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Evolution of Post-Surgical Scars Treated with Pure Rosehip Seed Oil


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The rosehip seed oil (RHO), obtained from different plant species of the genus Rosa, is one of the compounds used empirically for cosmetic improvement of skin scarring. Despite its widespread use in clinical practice, there are few studies evaluating the activity of this compound on the clinical course of cutaneous scars. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of Repavar ® rosehip oil on improvement of post-surgical skin scars. One comparative, single-center, prospective clinical trial was carried out in 108 patients undergoing cutaneous surgery procedures in the Dermatology Service of University Hospital of Gran Canaria Dr. Negrin (Spain). Subjective parameters (erythema, discoloration, atrophy and hypertrophy) were evaluated at 6 and 12 weeks on 76 adults who treated scars with pure RHO twice a day (test group), 32 patients with not treatment (control group), and completed the study. Lesser degree of erythema was observed at 6 and 12 weeks in treated-patients compared with the control group and decreased discoloration and atrophy at 12 weeks, with statistically significant differences in all cases (p < 0.05). This study demonstrates that the RHO Repavar ® is useful for cosmetic improvement on erythema, discoloration and atrophyof post-surgical skin scars, getting a better overall evolution and appearance thereof.
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Journal of Cosmetics, Dermatological Sciences and Applications, 2015, 5, 161-167
Published Online June 2015 in SciRes.
How to cite this paper: Valerón-Almazán, P., Gómez-Duaso, A.J., Santana-Molina, N., García-Bello, M.A. and Carretero, G.
(2015) Evolution of Post-Surgical Scars Treated with Pure Rosehip Seed Oil. Journal of Cosmetics, Dermatological Sciences
and Applications, 5, 161-167.
Evolution of Post-Surgical Scars Treated
with Pure Rosehip Seed Oil
Pedro Valerón-Almazán1, Anselmo J. Gómez-Duaso1, Néstor Santana-Molina1,
Miguel A. García-Bello2, Gregorio Carretero1
1Dermatology Service, Hospital Universitario de Gran Canaria Dr. Negrin, Las Palmas, Spain
2Research Unit, Hospital Universitario de Gran Canaria Dr. Negrin, Las Palmas, Spain
Received 28 May 2015; accepted 26 June 2015; published 29 June 2015
Copyright © 2015 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.
This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution International License (CC BY).
The rosehip seed oil (RHO), obtained from different plant species of the genus Rosa, is one of the
compounds used empirically for cosmetic improvement of skin scarring. Despite its widespread
use in clinical practice, there are few studies evaluating the activity of this compound on the clini-
cal course of cutaneous scars. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of Repavar® rose-
hip oil on improvement of post-surgical skin scars. One comparative, single-center, prospective
clinical trial was carried out in 108 patients undergoing cutaneous surgery procedures in the Der-
matology Service of University Hospital of Gran Canaria Dr. Negrín (Spain). Subjective parameters
(erythema, discoloration, atrophy and hypertrophy) were evaluated at 6 and 12 weeks on 76 adults
who treated scars with pure RHO twice a day (test group), 32 patients with not treatment (control
group), and completed the study. Lesser degree of erythema was observed at 6 and 12 weeks in
treated-patients compared with the control group and decreased discoloration and atrophy at 12
weeks, with statistically significant differences in all cases (p < 0.05). This study demonstrates that
the RHO Repavar® is useful for cosmetic improvement on erythema, discoloration and atrophyof
post-surgical skin scars, getting a better overall evolution and appearance thereof.
Healing, Skin Scar, Rosa Mosqueta, Rosehip Seed Oil, Skin Surgery
1. Introduction
Healing is a natural and dynamic process in which body has to regenerate tissues after injury. This process de-
velops along three phases, comprising inflammation, granulation tissue formation and maturation/remodeling
[1]-[3]. In the inflammatory phase, platelet degranulation, cell-recruitment migration, and extracellular matrix
P. Valerón-Almazán et al.
formation are initiated, all mediated by multiple cytokines and growth factors [4]. The proliferative phase starts
several days after the initial injury, and it is characterized by angiogenesis, collagen deposition, formation of
granulation tissue and epithelialization and contraction of the scar [5]. In the remodeling phase, tissue enzymes
remove excess of extracellular matrix and collagen, and remained fibrils are realigned along the tension lines.
