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Gamification of task performance with leaderboards: A goal setting experiment

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... Based on the research contexts investigated in existing research, IAPs have been examined using different forms of social dynamics, like social competition , para-social interactions (Tseng and Lee, 2018), social norms (Rauschnabel et al., 2017), social interactions (Jang et al., 2021) and social stickiness (Yin et al., 2021). However, in the context of a gamified service, where challenge-based gamification is often utilized (Koivisto and Hamari, 2019;Legaki et al., 2020), social competition is a significant motivator of need-based interaction with the services (Landers et al., 2017). In other words, there is a positive relationship between consumers' need for social competition and IAP intentions (e.g. ...
... Kunkel et al., 2021), obtain advanced leaderboard status (e.g. Landers et al., 2017), and win challenges (e.g. Koivisto and Hamari, 2019). ...
... However, the desire for social competitiveness and the lack of substantial progress in the leaderboard can prompt some to convert when they have a high familiarity with game mechanics and low daily usage of the app. Findings support existing literature on social dynamics Jang et al., 2021), demonstrating that knowledgeable users who are motivated by social competition tend to be loss averse (Tondello et al., 2019) and aspire to top the leaderboard (Landers et al., 2017). ...
Article
Purpose Online services are increasingly utilizing gamification techniques to encourage consumer loyalty and engagement. However, the majority of the gamified services fail to be financially sustainable. Existing freemium and gamified services literature provides scant knowledge on behavioral predictors of in-app purchases in freemium gamified services. The research examines highly interactive consumers' in-app behaviors using competition-based motivational affordances, daily usage behavior and social competition motivation that convert them into super engagers. Design/methodology/approach The authors applied a multimethod approach by using Multivariate Logistic Regression ( n = 685) to analyze in-app behavioral data and Qualitative Comparative Analysis ( n = 94) to examine survey and in-app behavioral data of highly interactive consumers of a freemium gamified service to explain paying behaviors. Findings Results reveal highly interactive consumers that elicit heavy daily usage of the application or excel at in-app challenges are less likely to convert to super engagers. Among super engagers, some are socially competitive, and their inability to advance in the leaderboard corresponds to in-app purchases, while non-socially competitive consumers make purchases to collect extrinsic rewards. Additionally, highly interactive consumers who possess more knowledge about the gamified service become super engagers to increase their chances to be socially competitive. Originality/value This research examines in-app behaviors of highly interactive consumers of a freemium gamified service that lead to in-app purchases following varying levels of daily usage behavior and social competition motivation. The authors contribute to the previous literature by defining and examining a new consumer segment – super engagers – that is financially beneficial for freemium services because of their in-app purchases. The authors provide insight on in-app behaviors that convert highly interactive consumers to super engagers and demonstrate that the reason for highly interactive consumers to make in-app purchases is a function of acquiring specific internal and external rewards based on their level of social competition.
... From its typical use in physical activity motivation (Swann et al., 2019) to its use in understanding career behaviors of soon-to-be graduates (Clements & Kamau, 2018), GST has proven to be effective and beneficial in professional and personal success. In conjunction with other tools of professional motivation such as competitive task models (Landers, Bauer, & Callan, 2017), GST shows great promise for improved employee job satisfaction and performance. ...
... Some studies utilized MANCOVA and ANCOVA analysis techniques (Nebel, Schnieider, Schledjewski, & Rey, 2017). Most study data were collected using surveys; however some studies were done under direct supervision such as Landers, Bauer, and Callan (2017). ...
... A secondary article of interest is that of Landers, Bauer, and Callan (2017) titled "Gamification of Task Performance With Leaderboards: A Goal Setting Experiment". This article was especially interesting as it looked at the application of goal setting in a professionally competitive environment. ...
... The goals in the gamified environment could be both explicitly set, such as going for a quest, or implicitly set such as earning badges or ranking at a higher spot in a leaderboard as an outcome of an activity (Morris et al., 2019;Tondello et al., 2018). Landers et al. (2015) gamified a classic brainstorming task with a leaderboard and assigned participants randomly into five groups. Four of these groups were classic goal-setting levels: do-your-best, easy, difficult, and impossible goals. ...
... However, they found that badges did not affect students' motivation, course engagement, and academic performance (quiz scores and final grades), regardless of whether badges were only visible to students themselves or to both students and peers. Finally, two experiments implemented badges, learning goals, and badges with learning goals in low-and high-stakes learning contexts and found no effects of these elements on Enhancing student motivation and self-efficacy toward course content Increased motivation and self-efficacy Hanus and Fox (2015) Badges and Leaderboards Enhancing desired student behaviors, satisfaction, empowerment, and academic performance No improvement of motivation, satisfaction, empowerment, or academic performance Landers and Landers (2014) Leaderboards Encouraging targeted student behaviors Increased time on task and student interaction Landers et al. (2015) Leaderboards Improving task performance Improved task performance Content courtesy of Springer Nature, terms of use apply. Rights reserved. ...
... Leaderboards provide individual-level feedback by reporting personal accomplishment and progress, while they provide group-level feedback by enabling comparisons with the performance of others (Landers & Landers, 2014;Nebel et al., 2017). Similar to badges, leaderboards may encourage students to set goals for themselves and increase their performance (Landers et al., 2015). For example, Landers and Landers (2014) found that the addition of leaderboards into course design significantly increased the interaction between students and their projects compared to students who did not see leaderboards. ...
Article
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Gamification, or the intentional use of gaming elements in non-game contexts, has been touted as a promising tool to improve educational outcomes in online education, yet the evidence regarding why it might work and its effectiveness is inconclusive. One reason is that previous research has often included several gamification tools together, neglecting that each gamification tool can vary in effectiveness. In order to evaluate their relative impact, two frequently used gamification tools, badges (i.e., digital credentials given for achievements) and leaderboards (i.e., digital rankings based on performance), were compared for their effectiveness on the academic performance and motivation of students. Two experiments were conducted in two online undergraduate physics courses taught via a learning management system. In Experiment 1 (N = 102), badges and leaderboards were implemented in only one part of the course grading system (i.e., quizzes). In Experiment 2 (N = 88), all course grading system was gamified (i.e., quizzes and assignments). Four groups were created by random assignment of participants: badges-only, leaderboards-only, badges with leaderboards, and control (i.e., no badges, no leaderboards). Academic performance was measured by comparing quiz scores among groups in Experiment 1 and both quiz and assignment scores in Experiment 2. Participants filled out a self-report motivation survey about badges and leaderboards at the end of the study. Two experiments yielded similar results: badges and leaderboards did not affect participants’ academic performance; however, most students approached them positively as motivational tools and wanted to see them in future online classes.
... Gamification also indirectly influences performance. For example, incorporating leaderboards in an experiment regarding goal setting, led to increased motivation for task performance (Landers et al., 2017). A leaderboard is a public ranking system of participants based on a particular parameter such as points in a game. ...
... A leaderboard is a public ranking system of participants based on a particular parameter such as points in a game. In the case of Landers et al. (2017), when participants saw themselves or others move up and down on the leaderboard, this positively contributed to their motivation. Another indirect effect of gamification on performance was found by Liu et al. (2018) who introduced a smartphone-based gamified job design (SGJD) for machine operators in automotive manufacturing. ...
... Thus, for the effective usage of gamification in the HRD domain, a deeper understanding of the experiential outcomes of gamification and its relationship to the HRD outcomes is needed. Current studies on gamification for HRD have recommended extending the scope of research further in multiple specific areas related to HRD outcomes across Kirkpatrick's four levels of evaluation (Maltseva et al., 2019;Miller et al., 2018) with the focus on more comprehensive evaluations of gamification interventions (Landers et al., 2017). ...
Article
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Gamification integrates game components into contexts such as workplace learning and performance. A decade of research has shown that gamification is prevalent in various settings such as education, healthcare, and business. Recently, gamification has been applied and studied in interventions and contexts related to the field of human resource development (HRD). Given the emerging use of gamification in HRD, this paper undertakes a systematic literature review (SLR) to synthesize existing research on gamification in HRD. This paper identifies four areas where gamification has been studied in HRD: employee learning, task performance, employee wellness, and rising contexts. In addition, this SLR collects and organizes a series of future research directions and offers a set of potential research questions. These future research directions center around four areas of gamification for HRD: designing gamification, influencing factors, experiential outcomes, and sustaining gamification. Implications for HRD practice and research, as well as limitations, are discussed.
