte F (2010) Method variance and marker variables: A review and
comprehensive CFA marker technique. Organizational Research Methods 13: 477–514.
Yilmaz K, Altinkurt Y, Guner M, et al. (2015) The relationship between teachers’ emotional labor and
burnout level. Eurasian Journal of Educational Research 59: 75–90.
18 Educational Management Administration & Leadership
by guest on May 18, 2016ema.sagepub.comDownloaded from
Zapf D (2002) Emotion work and psychological well-being. A review of the literature and some conceptual
considerations. Human Resource Management Review 12: 237–268.
Zikhali J and Perumal J (2015) Leading in disadvantaged Zimbabwean school contexts: Female school heads’
experiences of emotional labour. Educational Management Administration and Leadership. DOI 10.1177/
1741143214558572, published 27 February 2016.
Author biographies
Aimee Maxwell is a practicing psychologist and PhD candidate who is particularly interested in
workplace wellbeing and overall quality of life. She is a Partner Investigator on the Principal
Health and Wellbeing project at ACU and is an Adjunct Research Fellow at the Centre for Health
Economics at Monash University.
Philip Riley researches the overlap of psychology, education and leadership, with a particular
focus on the lives of school leaders. Phil is an Associate Professor, Leadership in the Profession in
the Institute for Positive Psychology and Education the Australian Catholic University. He has
collaborated on more than 150 publications and peer reviewed conference presentations and has
been awarded over AUD $6 million in research funding.
Maxwell and Riley: Emotional demands, emotional labour and occupational outcomes 19
by guest on May 18, 2016ema.sagepub.comDownloaded from
... School principals' well-being is a determinative factor for teachers' and students' wellbeing. When principals' well-being declines, their ability to significantly impact school functioning and whole-school well-being also declines [3,4]. Recently, there have been increasing studies concerning primary and secondary school principals' well-being [3,4], yet few studies have considered principals' well-being in the early childhood education (ECE) context. ...
... When principals' well-being declines, their ability to significantly impact school functioning and whole-school well-being also declines [3,4]. Recently, there have been increasing studies concerning primary and secondary school principals' well-being [3,4], yet few studies have considered principals' well-being in the early childhood education (ECE) context. ...
... The JD-R model has been widely adopted to explain how job resources and job demands influence employees' performance and well-being [11]. It has also been applied to examine the well-being of teachers [12,13] and primary school principals [3] in previous studies. This study specifically examined emotional job demands and social support from colleagues and their influences on principals' OWB. ...
Article
Full-text available
The position of school principal is emotionally demanding. Principals’ occupational well-being (OWB) can be influenced by their emotional work characteristics, and their emotional regulation plays a critical role. Based on the job demands–resources (JD-R) model, this study investigated the relationships between kindergarten principals’ OWB and its complex antecedents. Specifically, the study examined the influences among emotional job demands and trust in colleagues on kindergarten principals’ OWB factors (job satisfaction and emotional exhaustion), with a particular focus on the role of their emotion regulation strategies. Through an investigation of 618 kindergarten principals in China, the results showed that emotional job demands and trust in colleagues had different influences on principals’ OWB dimensions. Emotional job demands can enhance both principals’ suppression and reappraisal strategies, and trust in colleagues functions as an interpersonal resource for reappraisal. Principals’ emotion regulation strategies mediated the influence of work characteristics on OWB. Reappraisal is an important personal resource that can buffer the influence of work demands on OWB. The results may extend our understanding of principals’ emotional work. The implications on principals’ work and emotion regulation were further discussed.
... By preventing the feeling of pressure caused by customer complaints in order to achieve the expected organizational goals, this employee still deals with customers calmly and calmly [24,31]. Studies show that all kinds of ethical acting strategies-Emotional can reduce the psychological stress of employees and this reduction of stress can lead to positive results such as job satisfaction [32,33]. Many researchers have confirmed the role of moral-emotional acting strategies in reducing job burnout [13,14,34,35], on the other hand, moral-emotional acting is related to job satisfaction [26,32]. ...
... Studies show that all kinds of ethical acting strategies-Emotional can reduce the psychological stress of employees and this reduction of stress can lead to positive results such as job satisfaction [32,33]. Many researchers have confirmed the role of moral-emotional acting strategies in reducing job burnout [13,14,34,35], on the other hand, moral-emotional acting is related to job satisfaction [26,32]. The discussed topics all indicate the importance of training human resources and how human resources deal with colleagues, audiences, and clients. ...