This remodeling process occurs during 6 - 12 months but may persist for years after initial injury [3].
Clinically, cutaneous scars are defined as macroscopic alterations of the architectural structure of the skin, as
a final result of the healing process. The affected area may be displayed as an elevated or depressed area, which
has also variations in consistency, color, vascularization and/or innervation. Although many therapies have been
tried to improve the clinical appearance of skin scars, no treatment has clearly shown its efficacy and still con-
siders prevention as the most important attitude to avoid the appearance of hypertrophic scars or keloids [6].
“Rosa mosqueta” or “Rosehip”, is a generic name which covers about 70 different species of plants of the
genus Rosa, as Rosa rubiginosa, Rosa moschata and Rosa canina [7]. The rosehip seed oil (RHO) is extracted
from the seed of the fruit of the wild plant. Some studies have examined before the chemical composition of this
compound, where the high content of polyunsaturated fatty acid highlights: linoleic acid (54%), linolenic acid
(17%) and oleic acid (16%) between others [8]. Lesser amounts of other saturated fatty acids and small amounts
of other dermatological active interest like transretinoic acid or natural tretinoin (between 0.01% and 0.1%) have
also been identified [9].
In the medical field, the RHO has been used for decades to treat wounds and/or scars. The beneficial effect of
this oil has been attributed to its high content of essential fatty and unsaturated acids abovementioned, which
play a key role in the permeability of cell membranes and injuries repair mechanisms [10]. Despite its theoreti-
cal utility in these processes, there are few studies that evaluate the activity of this compound on the clinical
course of healing [11] [12].
The aim of this study was to analyze the clinical course of post-surgical cutaneous scars treated with pure
RHO in terms of erythema, discoloration, atrophy and hypertrophy.
2. Methods
2.1. Patients
108 patients were underwent open surgical procedures for skin tumor removal of pigmented lesions between
April and June (over three months), in the Dermatology Service, University Hospital of Gran Canaria Dr. Negrín,
were enrolled in a comparative, single-center and prospective study.
Inclusion criteria in the study were elderly patients with sufficient level of understanding, with not-known-
RHO-allergies, without any history of keloids or other healing defects.
The Clinical Research Ethics Committee of the Hospital approved the study, and all patients gave informed
consent form to participate in it.
2.2. Treatment
Patients in the test group had to apply the RHO (Repavar®) twice a day on the scar, from the removal of sutures,
for six weeks. Patients considered as controls did not perform any treatment.
Patients were assigned to each group randomly and the same experienced dermatologist performed the evalu-
ation in all groups of patients, so that all observations follow the same validated criteria.
2.3. Analysis Parameters
The variables were analyzed at 6 and 12 weeks after removal of sutures, and data were recorded taking into ac-
count this classification (Table 1):
Table 1. Evaluation criteria of parameters erythema, discoloration, atrophy and hypertrophy.
Erythema Dyschromia Atrophy Hypertrophy
0 No erythema 0 No color change 0 No atrophy 0 No hypertrophy
1 Mild (pink) 1 Slight hyper/hypochromia 1 Slight depression 1 Slight hypertrophy
2 Intense (red) 2 Major hyper/hypochromia 2 Major depression 2 Major hypertrophy (keloid)
P. Valerón-Almazán et al.
For the descriptive analysis, categorical variables were expressed as absolute frequencies and percentages.
2.4. Statistical Analysis
For statistical analysis, the Chi-square test was used, considering a level of statistical significance α < 0.05.
3. Results and Discussion
A total of 160 patients were included in the trial, of whom 120 patients were treated with RHO and 40 under-
went no treatment (control).
103 patients from the 120 treated patients group attended the review of 6 weeks and 76 attended the review of
the 12 weeks. 32 patients from the 40 patients control group went to the reviews at 6 and 12 weeks. 108 patients
completed the study.
No adverse effects were observed in any patient, neither in the treated group and the control group.
Table 2 and Figures 1-4 summarize the results.
Table 2. Evolution of patients at 6 and 12 weeks.