... According to Nacke and Deterding [12], the first studies in gamified education were essentially focused on the effect of a set of game elements on users, which did not enable identification of the impact of each game element taken separately. These studies did not consider the individual characteristics of learners, which can account for the different and sometimes contradictory impacts of gamification observed on learner motivation and engagement [13]- [14]. ...
... Hamari [22] showed that badges motivated users to increase their activity in a trading/sharing app. Landers et al. [13] demonstrated the effectiveness of leaderboards for simple tasks, where they served as a goal setting tool for users. However, their effectiveness dropped off as task difficulty increased. ...
... --Ranking works for high Free Spirit learners, but should be avoided for others, as learners with high intrinsic or extrinsic motivation, amotivation, or with high Achiever or Disruptor scores, will most likely feel demotivated by this game element. Leaderboards have already been shown to be demotivating and detrimental to learning in several studies [13], [41]. ...
Article
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Several studies have been conducted in recent years into the effects of gamification on learner motivation. However, little is known about how learner profiles affect the impact of specific game elements. This research analyzes the effect of a gamified mathematic learning environment on the motivation and the motivated behaviors of 258 learners in secondary schools in France. Overall, results indicate that randomly assigned game elements generally demotivate learners. A more thorough analysis revealed that gamification has a positive impact on the most amotivated learners to do mathematic, although different effects were observed on learners. In particular, we noticed significant influences of their initial level of motivation and their player type on the variation in motivation during the study. We show that these influences vary according to the game element they used. These findings suggest that to increase efficiency, gamification should be tailored not only to the player profile but also to their level of initial motivation for the learning task.
... The effect of the leaderboard, however, was not always consistent among various educational situations. Most studies found that the use of leaderboards improved learning motivation and promoted learning performance (Cagiltay et al., 2015;Chen & Chiu, 2016;Domínguez et al., 2013;Hwang & Chang, 2016;Landers et al., 2017;Landers & Landers, 2014;Ortiz-Rojas et al., 2019;Sailer et al., 2017). ...
... Besides, presenting the performance of high-level learners in the leaderboard may provide others with goals to pursue (Landers et al., 2017). Goals can help to enhance performance by guiding attention, improving motivation and persistence, and promoting the use of goal-relevant strategies (Locke & Latham, 2002). ...
... On the one hand, from the perspective of goal, higher difficulty may result in higher performance. Leaderboards will guide learners to set their goals near the highest rank (Landers et al., 2017) and better opponents' performance makes the goals more difficult. Therefore, higher difficulty implies higher goal difficulty. ...
Article
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Background As one of the gamification elements, leaderboard, especially absolute leaderboard, is widely used in educational gamification systems. However, empirical studies on the optimal use condition of the leaderboard and underlying influence mechanisms are deficient. Objectives This study explored which difficulty was more conducive to learning performance in leaderboard context, and when and how it played a role. Methods To address these questions, this study conducted a 2 (dominant goal orientation: learning/performance) × 2 (difficulty: high/low) between‐subjects design. Seventy‐eight dominant learning‐oriented and 78 dominant performance‐oriented participants were recruited and randomly assigned to the high or low difficulty group respectively. Results and Conclusions Participants in the low difficulty group experienced more positive emotions, less negative emotions, and higher learning motivation than those in the high difficulty group, but the effect of difficulty on performance was not significant. Moreover, goal orientation did not moderate the effects of difficulty, dominant learning‐oriented and performance‐oriented learners were equally affected by difficulty. Further mediating analysis showed that negative emotions and learning motivation rather than positive emotions mediated the relationship between difficulty and learning performance. Implications These results confirmed the positive effect of low difficulty in leaderboard context, as well as the mediating roles of emotions and motivation involved in the relationship between difficulty and learning performance. These findings enlighten us that it is necessary to equip leaderboards in educational gamification with achievable difficulty.
... The digital incentives provided by gamification systems in this context can push the learner to build plans according to their learning system to achieve the learner's expectations [17]. According to the Goal Setting Theory (GST), the learner seeks to practice multiple processes of self-organization to achieve the goals he seeks, and to achieve his goals, he practices multiple management processes by objectives [64]. There is no doubt that managing learning through objectives by the learner reflects positively on the learner's SRLS, especially when this is linked to a set of digital incentives provided by gamification systems to the learner and gives the learner a feeling that what he sought has been achieved. ...
... According to GST, learners seek to plan and manage goals to achieve their aspirations and desires. This matter is supported by digital incentives [64]. ...
Article
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Gamification systems on digital platforms are among the essential systems that can motivate learners towards achieving educational gains and goals. Self-regulated learning skills (SRLS) have become one of the most important learning requirements in the COVID-19 pandemic context so that the learner can plan and manage their learning tasks. The current research examines the impact of using Digital Platform Based Gamification (DPBG) on SRLS during the pandemic. A blended research approach based on a combination of quantitative and qualitative approaches was used to better understand the impact of gamification on digital platforms for SRLS during the pandemic. The descriptive approach was used to analyze the previous literature and develop SRLS. The quasi-experimental approach was used to compare the first experimental group that used the DPBG (G1-DPBG) and the second experimental group that used the same Digital Platform without Gamification (DPWG) (G2-DPWG). The phenomenological approach was used to gain a better understanding of how gamification affects SRLS. The research sample in the quantitative study consisted of 60 students from the tenth-grade students in Jeddah who were randomly distributed to the two research groups. The participants in the qualitative research were eight students who were intentionally selected from students who use gamification. A scale of SRLS was developed that included four themes: Goal Setting and Planning, Monitoring, Rehearsing and Memorizing, and Seeking Social Assistance with a total of 28 items. A qualitative tool was developed that includes a set of open-ended questions for semi-structured interviews that were carried out after completing all quantitative data collection. The quantitative results demonstrated the superiority of gamification via digital platforms in developing SRLS. The outputs of the objective analysis of the qualitative data also provided more in-depth explanations and insights from the students’ perspective on the role of DPBG in enhancing SRLS during the COVID-19 pandemic.
... This is necessary to provide support for good design choices, which is also acknowledged as a research gap (Koivisto & Hamari, 2019). Still, there are at present only very few experimental studies (Christy & Fox, 2014;Huschens et al., 2019;Landers et al., 2017;Sailer, Hense, Mayr, et al., 2017) that consider the effects of individual game design elements. ...
... Differences were found between leaderboards of either male or female participants. Landers et al. (2017) examine the effect of the game design element in the context of goal setting theory. In this context, they examined how goals set with different difficulty in leaderboards affected the motivation of subjects. ...
Article
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Current gamification research usually examines several game design elements at the same time, which makes it difficult to distinguish how and to what extent individual game design elements increase motivation. We address this research question by individually examining four game design elements (progress bar, narrative, feedback, and badges) in an online experiment. In addition , combinations of game design elements were tested to gain insight about additive effects on motivation. The study included 505 subjects who answered a maximum of 190 different multiple-choice questions. The subjects were told to answer questions only as long as they enjoyed answering them. The results provide statistically significant motivational gains for all individual game design elements. Interestingly, not all game design elements benefit from a combination in the same way. The results of our study indicate that an increase in motivation through gamifica-tion is already possible if only an individual game design element is added.
... While literature that examines leaderboards in gamified EFL courses is lacking, leaderboard research that has occurred in other disciplines provides guidance. Studies that examine leaderboards in gamified courses show that leaderboards can positively impact learner behaviour related to performance (e.g., Aldemir et al., 2018;Bai et al., 2021;Landers et al., 2017;Landers et al., 2019), engagement (e.g., Barata et al., 2017), the amount of work students complete (e.g., Domínguez et al., 2013;Huang & Hew, 2018;Legaki et al., 2020;Mekler et al., 2017;Tan & Hew, 2016), time-on-task (e.g., Landers & Landers, 2014), maintaining performance (e. g., Mekler et al., 2013), and class attendance (e.g., Morales et al., 2016). The positive impact can lead to increased academic performance (e.g., Morales et al., 2016). ...