... There is a broad spectrum of understanding of the place of emotions in leadership and in education more generally. Research has previously focused on the expectation that leaders will perform emotional labour to manage their own emotions within complex situations (Arar & Oplatka, 2018;Sachs & Blackmore, 1998;Maxwell & Riley, 2017). Researchers have also explored the frustrations and emotions evident for leaders who have to balance their own emotional values and restrictive or performative conditions inherent in schooling around the globe, or the issues caused by policy pressures (e.g., Ball, 2003;Day, 2014;Perryman, 2007). ...
Article
Full-text available
This paper explores the emotional work involved in leading schools in marginalised communities, through case studies of Australian and English government-school principals theorised through Lynch’s framework of affective justice and the embedded concepts of love, care and solidarity. Participants demonstrated solidarity in their choice of working in these particular schools, which brings with them a higher level of emotional complexity. Their work towards social justice manifests through their care relationships when interacting with students, staff and communities. These interactions, full of emotion, impact the third affective relation–love. Findings show the impact of participants’ solidarity and care work on their own personal relationships. In exploring the affective domain of school leaders’ work, we seek to articulate how principals can be empowered to continue to undertake their solidarity and care work while mitigating impacts on the relationships that are vital for their own wellbeing.
Article
Emotion is central to principals’ daily operation of schools. As principals’ work is intensifying, principals are increasingly encountering emotionally charged situations on a daily basis. This article uses data from a large provincial survey to explore what time demand factors contribute to these emotionally draining situations that principals are experiencing in the context of work intensification. An ordinal logit regression that is commonly employed for the analysis of ordinal categorical data was used for data analysis. The findings reveal that the time demands, such as the fast work pace, long work hours and lack of time, all work in concert to increase the likelihood of emotionally draining situations among school principals. As principals try to manage emotional situations, these contributing factors are far beyond their control. The unmanageable time demands can leave principals feeling frustrated and vulnerable and evoke negative emotions that adversely impact their own well-being as well as their schools.
Conference Paper
Akreditasyon çok sayıda ülkede ve sektörde topluma yönelik olarak sunulan program ve hizmetlerin kalitesinin, niteliğinin, verimliliğinin ve etkililiğinin sistematik bir yaklaşımla güvence altına alınması için geliştirilen bir yöntemdir. Bu nedenle akreditasyon eğitim alanında da önemli bir yere sahiptir. Çünkü eğitim, hem toplumların hem de insanlığın gelişimini ve devamlılığını sağlayan en önemli alan olarak görülmektedir. Özellikle eğitim sistemlerinin uygulayıcısı ve lokomotifi durumunda olan öğretmenlerin eğitimi ve bu eğitimin kalitesi ülkelerin geleceği açısından son derece önemlidir. Buna bağlı olarak öğretmen yetiştirme politikaları, gelişmiş ülkelerin gündeminde öncelikli olarak yer almaktadır. Öğretmen eğitimi ile ilgili konuların küresel düzeyde gündemin en üst sıralarında yer alması, öğretmen eğitiminin kalitesini arttırma ile ilgili çalışmalara uluslararası yönde bir hız kazandırmaktadır. Dolayısı ile öğretmenlik eğitimi programlarının değerlendirilmesi ve akreditasyonu konusu daha fazla önem kazanmaktadır. Öğretmen eğitiminin niteliğinin arttırılması ve bu niteliğin güvence altına alınması, sürekli bir iç ve dış denetimle sistemli olarak yürütülmesi, ilgili kesimlere (veliler, öğrenciler, okullar vb.) öğretmen eğitiminin belirli standartlara dayalı olarak yürütüldüğünün güvencesinin verilmesi yalnızca etkili bir akreditasyon sistemi ile sağlanabilir. Etkili bir akreditasyon sistemi geliştirebilmek veya mevcut akreditasyon