Treated-group Control group Total
6 weeks No 61 (52.9%) 14 (43.8%) 75
Mild 38 (36.9%) 11 (34.4%) 49
Intense 4 (3.9%) 7 (21.9%) 11
12 weeks No 56 (73.7%) 16 (50.0%) 72
Mild 15 (19.7%) 9 (28.1%) 24
Intense 5 (6.6%) 7 (21.9%) 12
6 weeks No 29 (28.2%) 10 (31.3%) 39
Mild 67 (65.2%) 18 (56.3%) 85
Intense 7 (6.8%) 4 (12.5%) 11
12 weeks No 48 (63.2%) 7 (21.9%) 55
Mild 24 (31.6%) 22 (68.8%) 46
Intense 4 (5.3%) 3 (9.4%) 7
6 weeks No 83 (80.6%) 23 (71.9%) 106
Mild 18 (17.5%) 7 (21.9%) 25
Notorious 2 (1.9%) 2 (6.3%) 4
12 weeks No 65 (85.5%) 20 (62.5%) 85
Mild 9 (11.8%) 9 (28.1%) 18
Notorious 2 (2.6%) 3 (9.4%) 5
6 weeks No 83 (80.6%) 26 (81.2%) 109
Mild 14 (13.6%) 4 (12.5%) 18
Intense 6 (5.8%) 2 (6.2%) 8
12 weeks No 67 (89.3%) 25 (78.1%) 72
Mild 7 (9.4%) 6 (18.8%) 24
Intense 1 (1.3%) 1 (3.1%) 12
P. Valerón-Almazán et al.
Figure 1. Subjective evaluation of erythema at 6 and 12 weeks. Blue bar, in-
tense; red bar, mild; green bar, no erythema.
Figure 2. Subjective evaluation of discoloration at 6 and 12 weeks. Blue bar,
intense; red bar, mild; green bar, no discoloration.
Figure 3. Subjective evaluation of atrophy at 6 and 12 weeks. Blue bar, noto-
rious; red bar, mild; green bar, no atrophy.
In the subjective assessment of erythema carried out by the specialist (Figure 1), significant differences be-
tween the patients and the control group at both 6 and 12 weeks (73% of treated patients did not presented ery-
thema at 12 weeks vs. 50% of control patients) were founded.
Concerning the colorimetric changes taken together, a higher proportion of patients treated with RHO did not
shown subjective discoloration at 6 and 12 weeks, although these differences were only significant at 12 weeks
(63% of treated patients without discoloration vs. 21% control) (Figure 2).
P. Valerón-Almazán et al.
Figure 4. Subjective evaluation of hypertrophy at 6 and 12 weeks. Blue bar,
notorious; red bar, mild; green bar, no hypertrophy.
The atrophy measurement (Figure 3) showed differences in patients treated with RHO at 6 and 12 weeks, with
significant differences at the second examination (85% vs. 62% of patients without atrophy found at 12 weeks).
Finally, hypertrophy analysis showed better evolution of scars on treated-group compared to control group at
6 and 12 weeks, but no statistically significant differences (Figure 4).
Figure 5 and Figure 6 show two examples of cutaneous scars treated with RHO, at the beginning of treat-
ment (Figure 5(A) and Figure 6(A)) and after 12 weeks (Figure 5(B) and Figure 6(B)).
In daily dermatological practice, it is common that patients in whom a common surgical procedure is prac-
ticed not receive any topical treatment for cosmetic improvement after removal of sutures, beyond sunscreen
always recommended. In this study, RHO showed a beneficial effect on clinical appearance of scars, in general,
compared with those who were remained to their natural evolution. Our observations are concurrent with pre-
vious studies that evaluated the properties of RHO in healing injuries [11] [12].
Within the parameters analyzed, the most obvious improvement occurred in terms of erythema, with statisti-
cally significant differences in medical analysis at both 6 and 12 weeks in the RHO-treated-patients group
(Figure 1). In the evolution of post-operative dyschromia, only significant differences at 12 weeks were found.
It is possible that the scars color improvement may be associated with reduced inflammation [13] [14] and inhi-
bition of chemotaxis [15] [16] that has been shown in in vitro and in vivo clinical trials using Rosehip seed oil.
A previous study used histological criteria to evaluate therapeutic properties of RHO [13], but we discard this
possibility because the procedure was so invasive.
Several studies have found high levels of unsaturated fatty acids in RHO, mainly linoleic acid, linolenic acid
and oleic acid [8] [9]. Essential fatty acids are basic components of the phospholipids in cell membranes, which
are involved in numerous phosphorylation and cellular organization processes [10]. Some compounds like caro-
tenoids and polyphenols have also been isolated from the RHO [17] [18], which are responsible for the antioxi-
dant activity attributed to this compound. It is possible that the presence of these substances in the RHO contri-
bute to a better evolution of the healing process, especially if it is applied early, as happened in our patients.