... The positive impact can lead to increased academic performance (e.g., Morales et al., 2016). The increases in performance have been attributed to an increased cognisance of the structure of the course, challenges, clear goals, the ability to self-assess performance, and social comparison influencing behaviour (Aldemir et al., 2018;Domínguez et al., 2013;Landers et al., 2017;Legaki et al., 2020;Tan & Hew, 2016). ...
Article
The study reported in this article investigated the use of leaderboards in an English as a foreign language (EFL) course at a Japanese university. The study used self-determination theory as the theoretical foundation to explore how leaderboards affect student performance (i.e., amount of work completed) and foreign language (FL) motivation. It was conducted over a 14-week period with two intact classes of participants; while both classes (i.e., Class 1 and Class 2) were aware of the point system, a leaderboard was used only in Class 1. A quasi-experimental mixed methods research design was utilised to answer two research questions about student performance and motivation. Data showed that a greater number of the participants in Class 2 completed more homework than the weekly point target required, compared to the participants in Class 1. The results of the study suggest that the participants' focus on the extrinsic rewards used by the leaderboard encouraged performance up to the reward threshold but once the threshold had been achieved, performance ceased. They also suggest that the leaderboard's use of points, rank, and forced social comparison to control behaviour resulted in the participants' internally leaning extrinsic motivation shifting to externally grounded extrinsic motivation, undermining intrinsic FL motivation more than supporting it.
... In addition, through 7 principles, it also provide a rational decision to provide coaching as well as feedback. In some cases, in combination with gamification of task performance with leaderboards, Landers et al (2017) stated that job performance can be improved through self-management training, which included self-monitoring, goal-setting, and relapse prevention components (Landers et al., 2017). In other words, such feedback and coaching would enable employees in perform initiatively, particularly encouraging independent performance with minimal supervision. ...
... In addition, through 7 principles, it also provide a rational decision to provide coaching as well as feedback. In some cases, in combination with gamification of task performance with leaderboards, Landers et al (2017) stated that job performance can be improved through self-management training, which included self-monitoring, goal-setting, and relapse prevention components (Landers et al., 2017). In other words, such feedback and coaching would enable employees in perform initiatively, particularly encouraging independent performance with minimal supervision. ...
... This was attributed to a "social comparison" that researchers believed was more salient than the inherent stereotypes. Other studies have noted gamification can lead to better learning [28] and learning performance [51] and help individuals with goal setting [35], i.e., "I want to be number one on the leaderboard". However, a literature review noted that "some underlying confounding factors exist" across a multitude of gamification studies, including the "the role of the context being gamified" [27]. ...
Chapter
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Stereotype threat and social identity threat are social phenomena that adversely affect underrepresented groups within STEM (i.e., women and people of color). While there are existing programs and techniques for training resiliency against these threats, the use of biofeedback and serious games may prove useful to enhance the efficacy and engagement of such training. In this paper, we present the work in progress on our interactive narrative biofeedback game (Resilient IN) that utilizes resonant frequency heart rate variability to train player resilience to stereotype and social identity threat as they move through a mock interview at a tech company within the game. Specifically, we discuss the design of the game in detail—focusing on how specific elements of the design draw from existing literature to evoke and train resilience during play, as well as design and validation of the game narrative/script with individuals in the technology and engineering industry. Finally, we provide future directions for the work, such as upcoming studies to validate the game’s efficacy in evoking and training resiliency to different kinds of threats.KeywordsSocial identity threatStereotype threatSerious gamesHeart rate variabilityBiofeedback
... A second implication offered by the findings of this study concerns a refinement of our understanding of how gamification can create value in organizations (Deterding, 2019;Landers et al., 2017;. My study reveals that employees help firms cope with growth-related organizational challenges, focusing on collaboration and teamwork, adhering to a trustful organizational culture, and building informal relationships among colleagues. ...
Thesis
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A firm's entrepreneurial orientation (EO) is its propensity to act proactively, innovate, take risks, and engage in competitive and autonomous behaviors. Prior research shows that EO is an im-portant factor for new ventures to overcome barriers to survival and fostering growth, measured by annual sales and employment growth rates. In particular, individual-level EO (IEO) is an important driver of a firm’s EO. The firm’s ability to exploit opportunities appearing in the mar-ket and to achieve superior performance depends on the employees’ skills and experiences to act and think entrepreneurially. The main objective of this dissertation is to investigate how and when employees engage in entrepreneurial behaviors at work. Building on three essays, this dissertation takes an interdisciplinary approach to employee entrepreneurial behaviors in new ventures, encompassing both entrepreneurship and gamification research. The first main contri-bution proposed in this field is a more nuanced understanding of how employee entrepreneurial behaviors help young firms cope with growth-related, organization-transforming challenges (i.e., changes in organizational culture that accompany growth, the introduction of hierarchical structures, and the formalization of processes). When new ventures grow, employees’ IEO tends to manifest in introducing technological innovations and business improvements rather than in actions related to risk-taking. Second, this dissertation reveals the relevance of self-efficacy for entrepreneurial behaviors and explores how gamification can enhance employee entrepreneurial behaviors in new ventures. Based on these findings, this dissertation contributes to EO research by highlighting the role of IEO as a building block for EO pervasiveness. This research further develops our knowledge on the use of gamification in new ventures. This cu-mulative dissertation is structured as follows. Part A is an introduction to the study of entrepre-neurial behaviors. Part B contains the three essays.
... Finally, there are external motivations that focus on the learner's selfdevelopment and develop his skills and abilities. Undoubtedly, by providing the learner with an umbrella containing various media and files that can be used and interacted with in an individual or participatory framework and without any restriction associated with pre-setting the working environment, digital platforms help enhance the learner's self-development processes where learning media are always made available at hand [34,35]. According to the Connectivism Theory, the learning environment through digital platforms is largely based on the design of learning, since the design of distance learning environments according to the communicative theory is not just courses or programs; rather, the environment is based on specific characteristics that encourage the learner to continuously learn, communicate, engage in learning and active participation [36] . ...
Article
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The emerging new context of learning during the emergency imposed by the COVID-19 pandemic has prompted the necessity to consider how digital platforms can be used to enhance the motivation for achievement for higher education students and help them proceed with their educational journey. Enhancing students' abilities related to motivation to achieve has become one of the most important requirements for continuing learning within the context of an emergency. In addition, relying on a single, stable digital platform for all course content may not be appropriate for the nature of the curriculum. Accordingly, the current research has been suggested to develop a proposed model for employing a variety of digital platforms in one educational template to enhance the motivation for academic achievement among higher education students. The quasi-experimental approach has been used to compare the two research groups; the first group is the experimental group that used the proposed model for digital platforms, while the control group used the regular platform that is used at the University of Jeddah, Saudi Arabia during emergencies. The research sample consisted of sixty preparatory year students at the IT skills course. The research sample was randomly distributed into two groups. A measure of motivation to achieve has been prepared with regards to the nature of the course unit content. The scale included six themes: a sense of responsibility, perseverance, level of ambition, appreciation of the importance of time, enjoyment of learning practices, and planning for future. Each theme consists of four indicators, with a total of twenty-four indicators. The results have shown the preference and effectiveness of the proposed model for employing platforms in developing the motivation for achievement, as the model gave faculty members and students great flexibility in using qualitative tools that enhanced students' motivation .
... The arguments for assuming that gamification is an internal or external reward are varied. On the one hand, elements such as leaderboards, points and coupons in gamification are designed to motivate people to keep trying in order to obtain rewards that are extraneous to the task (Hamari 2017;Landers, Bauer, and Callan 2017), that is, manifestations of external incentives (Ikeda and Bernstein 2016;Puente-Díaz and Cavazos-Arroyo 2017). On the other hand, these gamification elements also provide people with a sense of fun and playfulness and thus give gamification some attributes of internal incentives (Friedrich et al. 2020;Treiblmaier and Putz 2020). ...