sisteminin niteliğini arttırmak için farklı ülkelerdeki öğretmenlik eğitimi değerlendirme ve akreditasyon kuruluşlarının incelenmesi gerekmektedir. Ancak ilgili alan yazın incelendiğinde bu konuyla ilgili çalışmaların oldukça sınırlı olduğu görülmektedir. Özellikle Türk eğitim sisteminin şekillenmesinde önemli etkileri olan, akreditasyon alanında büyük bir kazanım elde etmiş ve öğretmen eğitimi programlarının akreditasyonu konusunda önemli ilerlemeler kaydetmiş Fransa’yla ilgili akreditasyon konusunda herhangi bir çalışmanın yapılmaması önemli bir eksiklik olarak görülmektedir. Buna bağlı olarak bu çalışmada Fransa'daki öğretmenlik eğitim programları değerlendirme ve akreditasyon kuruluşlarının incelenmesi amaçlanmıştır. Çalışma kapsamında: 1. Fransa’daki öğretmenlik eğitimi programlarına yönelik olan akreditasyon kuruluşları nelerdir? 2. Mevcut akreditasyon kuruluşlarının amaçları nelerdir? 3. Akreditasyon süreci nasıldır? 4. Standartları ve başvuru şartları nelerdir? 5. Bu akreditasyon kuruluşlarının Fransa eğitim sistemi için önemi nedir? 6. Fransa’daki ve Türkiye’deki öğretmenlik eğitim programlarının daha etkili şekilde değerlendirilebilmesi ve akredite edilebilmesi için neler yapılabilir? gibi sorulara yanıt aranmıştır. Çalışmada elde edilen bulgulara dayalı olarak hem Fransa’daki hem de Türkiye’deki öğretmenlik eğitim programları değerlendirme ve akreditasyon kuruluşlarına yönelik öneriler sunulmuştur. Ayrıca çalışmada elde edilen veriler doğrultusunda Türkiye’de yükseköğretimde öğretmen eğitimine yönelik yapılan uygulamaları geliştirmeye yönelik öneriler getirilmiştir. Anahtar Kelimeler: Öğretmen Eğitimi, Öğretmenlik Eğitim Programları, Akreditasyon, Fransa.
Conference Paper
İçerisinde bulunduğumuz yüzyıl, bilim ve teknolojide yaşanan hızlı gelişmelere bağlı olarak toplumsal yaşamda pek çok değişimi ve gelişimi beraberinde getirmiştir. Ayrıca salgın hastalıklar, küresel ısınma, yoksulluk, savaş, terör ve göç gibi küresel sorunların artması dünyada çok sayıda probleme neden olmuş, bu durum insan yaşamını olumsuz etkilemiştir. Bu gelişmeler toplumsal süreklilik için sorumluluk sahibi olan, bilgiyi üreten, paylaşan, doğru bilgiye erişebilen, demokratik ve evrensel değerleri özümsemiş nitelikli insan gücünün gerekliliğini arttırmıştır. Ancak nitelikli insan yetiştirmek nitelikli bir eğitim ile mümkündür. Nitelikli eğitim ise nitelikli öğretmenlerin yetişmesi ve eğitim sistemine dâhil olması ile sağlanabilir. Bu nedenle değişen ihtiyaçlar ve dünya düzeni doğrultusunda öğretmenlik mesleği, öğretmenlik mesleğinin önemi, yeterlikleri ve rolleri her toplumda güncelliğini koruyan en temel eğitim konuları arasında yer almaktadır. Buna bağlı olarak öğretmen yetiştirme, pek çok ülkede olduğu gibi Türkiye’de de eğitim sisteminin en öncelikli çözüm bekleyen alanlarından biri olmuştur ve olmaya devam etmektedir. Bu sorunun başarılı şekilde çözümlenebilmesi için diğer ülkelerin öğretmen yetiştirme konusundaki deneyimlerinin, bu konuyla ilgili geçmişlerinin ve günümüzdeki mevcut durumlarının araştırılması ve incelenmesi büyük öneme sahiptir. Avrupa’nın önde gelen ülkelerinden biri olarak kabul edilen Fransa, 1789 Fransız İhtilali’nden itibaren bütün dünyayı pek çok alanda etkilemiştir. Türk eğitim sisteminin şekillenmesinde de önemli etkileri olan Fransa’nın öğretmen yetiştirme konusundaki geçmişi, deneyimi ve bu konudaki mevcut uygulamaları merak konusu olmuştur. Ancak ilgili alan yazın incelendiğinde bu konuyla ilgili yapılmış çalışmaların çok sınırlı olduğu ve güncel olmadığı görülmüştür. Bu çalışmada, Fransa’da öğretmen yetiştirme konusu incelenmiş, öğretmen yetiştirme sürecine tarihsel gelişimi içerisinde bakılmış, bugünkü öğretmen yetiştirme uygulamalarının güçlü yanları ve sorunları ortaya konmuştur. Çalışmada elde edilen bulgulara dayalı olarak hem Fransa’daki hem de Türkiye’deki öğretmen yetiştirme uygulamalarına yönelik çözüm önerileri geliştirilmiştir. Araştırma, nitel temelli bir araştırma olarak tasarlanmış, çeşitli resmi metinler, ikinci el kaynaklar ve bilimsel çalışmalar doküman incelemesi yöntemiyle incelenmiştir. Anahtar Kelimeler: Öğretmen Eğitimi, Öğretmen Yetiştirme Programları, Eğitim Tarihi, Fransa.