In the assessment of atrophy, a higher percentage of patients with outatrophy at 12 weeks, was found with
significant differences, in the RHO-treated-group(85% vs. 62%). These differences may be related to the pres-
ence of derivatives of vitamin A (retinoic acid or naturally tretinoin) that have been previously identified in
RHO [9]. Tretinoin topical treatment is widely used in dermatology, mainly in the context of acne vulgaris [19]
and photo-induced skin damage [20], although previous references also exist about the benefit of its use in heal-
ing injury [21] [22].
With respect to the appearance of hypertrophy, no large differences were observed in treated patients, with
similar percentages versus the control group. This observation is concurrent with the usual clinical experience,
because, so far, no therapy has proven effective in a consistent way for the prevention or treatment of hyper-
trophic scars or keloids [23]. For now, early identification remains the mainstay for treatment.
4. Conclusions
As final conclusion, this study presented a group of patients in which the early application of RHO Repavar® in
P. Valerón-Almazán et al.
Figure 5. (A) Skin Scar on left side of the face after removal of sutures; (B) Clinical image after 12 weeks of
treatment with RHO twice daily.
Figure 6. (A) Skin Scar on left side of the face after removal of sutures; (B) Clinical image after 12 weeks of
treatment with AHM twice daily.
post-surgical scars generally resulted in a cosmetic improvement thereof. This improvement was observed sub-
jectively, especially at the level of erythema, with significant differences at 6 and 12 weeks, and discoloration
and atrophy, with significant differences at 12 weeks.
This study provides preliminary results that can support the development of other trials providing a larger
number of patients and longer follow-up.
This study was sponsored by Ferrer Internacional, SA.
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... The Rosa Mosqueta oil has been used for decades to treat wounds and/or scars. Due to its anti-inflammatory activity, evidenced in several studies, this oil was selected for the development of NE, as it may be useful in the cicatricial process of hemangiomas [21]. In recent years, some studies have reported the use of non-selective beta-blocker, such as POP, as a potential new topical agent for the treatment of superficial hemangioma [22]. ...
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NMR relaxometry proved to be a powerful tool that provides useful information on the molecular dynamics of different pharmaceutical materials. The proton NMR relaxometry was measured using low-field NMR equipment. The aim of this work was to evaluate the interaction of different drugs in pharmaceutical systems, such as: propranolol (POP) and atorvastatin (ATV) in tablets with Tapioca Starch (TS); POP in Rosa Mosqueta oil nanoemulsion (NE); and papain in carboxymethylcelulose (CMC) hydrogel, using the proton spin-lattice relaxation time parameter. The spin-lattice relaxation measurements (T 1 H) were done through the inversion-recovery pulse sequence and the spin-spin relaxation measurements (T 2 H) were done by two pulse sequences, one was Magic-Sandwich Eco (MSE) and the other was Carr-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill (CPMG). From the analyses of T 1 H data it was concluded that there was an interaction between the drugs and TS in the tablets, which is explained by the increase of T 1 H values. The evaluation of T 2 H relaxation time of NE confirmed a correlation between NE phases and it was observed that POP was effectively distributed in water phase. From the structure of CMC hydrogel it was observed that papain interacted with free water molecules of the hydrogel. This study confirmed that NMR relaxometry can be used to characterize the drug delivery systems.
... 1,4,5 It was reported previously that rose hip seed oil could be used for the treatment of eczema, skin ulcers, neurodermitis, cheilitis, skin scars, as well as for moisturizing and prevention of skin ageing. 6,7 Furthermore, it was noted that topical application of rose hip oil together with oral application of poly-vitamin preparation of fat-soluble vitamins could exhibit a synergistic effect. 4 Diet supplemented with 15 % rose hip oil caused a hypolipidemic effect in rat's plasma as a consequence of high content of PUFA. ...