Article
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In today’s world of knowledge-based economies, gig economies, crowdsourcing, and overall ICT-driven creativity, the avenues toward creativity and for its cultivation are increasingly diverse and sought after. Researchers have postulated that, in the context of creativity and information technology, not only are people are increasingly driven by the game-like structures of contemporary systems, services, organisational forms, incentive arrangements, and player-like behaviours rather than monetary incentives but also that the platforms that facilitative creative learning are becoming increasingly reminiscent of games. However, it is unclear how this gamification affects creativity vis-à-vis other forms of incentives. In this study, we investigated how gamification, money and punishment affect people’s creativity. We randomly assigned 102 participants to four groups and given different incentives to complete an alternative-uses task. We measured their creativity according to the four classic elements: fluency, flexibility, originality, and elaboration. The results showed that creativity was significantly higher in the gamification and punishment conditions compared with the control and monetary reward conditions, but creativity was not significantly different between the monetary reward and control conditions. The findings of this study provide theoretical and practical insights to guide people designing effective talent development programmes and stimulating creativity in their employees.
... All of these are powerful motivational tools common to game design, though it should be stressed that some of the mechanics are considered so-called Black Hat design techniques (which will be covered in detail in a later Section 6). For example, streak tracking derives its motivational potential from a behavior known as avoidance (Chou, 2015(Chou, , 2019 which is predicated upon the phenomenon of loss aversion (Engelstein, 2020;Kahneman & Tversky, 2013), while leaderboards (Landers, Bauer, & Callan, 2017) are based on the desire to maintain social influence (Chou, 2015(Chou, , 2019. Both techniques have the potential to elicit anxiety and compulsive behaviors in a subset of susceptible individuals (Chou, 2015;Lazar & Kvarforth, 2020). ...
Article
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Gamification is a trend that is steadfastly increasing in popularity in several fields that involve learning. Several concepts borne out of this have recently been applied with the intent to facilitate second language learning. This is most notably visible in the form of apps and online teaching courses that take advantage of mechanics that are drawn directly from video game design principles. In the context of language learning, the incorporation of game mechanics can be used to construct effective systems of incentive and ultimately enrich the FL learning experience in various ways, potentially resulting in improved outcomes. However, the prevailing trend in the gamification of language learning apps is to rely on a Black Hat gamification mechanics. These are propagated without much reflection in manner that can only be described as perfunctory gamification. Nevertheless, the subpopulation of so-called hardcore gamers is not only unsusceptible to these techniques, but exhibits a strong aversion to them. As a result, hardcore gamers are for the most part functionally excluded from the pool of potential CALL app users. The present work outlines several potential solutions to the problem of perfunctory game design practices that alienate hardcore gamers. Chief among these is the proposal to actively work towards a paradigm shift from gamification towards game-based learning.
... In the third and fourth place in terms of burst strength, we find Johnson D (burst strength = 10.05), whose most cited documents (C. D. Johnson, Horton, Mulcahy, & Foth, 2017) deals with the use of gamified solutions to motivate users to adopt behaviors related to health and well-being, and to the reduction of domestic energy consumption, and Landers RN (burst strength = 10.04), whose publications deal with gamification theory (Landers, 2014;Landers, Auer, Collmus, & Armstrong, 2018), gamification use , and several analysis on gamification elements (Landers, Bauer, & Callan, 2017;Landers & Landers, 2014). Looking at the timeline of the most influential documents, the authors with the biggest burst strength are the most recent. ...
Preprint
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Gamification, which refers to the use of game design elements in non-game contexts, provides similar experiences and motivations as games do; this makes gamification a useful approach to promote positive behaviors. In recent years, the volume of scientific publications focusing on gamification has increased. It has been applied to different fields (e.g. learning and training, mental health, positive behavior and behavior change, personnel selection, employees training, etc.); in this way, the scientific community has spread out over different domains and with different aims. Gamification has turned out to be an excellent method also to provide a sense of community, encouraging social interaction in both present and online contexts, increasing competencies in work and educational settings. This has made gamification also a useful tool during the COVID-19 pandemic, in which it has been used to promote an active and interactive experience in the educational environment. As a useful tool for keeping users motivated, engaged and active, there is a wide interest in adopting gamification solutions for supporting and promoting positive behaviors and behavior change (e.g. quit smoking, ecological behaviors, food choices, civic engagement, mental healthcare, sustainability, etc.). However, the development of this research area has proceeded without a unique theoretical approach or a clear concept of the field; even though several studies analyzing the literature have been made, a literature mapping of gamification applied for behavior change is still missing. In this study, we use the CiteSpace software to examine 447 publications and their 20608 unique references on gamification applied for behavior change. The corpus of studies was downloaded from the Scopus database and refers to studies published between 2012 and 2021. Several methods were used to analyze these data: (1) document co-citation analysis (DCA) was performed to identify the pivotal researches and the research areas; (2) author co-citation analysis (ACA) was performed to identify the main authors; (3) country collaboration and institutions network analysis were performed to identify the countries and institutions that contribute the most; and finally, (4) keyword analysis was performed to detect the most influential keywords and their change over time. Overall, we discuss the findings and the need for a more cooperative and united community, in order to make the use of gamification applied to behavior change more effective, faster and goal-oriented. Hence, we introduce some future challenges to promote an improvement in the quality of publications in this research domain, as well as in other gamification fields.
... Most proponents and implementers of gamification on the other hand, tend to focus more on a rewardbased game mechanism such as a leaderboard, badges, points, and levels as their primary use of game design elements (Raju et al., 2021). This is evident in some gamification literature, where the authors stated that the implementation of acquiring points to track achievements alone will not give players specific goals to progress but when elements such as badges or leaderboards are implemented, it becomes more akin to the mechanics of video games (Barata, et al., 2013;Hamari 2017;Landers, et al., 2017;Mohamad, et al., 2018). As a result, there are now an abundance of online gamification applications offering these elements such as Kahoot!, Quizizz, Socrative, and Quizalize which provides an easy solution to instructors to gamify their online classes (Raju et al., 2021). ...
Conference Paper
With the sudden outbreak of the deadly COVID-19 virus, countless academic institutions around the world were driven to shift entirely from teaching in physical classrooms to online teaching overnight. One of the biggest challenges faced by educators is how to sustain student engagement in online delivery. Gamification, the approach of engaging users by employing game design elements and mechanics is one such solution. Nevertheless, in most cases the practice of gamification is more on being results oriented and less experience-centric, while the success of video games is usually more focused on its overall player experience. For the purpose of this paper, the term ‘vertical gamification’ is used to describe the lower-tier levels of gamification which utilizes game elements such as leader-boards, points and badges as its purpose is to attain higher points for rewards. The utilization of social gameplay elements such as the challenge, opposition, and competition aspects of game design within gamification is termed as ‘horizontal gamification’. The horizontal reference refers to a more social-centric aspect of game experience. This paper aims to examine learners and their perceived experience in the gamification of online classes and to gauge the level of engagement and challenges faced by these learners. The research also aims to investigate if a vertical gamification procedure provides a similar level of engagement as the horizontal gamification procedure. Through a series of surveys involving 108 participants within a normal online class environment, online classes utilizing vertical gamification and online classes utilizing horizontal gamification; the research was able to determine at which point the learner’s level of engagement increases. The research will apply the GAMEFULQUEST instrument to assess the perceived gamefulness between the various online classes to ascertain the success of using a more distinctive experienced-based gamification approach to enhance engagement for online teaching and learning.
... Although a high level of gamification experience is known to be positively related to consumer loyalty (Landers et al., 2017), this relationship can be driven in a negative direction as well. Thus suggesting the presence of a moderating factor in the gamification-consumer loyalty relationship (Hwang & Choi, 2020). ...
... word sorting (right) achieve the goals. Sample prompt is 'What are your goals when learning morphological knowledge? Are these goals realistic and achievable for you?' Gamification helps setting goals.Huang and Hew (2018) found badges functioned as a goal signifier and motivate students to set completing assignments before deadlines as their goals.Landers et al. (2017) showed that when leaderboards were employed to set up goals and provide feedback, students were highly motivated to participate in the class activities and target the top or near-top goals than the do-your-best and easy goal conditions. The performance phase concerns students' execution ofF I G U R E 4 Interface of writing exercises: De ...