Conference Paper
Full-text available
With the developing technology in recent years, the tendency towards digital world has increased and this has affected the demand for microchips. Today, the supply of microchip is needed in the production of many products such as home electronics, cryptocurrency mining devices, game consoles, automobiles and devices needed in the health sector. Microchip shortage due to increasing demand in the global context began to deepen in 2020 with the Covid-19 pandemic. From the perspective of the automotive sector, which is one of the sectors most affected by the microchip shortage, the effects of the crisis on the supply chain can be seen more clearly. The manufacturing process of a microchip producer takes about two months. The time from order to shipment can take up to four months in total. There are close to 100 microchips in a modern vehicle. Automotive manufacturers who cannot supply microchips have nearly 10 million pending orders. Microchip manufacturers, on the other hand, have serious problems in the supply of raw materials. Raw material problems that started with natural disasters and water scarcity; Microchip manufacturers have faced a very serious crisis with the increasing demand of consumers for higher technology products with the developing technology and pandemic. The theory of constraints was introduced by Dr. Eliyahu M. Goldralt in the early 1980s. The theory of constraints is a theory that includes finding the factor that reduces the system performance by creating disruptions in the functioning of the systems and improving the system. In this theory, the system is considered as a chain, and the weakest of the links that make up the chain is called the "constraint". The theory suggests focusing on the constraint to improve the system with empirical methods. In this study, the microchip shortage experienced due to the disruptions in the supply chain in recent years, the reasons for its emergence, the action plans proposed to overcome the microchip shortage are shared in a global context. In this study, the theory of constraints is presented as a model for improving the bottleneck created by microchip shortage in corporations. Son yıllarda gelişen teknoloji ile birlikte dijital dünyaya olan yönelim artmış ve bu durum mikroçiplere olan talebi etkilemiştir. Günümüzde ev elektroniği, kripto para madenciliği cihazları, oyun konsolları, otomobiller ve sağlık sektöründe ihtiyaç duyulan cihazlar gibi birçok ürünün üretiminde mikroçip tedariğine ihtiyaç duyulmaktadır. Küresel bağlamda artan talebe bağlı yaşanan mikroçip kıtlığı, 2020 yılında Covid-19 pandemisi ile derinleşmeye başlamıştır. Mikroçip kıtlığından en çok etkilenen sektörlerden olan otomotiv sektörü açısından bakıldığında, krizin tedarik zinciri boyutundaki etkileri daha net görülebilmektedir. Mikroçip üreten bir firmanın imalat süreci iki aya yakın sürmektedir. Siparişten sevkiyata kadar geçen süre ise toplamda dört ayı bulabilmektedir. Modern bir araçta 100’e yakın mikroçip bulunmaktadır. Mikroçip tedarik edemeyen otomotiv üreticilerinin 10 milyona yakın bekleyen siparişi bulunmaktadır. Mikroçip üreticisi firmalar ise hammadde tedarikinde ciddi sorunlar yaşamaktadır. Doğal afetler ve su kıtlığı ile başlayan hammadde sorunları; gelişen teknoloji ve pandemi ile birlikte tüketicilerin daha yüksek teknolojili ürünlere olan talebinin beklenenin üzerinde artması ile birlikte mikroçip üreticileri çok ciddi bir kriz ile karşı karşıya gelmiştir. Kısıtlar teorisi 1980’li yılların başında Dr.Eliyahu M.Goldralt tarafından ortaya konulmuştur. Kısıtlar teorisi sistemlerin işleyişinde aksamalar yaratarak, sistem performansını düşüren unsurun bulunması ve sistemin iyileştirmesini içeren bir teoridir. Bu teoride sistem bir zincir olarak ele alınmaktadır ve zinciri oluşturan halkalardan en zayıf olanı “kısıt” olarak adlandırılmaktadır. Teori, sistemin ampirik yöntemler ile iyileştirilmesi için kısıta odaklanılmasını önermektedir. Bu çalışmada son yıllarda tedarik zincirinde yaşanan aksamalar nedeniyle yaşanan mikroçip kıtlığı, ortaya çıkış nedenleri, mikroçip kıtlığı ile mücadelede önerilen eylem planları küresel bağlamda paylaşılmıştır. Çalışmada kısıtlar teorisi, mikroçip kıtlığının işletmelerde yarattığı darboğazın iyileştirilmesine yönelik bir model olarak sunulmuştur.