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Rose hip seed oil is a rich source of polyunsaturated fatty acids, as well as tocopherols, carotenoids, sterols, phospholipids, and phenolic compounds. On the other hand, due to the high content of polyunsaturated fatty acids this oil is prone to oxidation. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of natural antioxidant such as pomegranate peel extract and its combination with butylated hydroxytoluene as commonly used synthetic antioxidant, on the stability of rose hip oil. The stability of samples without and with different antioxidants was monitored through fatty acid composition analysis and measuring the quality and stability parameters of the oil (peroxide value, p-anisidine value, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances inhibition, total phenolic content and antiradical activity) during the storage period of 12 days at 65?C. Pomegranate peel extract (0.1 %) inhibited more effectively the second stage of oxidation than butylated hydroxytoluene (0.02 %), while the first stage of oxidation was prevented better by synthetic antioxidant. Further-more, the addition of pomegranate peel extract increased the total phenolic content of the rose hip oil as well as its antiradical activity. Thus, pomegranate peel extract can be used as a potent natural antioxidant for stabilization of beneficial but unstable rose hip oil.
... In a clinical study, topical administration of seed and shell powder of R. canina fruit had significant effects on crow's-feet wrinkles improvement, and also increased skin moisture and elasticity [64]. In some other clinical trials, R. canina seed oil could prevent epithelitis after radiotherapy and erythema of surgical scars ( Table 5) [65,66]. Some other studies showed that proanthocyanidins from rose hip methanolic extract could prevent melanogenesis in guinea pig skin as well as mouse melanoma cells, and exerted beneficial effects on skin-whitening factor when taken orally [67]. ...
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... % galic acid  Antioxidant activity: 1,79 mols % TROLOX Rose hip oil, predominantly used by the authors, has an important antioxidant action, by combating free radicals, eliberating skin from harmful substances and impurities; a moisturizing effect by the quick penetration of dry skin and pH equilibration capacity; it is a strong cicatrizant and regenerat for skin; its anti-aging properties come from the high content of retinol determining the revitalization of cells, blurring wrinkles and restoring normal texture of skin. [7] Further, in Table 1, the vegetable raw materials selected for the new range of cosmetics are presented, as well as their compositional phytochemical compounds of interest and their properties. By UV-VIS, IR, HPLC, thin layer chromatography, etc. analyzes, several dosing and identification for some of the following compounds from the used plant material were performed: flavones, polyphenols, tannins, saponins triterpene, fatty acids, vitamin E, etc.; also, related technical specifications were drafted. ...
Wound infection and disinfection mainly rely on the type of wounds and the development of a novel and effective way of wound repairing or healing materials. Development of novel anti-infective formulations depends on the type of wounds and mechanism of healing the wound. Nowadays, wound healing and management is quite a challenging area of research, whereas development of anti-infective formulations needs an extensive information on the pathogenesis of wound infection and its healing. This seems to be a much more complicated process which is controlled by different exogenous and endogenous factors. In the elderly, systemic disorders like diabetes, immunosuppression, venous disease, and metabolic deficiencies also affect the healing of wounds. Apart from this, accumulation of some pathogenic bacteria in skin wounds occurs where they are aggregated and immobilized in an adhesive matrix of extracellular polymeric substances which leads to the weak penetration of antibiotics and subsequently makes it difficult to eradicate the bacteria completely. This happens due to the host clearance mechanisms, i.e., antibodies and phagocytes through the microbial biofilm. In addition, toxins produced from bacteria lead to an excessive, detrimental inflammatory response such as development of antibiotic resistance and delayed wound healing followed by prolonged hospitalization. Therefore, wound infections and its healing have emerged as a big cause of death and burden toward the healthcare system. Based on the above scenario, different anti-infective therapies and formulations were suggested which will be described in this chapter. Several antimicrobial therapies as well as antimicrobials are used for wound healing which is discussed in this chapter. Besides this, some naturally derived antimicrobials such as essential oil and honey also play a key role in curing wounds. In addition, nanoparticles also help in wound healing by an excellent approach to speeding up the recovery of acute and chronic wounds, by energizing proper movement through the different phases of healing.