Article
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Background Morphological awareness (MA) is the awareness and ability to manipulate morphemes, the smallest units of meaning in a language. It is identified as a strong cognitive precursor of word reading and reading comprehension. The current MA instructions are limited to classroom settings and delivered by teachers or experimenters. Few studies have included technology and its novel features to deliver MA instructions. Objectives This study proposes a gamified learning approach embedded with self‐regulated learning support for MA learning and examines its effects on improving English reading performance and intrinsic motivation among junior secondary grade students who learn English as a foreign language. Methods This study adopted a randomized controlled trial design. Participants (N = 104) were randomly assigned into one of three conditions: self‐regulated gamified programme, gamified programme, or non‐gamified programme. Students received 16 sessions of instructions (30 min/session) and were evaluated on reading abilities (i.e., MA, word reading and reading comprehension) and intrinsic motivation before and after the programme implementation. Results and conclusions Results from repeated measures ANOVA and follow‐up ANCOVA showed that while the two gamified groups demonstrated greater improvement in MA (i.e., near transfer effect) and intrinsic motivation than non‐gamified group, only the self‐regulated gamified group showed more gains in multisyllabic word reading (i.e., far transfer effect) than non‐gamified group. There was no significant time X group interaction effect on reading comprehension. Implications Taken together, this research suggests gamification leads to better morphology learning and increases students' intrinsic motivation. The incorporation of self‐regulated learning in gamification is recommended to achieve the far transfer effect on multisyllabic word reading.
... In addition to the effect of gamification on motivation, studies also examine how gamification affects performance (Groening & Binnewies, 2019;Landers, Bauer, & Callan, 2015;Mekler, Bruehlmann, Tuch, & Opwis, 2017). Depending on the setting, a change in performance can address various metrics, such as quality, quantity, speed, or accuracy. ...
Article
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Intelligent virtual assistants (IVAs) like Amazon Alexa or Google Assistant have become increasingly popular in recent years, and research into the topic is growing accordingly. A major challenge in designing IVA applications is making them appealing. Gamification as a concept might help to boost motivation when using IVAs. Visual representation of progress and feedback is an essential component of gamification. When using IVAs, however, visual information is generally not available. To this end, this article reports the results of a lab experiment with 81 subjects describing how gamification, utilized entirely by audio, can assist subjects to work faster and improve motivation. Game design elements such as points and levels are integrated within an Alexa Skill via audio output to motivate subjects to complete household tasks. The results show a substantial effect on the subjects. Both their attitude and the processing time of the given tasks were positively influenced by the audio-gamification. The outcomes indicate that audio-gamification has a huge potential in the field of voice assistants. Differences in experimental conditions were also considered, but no statistical significance was found between the cooperative and competitive groups. Finally, we discuss how these insights affect IVA design principles and future research questions.
... In the third and fourth place in terms of burst strength, we find Johnson D (burst strength = 10.05), whose most cited documents (C. Johnson et al., 2017) deals with the use of gamified solutions to motivate users to adopt behaviors related to health and well-being, and to the reduction of domestic energy consumption, and Landers RN (burst strength = 10.04), whose publications deal with gamification theory (Landers, 2014;Landers et al., 2018), gamification use , and several analysis on gamification elements (Landers et al., 2017;Landers & Landers, 2014). Looking at the timeline of the most influential documents, the authors with the biggest burst strength are the most recent. ...
Preprint
Gamification, which refers to the use of game design elements in non-game contexts, provides similar experiences and motivations as games do; this makes gamification a useful approach to promote positive behaviors. As a useful tool for keeping users motivated, engaged and active, there is a wide interest in adopting gamification solutions for supporting and promoting positive behaviors and behavior change (e.g. quit smoking, ecological behaviors, food choices, civic engagement, mental healthcare, sustainability, etc.). In this study, we use the CiteSpace software to examine 984 publications and their 46,609 unique references on gamification applied for behavior change. The corpus of studies was downloaded from the Scopus database and refers to studies published between 2011 and the beginning of 2022. Several methods were used to analyze these data: (1) document co-citation analysis (DCA) was performed to identify the pivotal researches and the research areas; (2) author co-citation analysis (ACA) was performed to identify the main authors; (3) and keyword analysis was performed to detect the most influential keywords and their change over time. The results of the analysis provide an overview of the influential documents, authors and keywords that have given shape to the literature of the field, and how it has evolved, showing an initial interest in motivational and persuasion techniques, and in the gamification design, and subsequently in the development of more rigorous methodologies for both design and use. As the first scientometric review of gamification applied to behavior change, this study will be of interest to junior and senior researchers, graduate students, and professors seeking to identify research trends, topics, major publications, and influential scholars.
... The use of goal-setting theory is not restricted to workplaces and has benefits in numerous contexts such as sports, creativity, health, ecological research, education, and entrepreneurship (Baum & Locke, 2004;Clements & Kamau, 2018;Cumming et al., 2021;Hurn et al., 2006;Locke & Latham, 2019;Manning et al., 2006;Pape et al., 2015). Research in gamification is developing rapidly, and recent research also uses goal setting in gamification (Landers, Bauer, & Callan, 2017) Goal setting can be applied effectively in any domain, as long as an individual or group has some control over the outcomes (Locke & Latham, 2006). Crowdfunding is an exciting context for extending the goal-setting theory to online communities . ...
Article
The use of crowdfunding as a funding method has increased considerably over the last decade. However, competition for crowdfunding money is tough, and goal setting is critical for fund seekers. We investigate the impact of initially set stretch goals and the project creators' communication openness on project funding performance. Empirical results based on a large dataset from Kickstarter show that the stretch goals and higher levels of communication openness increase the likelihood of project funding success. Furthermore, communication openness positively moderates the relation between stretch goals and funding success. Moreover, projects with aggressive stretch goals are more likely to succeed if the goals are communicated well. The results provide practical implications for project creators to increase funding performance by communicating openly with the crowd.
... Most of the mechanics in gamification function as a feedback mechanism in addition to their basic functions. While tools such as progress bars provide users with instant information about their activities, mechanics such as badges and leaderboards are indicators that inform individuals of their accrued achievements (Landers et al., 2017). Feedback informs users on how well they have achieved their goals and what they should do to reach them, while at the same time encouraging users to engage with content (Huang et al., 2018;Huotari & Hamari, 2017). ...
Article
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The relationship between customers and brands is undergoing a radical change due to the effects of technology. As a result of this change, especially gamification and consumer engagement are the two fundamental issues guiding the consumer relations of the brands. The most important feature of gamification is balancing a rational purpose with an enjoyable experience; therefore, it has a dual effect of being both hedonic and utilitarian. Results show that almost all utilitarian/hedonic motivations affect consumer engagement positively. Where consumer engagement and brand outcomes were found to be partially related, results indicated that the brand relationship with consumers had been approached from a different perspective. Consumers can engage in the activities of brands while also showing commitment to them. However, this may not necessarily result in either brand loyalty or dissemination of the brand's positive messages.
... In the age of COVID-19 pandemic, where in-person supervision can be particularly challenging in some settings, it is important to have mechanisms that provide insights into worker performance for timely supportive interventions. Further, the derived paradataderived work performance metrics (e.g., patients seen, days worked and work day length) can be innovatively leveraged to improve performance, motivation and self-efficacy of health workers working in remote facilities through approaches such as gamification and ecological momentary interventions [35][36][37]. ...