Chapter
Während in der Anfangsphase der deutschsprachigen Gesundheitskompetenzforschung der Fokus vor allem auf der Durchführung von populationsbezogenen Studien lag, findet seit einigen Jahren eine zunehmende Hinwendung zu einzelnen Settings und spezifischen Adressatengruppen statt. Für das Setting Schule liegt der Fokus bislang auf Schülerinnen und Schüler und mit deutlichem Abstand auf Lehrkräften. Hingegen sind Leitungspersonen an Schulen bislang kaum Gegenstand der Gesundheitskompetenzforschung und -praxis. Vor diesem Hintergrund verfolgt der Beitrag das Ziel, unterschiedliche Perspektiven der Gesundheitskompetenz für die vernachlässigte Berufsgruppe des schulischen Leitungspersonals zu beleuchten. Auf Basis von Befunden einer Querschnittstudie wird der Frage nachgegangen, wie es um die Gesundheitskompetenz dieser Berufsgruppe steht und ob sich in Abhängigkeit soziodemografischer und schulbezogener Variablen Unterschiede in der Ausprägung von Gesundheitskompetenz feststellen lassen. Darüber hinaus wird untersucht, in welchem Zusammenhang die Gesundheitskompetenz mit der psychischen Gesundheit der Leitungskräfte und dem Umsetzungsstand der schulischen Gesundheitsförderung steht.
Article
Influential texts have long identified principals as being essential to school success. Accordingly, high expectations and pressures have attended the principalship and affected the professionals who occupy it. This exploration asked three interrelated questions: What pressures have urban school principals typically faced, in the past and today? What new pressures have emerged? What effects have these pressures had on principals and the prospect for lasting urban school improvement? To answer these questions, historical and contemporary artifacts were analyzed, as well as data from interviews with 17 principals from one large urban district. Findings indicate that today, even more so than in the past, the urban principalship is characterized by extensive responsibilities and limited control, nested in a context of relentless accountability.
Book
The book contains examples of how school leaders experience emotion and meaning in their daily interactions. Through stories, the reader can experience how school climate depends on the personal emotional quality of the leader, and his/her interface with other social relationships in the school. The book discusses personality and life history, dealing with difficult people and situations, shame and loss, and the future of leadership. All of these are shown through practical examples - primary and secondary case studies as well as through school leaders’ reflections on the influence of their life history on leadership and emotion.
Article
Do private and philanthropic solutions to the problems of education signal the end of state education in its ‘welfare’ form?
Article
"In private life, we try to induce or suppress love, envy, and anger through deep acting or "emotion work," just as we manage our outer expressions of feeling through surface acting. In trying to bridge a gap between what we feel and what we "ought" to feel, we take guidance from "feeling rules" about what is owing to others in a given situation. Based on our private mutual understandings of feeling rules, we make a "gift exchange" of acts of emotion management. We bow to each other not simply from the waist, but from the heart. But what occurs when emotion work, feeling rules, and the gift of exchange are introduced into the public world of work? In search of the answer, Arlie Russell Hochschild closely examines two groups of public-contact workers: flight attendants and bill collectors. The flight attendant's job is to deliver a service and create further demand for it, to enhance the status of the customer and be "nicer than natural." The bill collector's job is to collect on the service, and if necessary, to deflate the status of the customer by being "nastier than natural." Between these extremes, roughly one-third of American men and one-half of American women hold jobs that call for substantial emotional labor. In many of these jobs, they are trained to accept feeling rules and techniques of emotion management that serve the company's commercial purpose. Just as we have seldom recognized or understood emotional labor, we have not appreciated its cost to those who do it for a living. Like a physical laborer who becomes estranged from what he or she makes, an emotional laborer, such as a flight attendant, can become estranged not only from her own expressions of feeling (her smile is not "her" smile), but also from what she actually feels (her managed friendliness). This estrangement, though a valuable defense against stress, is also an important occupational hazard, because it is through our feelings that we are connected with those around us. On the basis of this book, Hochschild was featured in Key Sociological Thinkers, edited by Rob Stones. This book was also the winner of the Charles Cooley Award in 1983, awarded by the American Sociological Association and received an honorable mention for the C. Wright Mills Award. © 1983, 2003, 2012 by The Regents of the University of California.