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In this study, some chemical and technological fruit attributes of rose hip species grown in the Lake Van Basin (Eastern Anatolia Region) were studied. Attributes such as fruit and stone length, width (mm) and weight (g), fruit flesh ratio (%), the water-soluble extracts (%), pH, titretable acidity (%) and dry matter content (%) were evaluated. Evaluated fruit attributes of the rose hip genotypes were significantly different from each others (p<0.05). Fruit weights were between 1.50 and 3.74 g. Rosa dumalis (Rd) has the heaviest average fruit weight of 3.11 g. However, this genotype has the lightest flesh ratio (57.2%) because of the highest stone weight. Fruit shape index were between 1.06 and 2.12. The rose hip samples had a range of 11-25% for water-soluble extract, 3.95-4.57 for pH, 0.35-1.14 for titretable acidity and 34.34-66.70 for dry matter content. Rosa foitida and Rosa pisiformis has the highest water-soluble extract of 20.54 and 20.33, respectively. Variations in water-soluble extract are of great importance. Chemical and technological values of the investigated rose hip species showed a similarity to that studied from other native rose hip populations earlier.
From October 1988, we are employing in the treatment of several dermatological scars a pure solution of rosa mosqueta seed oil mostly composed of linoleic, linolenic and arachidonic fatty acids. Our results on spontaneous or surgical scars in axillar or inguinal hydradenitis were very good and its effect in the acceleration of the good healing and in the reduction of the post-surgical hypertrophic phase, showed on surgical scars with direct suture or closing the defect by flaps, accident scars, postcryosurgery, postelectrosurgery, and specially in the healing of big postsurgical defects must be considered as excellent.
Oleoresin of rosa mosqueta (Rosa rubiginosa) was encapsulated with starch or gelatin by spray-drying. Stability of the powders was studied at 25, 40, and 55°C in the dark. Degradation of trans-rubixanthin, trans-lycopene, and trans-β-carotene followed a pseudo-first-order kinetic model for both encapsulating agents. The gelatin matrix provided a greater protective effect over the main carotenoid pigments, as shown by the lower degradation rate constants and the longer half-life values at 21°C. In contrast, the carotenoid pigments showed the same degradation rate in starch, but trans-β-carotene was more stable in gelatin. The kinetic compensation effect obtained according to the calculated thermodynamic parameters suggests that the carotenoids are degraded by the same mechanism.
Tretinoin is widely used in the treatment of acne. Despite significant advances in formulation development, irritation and dryness can be particularly bothersome, especially during the first 3-4 weeks, impacting adherence. Dose titration and adjunct use of moisturizers have been commonly employed. Co-prescribing with benzoyl peroxide (BPO) or a BPO/antibiotic combination is also common practice. The tretinoin molecule is unstable and can be degraded by BPO, further complicating treatment regimens. Lately, formulation technology has focused on providing more efficient penetration of the tretinoin into the skin layers so that lower concentrations of tretinoin might afford better tolerability, but maintain good efficacy; incorporating moisturizing excipients to minimize irritation; and providing greater stability to the tretinoin molecule. This approach would be particularly relevant in a pediatric acne population where efficacy/tolerability balance is important and treatment regimens must take into account lifestyles, but little data exist on the use of tretinoin in this patient population. A micronized formulation of tretinoin (0.05%) gel has been developed that provides a more efficient delivery of tretinoin, because of its optimal particle size, no degradation by BPO and better cutaneous tolerability than tretinoin microsphere (0.1%) gel without compromising efficacy in a pediatric population.
Interest in and interventions for photodamaged skin have dramatically increased over the last few years. Although a number of topical therapies have been used for the treatment of photodamaged skin, many therapies remain unproven in efficacy, unapproved, or only supported with limited clinical evidence. Topical retinoids, particularly tretinoin, are the most extensively studied. They have been shown to attenuate and reverse the signs of photodamage, such as coarse wrinkling. In addition, the clinical changes achieved with tretinoin are accompanied by histologic evidence of benefit. The main drawbacks to retinoid use are local irritation and erythema that can limit utility in some patients. New retinoids and formulations specifically optimized to improve cutaneous tolerability have been introduced. Two case reports of patients using low-concentration tretinoin gel 0.05% for the treatment of photodamaged skin are discussed. Over a relatively short treatment period of 4 weeks, tretinoin gel 0.05% was shown to provide both chemoprevention and reversal of photodamage.
Peptide growth factors have occasioned an enormous breakthrough in wound healing research over the last 5 years. With a new understanding of cellular growth and regulation, the early events of inflammation and wound healing can be probed for the first time and there are new hopes for mechanisms to enhance wound repair or retard abnormal scarring. The research is plentiful and while this review of the major growth factors implicated in wound healing may be comprehensive, it is also necessarily preliminary. Events are breaking rapidly in growth factor research, and this is an area being defined by the information it generates.