Article
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Background Health systems in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) can be strengthened when quality information on health worker performance is readily available. With increasing adoption of mobile health (mHealth) technologies in LMICs, there is an opportunity to improve work-performance and supportive supervision of workers. The objective of this study was to evaluate usefulness of mHealth usage logs (paradata) to inform health worker performance. Methodology This study was conducted at a chronic disease program in Kenya. It involved 23 health providers serving 89 facilities and 24 community-based groups. Study participants, who already used an mHealth application ( mUzima ) during clinical care, were consented and equipped with an enhanced version of the application that captured usage logs. Three months of log data were used to determine work performance metrics, including: (a) number of patients seen; (b) days worked; (c) work hours; and (d) length of patient encounters. Principal findings Pearson correlation coefficient for days worked per participant as derived from logs as well as from records in the Electronic Medical Record system showed a strong positive correlation between the two data sources (r(11) = .92, p < .0005), indicating mUzima logs could be relied upon for analyses. Over the study period, only 13 (56.3%) participants used mUzima in 2,497 clinical encounters. 563 (22.5%) of encounters were entered outside of regular work hours, with five health providers working on weekends. On average, 14.5 (range 1–53) patients were seen per day by providers. Conclusions / Significance mHealth-derived usage logs can reliably inform work patterns and augment supervision mechanisms made particularly challenging during the COVID-19 pandemic. Derived metrics highlight variabilities in work performance between providers. Log data also highlight areas of suboptimal use, of the application, such as for retrospective data entry for an application meant for use during the patient encounter to best leverage built-in clinical decision support functionality.
... With increased attention since the turn of the century, gamification has been observed from multiple perspectives, including economic, (Hamari et al.,9 2015a), social theory (Aparicio et al., 2012), education (Hursen and Bas, 2019), eudaimonic design (Deterding, 2014), crowd-sourcing (Liu et al., 2011), and of course climate change (Reckien and Eisenack, 2013). In the psychological field, gamification has been extensively studied from a number of perspectives, including: behavioral psychology (Linehan et al, 2015), motivational theory (Landers et al, 2017), need satisfaction (Xi and Hamari, 2019), organizational (Stansbury and Earnest, 2017), and workplace (Herzig, 2015), among others. On its side, the well-known concept of "game theory" is more the study of how individuals (i.e.: players) formulate, behave, and interact with each other in strategic situations -under a set of rules (Osborne, 2004). ...
Thesis
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As calls to action increase worldwide in response to the growing evidence of climate change as a serious issue, the value of novel research comes into play to help tackle this threat to human wellbeing, businesses, markets, culture and ways-of-life worldwide. Industries which are not traditionally aligned with environmentally-friendly trends or concepts were considered, and it seems that existing literature has not engaged with the growing online gambling industry in this regard. Furthermore, this industry relies heavily on use of gamification methods – the use of game design elements for non-gaming goals in and outside of game contexts – to maximize customer value. It has been shown in research that implementation of gamification can positively affect various psychological needs, including various scales to measure environmental concern or attitudes. As the activity of playing games offers not only entertainment, but also motivational and engaging experiences, we implement a novel experiment to ascertain if certain types of gamification can influence self-reported environmentally-related attitudes in test subjects via an eco-themed online casino slot game followed by a survey. The statistically significant findings from our experiment have meaningful implications for online casino companies interested in expanding their CSR (corporate social responsibility) principles, better understanding customers in existing markets or regions sensitive to environmental concerns, or in furthering research on gamification’s role in promoting environmentally-friendly attitudes and behavior in groups outside the mainstream.
... Gamification involves the application of game design elements, such as points, badges, leaderboards and levels, in a non-game context, thus providing a game-like learning experience (Landers et al., 2017). The gamification approach is increasingly viewed as an effective means of enhancing students' academic performance, motivation and engagement (Chu et al., 2015;Ding, 2019;Li & Chu, 2021;Zainuddin et al., 2020b). ...
Article
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Purpose: Morphological awareness (MA), the ability to reflect on and manipulate the smallest language units within a word, has been identified as an essential metalinguistic awareness to predict literacy development. In this study, we examine whether an online gamified English MA programme is more effective than physical face‐to‐face instruction in terms of cognitive, motivational and affective learning outcomes. Method: We applied a quasi‐experimental design using a sample of 33 students in an intervention group (gamified MA programme) and 49 in a control group (face‐to‐face programme). Both programmes were 8 hours in duration (30 minutes/session for 16 sessions). Students' cognitive, motivational and affective learning outcomes were evaluated before and after delivery of the programmes. We took an exploratory sequential mixed‐methods approach, in which qualitative data from semi‐structured interviews were used to validate the quantitative results. Results: The intervention group performed significantly better than the control group in MA and intrinsic motivation. No differences were found for word reading, reading comprehension or affective engagement. The qualitative analyses of the interview responses revealed in detail the students' perceptions of gamified learning. Conclusion: The findings provide evidence for the beneficial effects of gamified learning experiences in terms of cognitive and motivational outcomes in comparison to face‐to‐face instruction. Practitioner notes What is already known about this topic Morphological awareness (MA) is identified as a crucial reading‐related skill that relates to students' word reading and reading comprehension. However, few studies can be found that have investigated the use of gamification to teach MA. Gamification is emerging as a popular approach to motivate learners and facilitate learning. However, limited evidence has been presented of its effects on students' cognitive, motivational and affective outcomes, and no clear theoretical framework for gamified MA learning designs has been established. What this paper adds In this study, the effects of gamified and face‐to‐face morphology programmes were compared. Self‐determination theory was applied to gamification design and the meta design theory ‘First Principles of Instruction’ was applied in the development of online MA activities. Gamified morphology programme is more effective than a face‐to‐face programme on students' cognitive and motivational outcomes. Implications for practice and/or policy This study advances the pedagogical design of gamified learning, which can be applied to the teaching of reading‐related skills such as MA. Both appropriate uses of game design elements and theory‐driven instructional design are important to the success of gamified learning. Future studies should investigate the design of gamification that encourage collaboration and support low‐achieving students. What is already known about this topic Morphological awareness (MA) is identified as a crucial reading‐related skill that relates to students' word reading and reading comprehension. However, few studies can be found that have investigated the use of gamification to teach MA. Gamification is emerging as a popular approach to motivate learners and facilitate learning. However, limited evidence has been presented of its effects on students' cognitive, motivational and affective outcomes, and no clear theoretical framework for gamified MA learning designs has been established. What this paper adds In this study, the effects of gamified and face‐to‐face morphology programmes were compared. Self‐determination theory was applied to gamification design and the meta design theory ‘First Principles of Instruction’ was applied in the development of online MA activities. Gamified morphology programme is more effective than a face‐to‐face programme on students' cognitive and motivational outcomes. Implications for practice and/or policy This study advances the pedagogical design of gamified learning, which can be applied to the teaching of reading‐related skills such as MA. Both appropriate uses of game design elements and theory‐driven instructional design are important to the success of gamified learning. Future studies should investigate the design of gamification that encourage collaboration and support low‐achieving students.
... Still, social comparison can induce competitive behavior and increase effort even without financial incentives (Mago, Samak, & Sheremeta, 2016;Messick & McClintock, 1968;Sheremeta, 2010). This is the idea behind using game design elements such as likes, badges, skill levels, and leaderboards to increase learning in online courses, exercise on e-health platforms, or performance in standard organizational tasks (Denny, McDonald, Empson, Kelly, & Petersen, 2018;Koivisto & Hamari, 2019;Landers, Bauer, & Callan, 2017). ...
Article
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Rankings and leaderboards are often used in crowdsourcing contests and online communities to motivate individual contributions but feedback based on social comparison can also have negative effects. Here, we study the unequal effects of such feedback on individual effort and performance for individuals of different ability. We hypothesize that the effects of social comparison differ for top performers and bottom performers in a way that the inequality between the two increases. We use a quasi-experimental design to test our predictions with data from Topcoder, a large online crowdsourcing platform that publishes computer programming contests. We find that in contests where the submitted code is evaluated against others’ submissions, rather than using an absolute scale, top performers increase their effort while bottom performers decrease it. As a result, relative scoring leads to better outcomes for those at the top but lower engagement for bottom performers. Our findings expose an important but overlooked drawback from using gamified competitions, rankings, and relative evaluations, with potential implications for crowdsourcing markets, online learning environments, online communities, and organizations in general.
... This goal encourages them to work hard to reach their desired position. This finding is consistent with a study by Landers et al. [72] that found that the leaderboard made the relationship between goal commitment and performance stronger. ...
Article
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Covid-19 pandemic has changed how the education system operated. The shift from face-to-face learning to online learning generated many problems, including decreasing students’ motivation and engagement. Gamification has been used as one of the solutions to overcome the problem of low motivation and engagement in learning. The current study aims to examine the students' behavioral change when using e-learning with gamification, investigate gamification elements that are important to students and how it influences students’ motivation and engagement, and investigate whether population characteristics may influence students’ motivation and engagement. Qualitative methods were employed to gather and analyze the data. The thematic analysis resulted in 6 main themes. The findings revealed that there were behavioral changes in students during gamification implementation, i.e. from negative to positive and from positive to negative. Four gamification elements were found to be the most important gamification elements to students, i.e. points, leaderboard, badges, and gamified test. The mechanism of how these elements influenced motivation and engagement was discussed. The population characteristics of final-year students also had an impact on gamification effectiveness. Despite gamification’s capabilities to influence motivation and engagement, there are some concerns related to negative impacts that must be addressed in the future.
... Η κατάλληλη σειροθέτηση των προβλημάτων, σύμφωνα με τον Keller (1987), μπορεί να προκαλέσει στον χρήστη κάποιου είδους διερευνητική διέγερση, η οποία συντελεί στην κινητοποίηση της προσοχής. Ταυτόχρονα, οι στόχοι που τίθενται, κρίνεται σκόπιμο να είναι ξεκάθαροι και βραχυπρόθεσμοι (Landers, Bauer & Callan, 2017, Morschheuser, Werder, Hamari & Abe, 2017, να έχουν αβέβαια αποτελέσματα και να χαρακτηρίζονται από το στοιχείο της έκπληξης, μέσω της μεταβαλλόμενης δυσκολίας τους, της χρήσης επιπέδων, της απρόσμενης αποκάλυψης επιπλέον πληροφοριών, ή απλώς του παράγοντα της τύχης (Malone & Lepper, 1988). Έτσι, το κίνητρο των χρηστών παραμένει αμείωτο, καθώς προσφέρεται στον παίκτη ένα είδος ευχάριστης πρόκλησης (Gee, 2005). ...
Article
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Τhe article is an integrative literature review in the field of gamification in education, based on Torraco’s (2016) criteria. It aims to deconstruct and recompose the concept of gamification, highlighting its theoretical, psychological and pedagogical principles, that classify gamification as an upcoming educational tool. First of all, the definition of gamification is discussed, as well as its importance as an educational innovation. Furthermore, the role of gamification in reinforcing motivation is emphasized, through an analysis of its elements that seem to affect students’ motivation. Finally, there is a presentation of research conclusions regarding the effectiveness of gamification in educational context, and suggestions for further research are made. Το παρόν άρθρο αποτελεί μια βιβλιογραφική έρευνα του πεδίου της παιχνιδοποίησης στην εκπαίδευση. Γραμμένο με βάση τα κριτήρια του Torraco (2016), επιχειρεί να αποδομήσει την έννοια της παιχνιδοποίησης στις βασικές αρχές που τη διέπουν, και να την επανασυνθέσει αναδεικνύοντας τις θεωρητικές, ψυχολογικές και παιδαγωγικές βάσεις της, που την κατατάσσουν ως ένα ανερχόμενο εκπαιδευτικό εργαλείο. Αρχικά, συζητάται ο ορισμός της παιχνιδοποίησης, και τονίζεται η σημαντικότητά της ως καινοτόμου παιδαγωγικού μέσου. Στη συνέχεια υπογραμμίζεται ο ρόλος της παιχνιδοποίησης στην ενίσχυση του κινήτρου, και καταγράφονται τα στοιχεία της που επηρεάζουν το κίνητρο των μαθητών/τριών, όπως αυτά απορρέουν από την υπάρχουσα βιβλιογραφία. Τέλος, προβάλλονται συνοπτικά τα συμπεράσματα ερευνών ως προς την αποτελεσματικότητα της παιχνιδοποίησης στο εκπαιδευτικό πλαίσιο, και γίνονται προτάσεις για επιπλέον έρευνα.
... Research shows that students receive different benefits from using gamification: (1) academic performance (Grant & Betts, 2013;Landers et al., 2015), (2) motivation (Gooch, 2016;Hakulinen et al., 2015), (3) commitment (Kyewski & Krämer, 2018), (4) attitude towards gamification (Aldemir et al., 2018), (5) collaboration (Knutas et al., 2014) and (6) social conscience (Christy et al., 2014). It is essential to identify the suitable reinforcer for each gamification element so that each expected behavior happens. ...
Chapter
Despite the successful, widespread adoption of MOOCs in recent years, their low retention rates cast doubt on their effectiveness. This research analyzes the influence of gamification and course video lengths on the attrition rates of three MOOCs, where students received reinforcing awards as they answered assessment questions. The variables gender, educational level, previous experience in MOOCs, and age were considered as covariates. A factorial design, a survival analysis, and a risk analysis for four weeks were used to determine the percentage of attrition from the MOOC. The results indicated that video duration and gamification decrease attrition. The most significant predictor of survival is the use of reinforcers in gamification. The most significant predictor of the risk of attrition is the number of videos seen between weeks one and two. In the longitudinal study, weeks one and two presented the highest risks of desertion, regardless of the manipulated factors. Finally, the discussion presents pedagogical strategies that directly benefit the survival rates in MOOCs and notes the differences between our findings and others in the existing literature.KeywordsGamificationDropoutMOOCVideo lengthHigher educationEducational innovation
... Although more research is needed to generalize these results, applications that feature the components of gamification, quantified-self, and social media are promising. Landers, Bauer, and Callan (2017) agree with the promise of gamification features: "In the organizational context, gamification is a promising avenue by which to increase employee task performance (i.e., in-role behavior), one dimension of individual work performance. By directing and rewarding employee attention to particular focal tasks through goal setting, performance can be improved" (Landers et al., 2015). ...
Article
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Are some individuals naturally more likely to achieve their goals than others, or can anyone be taught resilience, goal attainment, and other essential leadership skills to be successful? Strategies like SMART goals can help, but theories involving positive psychology, trauma-informed practice, self-actualization and the hierarchy of needs, and others suggest that resilience strategies can also be learned. Resilience can be learned naturally, perhaps during a traumatic event such as war, grief, or other stressors. Rather than learning this lesson the hard way through life’s “hidden curriculum”, this research focuses on the importance of explicit resilience instruction. Higher education is one setting where these lessons may be taught, but through technology, the impact and access to these strategies are greatly expanded. The purpose of this longitudinal survey research is to examine the impact of a regular personal development practice on resilience when delivered via virtual instruction among young adults enrolled at a university in the Southern Tier of New York while controlling for age, gender, race, income, and majors. While this study did not find significant differences in baseline and final resilience scores among young adults enrolled in a public university in the Southern Tier of New York due to, at the very least, small sample sizes and a pandemic, the mission of supporting all humans as they develop is significant and the pursuit of the best available strategies and techniques is worthwhile. Future research can attempt to demonstrate why teaching resilience is still an important mission.
... In the third and fourth place in terms of burst strength, we find Johnson D (burst strength = 10.05), whose most cited documents (C. Johnson et al., 2017) deals with the use of gamified solutions to motivate users to adopt behaviors related to health and well-being, and to the reduction of domestic energy consumption, and Landers RN (burst strength = 10.04), whose publications deal with gamification theory (Landers, 2014;Landers et al., 2018), gamification use , and several analysis on gamification elements (Landers et al., 2017;Landers & Landers, 2014). Looking at the timeline of the most influential documents, the authors with the biggest burst strength are the most recent. ...
Article
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Gamification, which refers to the use of game design elements in non-game contexts, provides similar experiences and motivations as games do; this makes gamification a useful approach to promote positive behaviors. As a useful tool for keeping users motivated, engaged and active, there is a wide interest in adopting gamification solutions for supporting and promoting positive behaviors and behavior change (e.g. quit smoking, ecological behaviors, food choices, civic engagement, mental healthcare, sustainability, etc.). In this study, we use the CiteSpace software to examine 984 publications and their 46,609 unique references on gamification applied for behavior change. The corpus of studies was downloaded from the Scopus database and refers to studies published between 2011 and the beginning of 2022. Several methods were used to analyze these data: (1) document co-citation analysis (DCA) was performed to identify the pivotal researches and the research areas; (2) author cocitation analysis (ACA) was performed to identify the main authors; (3) and keyword analysis was performed to detect the most influential keywords and their change over time. The results of the analysis provide an overview of the influential documents, authors and keywords that have given shape to the literature of the field, and how it has evolved, showing an initial interest in motivational and persuasion techniques, and in the gamification design, and subsequently in the development of more rigorous methodologies for both design and use. As the first scientometric review of gamification applied to behavior change, this study will be of interest to junior and senior researchers, graduate students, and professors seeking to identify research trends, topics, major publications, and influential scholars.
Article
We designed the current gamification strategy for an undergraduate introductory organic chemistry course to enhance the student engagement. We implemented it in two classes from the Pharmacy and Chemistry courses using several gaming elements: attendance, punctuality, game-based applications, board games, knowledge tournament, video classes, and group tasks to increase student motivation and achievement. All of the gaming elements guaranteed points to students in a leaderboard. At the end of the semester, a reward system compensated students with additional scores to their final average, badges, and gifts. Finally, the students evaluated the gamification, and the results obtained were quite positive.
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Purpose The desire-goal motivational conflict helps explain endurance performance, however, the physiological concomitants are unknown. The present study examined disturbances in desire to reduce effort and performance goal value across moderate, heavy, and severe exercise intensity domains, demarcated by the first (LT1) and second (LT2) lactate thresholds. In addition, the within-person relationships between blood lactate concentration, heart rate and desire-goal conflict were examined. Methods Thirty participants (53% female, Mage = 21.03 years; SD = 2.06 years) completed an incremental cycling exercise test, in which work-rate was increased by 25 watts every four minutes, until voluntary exhaustion or sufficient data from the severe intensity domain had been collected. Desire to reduce effort, performance goal value, blood lactate concentration (for determination of LT1 and LT2) and heart rate were measured at the end of each stage and analyzed using multilevel models. Results The desire to reduce effort increased over the exercise test with additional shifts and accelerations after each lactate threshold. The performance goal did not show general declines, nor did it shift at LT1. However, the performance goal value shifted at LT2, and the rate of change increased at both thresholds. Within-person variation in blood lactate concentration positively correlated with the desire to reduce effort and negatively correlated with the performance goal. Within-person variation in heart rate correlated with desire to reduce effort but not the performance goal. Conclusion Transitioning through both lactate thresholds are important phases for motivation during progressive exercise, particularly for the desire to reduce effort. Within-person variation in blood lactate concentration is more influential for motivation, compared to heart rate.
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This dissertation addresses decreased academic participation, low engagement and poor experience as issues often related to students’ retention in online learning courses. The issues were identified at the Department of Computer Science at RWTH Aachen University, Germany, although high dropout rates are a growing problem in Computer Science studies worldwide. A solving approach often used in addressing the before mentioned problems includes gamification and personalization techniques: Gamification is a process of applying game design principles in serious contexts (i.e., learning), while personalization refers to tailoring the context to users’ needs and characteristics. In this work, the two techniques are used in combination in the Personalized Gamification Model (PeGaM), created for designing an online course for learning programming languages. PeGaM is theoretically grounded in the principles of the Gamified Learning Theory and the theory of learning tendencies. Learning tendencies define learners’ preferences for a particular form of behavior, and those behaviors are seen as possible moderators of gamification success. Moderators are a concept explained in the Gamified Learning Theory, and refer to variables that can influence the impact of gamification on the targeted outcomes. Gamification success is a measure of the extent to which students behave in a manner that leads to successful learning. The conceptual model of PeGaM is an iterative process in which learning tendencies are used to identify students who are believed to be prone to avoid certain activities. Gamification is then incorporated in activities that are recognized as ‘likely to be avoided’ to produce a specific learning-related behavior responsible for a particular learning outcome. PeGaM model includes five conceptual steps and 19 design principles required for gamification of learning environments that facilitate student engagement, participation and experience. In practice, PeGaM was applied in an introductory JavaScript course with Bachelor students of Computer Science at RWTH Aachen University. The investigation was guided by the principles of the Design-Based Research approach. Through this approach, PeGaM was created, evaluated and revised, over three iterative cycles. The first cycle had an explorative character, included one control and one treatment group, and gathered 124 participants. The second and third cycle were experimental studies, in which 69 and 171 participants were randomly distributed along one control and two treatment groups. Through the three interventions, mixed methods were used to capture students’ academic participation (a measure of students’ online behavior in the course collected through activity logs), engagement (evaluated quantitatively through a questionnaire compiled to measure behavioral, emotional, and cognitive engagement), and gameful experience (quantitative measure of students’ experience with the gamified system). In addition, supporting data was collected through semi-structured interviews and open-ended survey questions. The empirical findings revealed that gamification with PeGaM contributes to learning outcomes and that the success of gamification is conditioned by the applicability of game elements with learners’ preferences and learning activities. Cross case comparisons supported the application of PeGaM design principles and demonstrated its potential. Even though limited support was found to confirm the moderating role of learners’ learning tendencies, the study demonstrated that the gamification of learning activities that students are likely to avoid can increase their participation - but must be carefully designed. Most importantly, it has been shown that educational gamification can support and enhance learning-related behavior but require relevant and meaningful learning activities in combination with carefully considered reward, collaborative and feedback mechanisms. The study provides practical and theoretical insights but also highlights challenges and limitations associated with personalized gamification thus offers suggestions for further investigation.
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Gamification provides a practical approach to improving learning processes, especially the learner's motivation. However, little research has been conducted on student intentions to use gamification in higher education. Therefore, this study explored the gamification in higher educational courses by collecting surveys and discusses the factors influencing the acceptance of gamification in higher education. Based on the PLS-SEM results, students should take initial game-based learning content to be more familiar with gamification; furthermore, they could have a positive experience so that they would increase their intention. Performance expectancy is the most important factors influencing a student to accept gamification. Other factors, such as effort expectancy, social influence, facilitating conditions, involvement, skill, and control, are also important factors. With the results of this study, the instructor designer could have substantial help in planning the course content and enhance its efficiency and effectiveness.
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The purpose of this research was to develop an efficient, construct-valid measure of goal commitment. Drawing from a set of 9 unidimensional items, a 4-item unidimensional scale was developed that exhibited a .71 internal consistency estimate of reliability. This scale showed statistically significant relationships with 3 alternative measures of the same construct: force to attain the goal, self-set goal-assigned-goal discrepancy, and actual goal change. With respect to other constructs in the goal commitment nomological net, the results indicated that the scale was consistently related to performance. Moreover, the pattern of the results with expected antecedents such as goal publicness, monetary incentives, need for achievement, locus of control, and task involvement were statistically significant and in the predicted direction.
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Executive Overview: Goal setting is one of the most replicated and influential paradigms in the management literature. Hundreds of studies conducted in numerous countries and contexts have consistently demonstrated that setting specific, challenging goals can powerfully drive behavior and boost performance. Advocates of goal setting have had a substantial impact on research, management education, and management practice. In this article, we argue that the beneficial effects of goal setting have been overstated and that systematic harm caused by goal setting has been largely ignored. We identify specific side effects associated with goal setting, including a narrow focus that neglects nongoal areas, distorted risk preferences, a rise in unethical behavior, inhibited learning, corrosion of organizational culture, and reduced intrinsic motivation. Rather than dispensing goal setting as a benign, over-the-counter treatment for motivation, managers and scholars need to conceptualize goal setting as a prescription-strength medication that requires careful dosing, consideration of harmful side effects, and close supervision. We offer a warning label to accompany the practice of setting goals.
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Much evidence exists that supports the use of goal setting as a motivational technique for enhancing task performance; however, little attention has been given to the role of task characteristics as potential moderating conditions of goal effects. Meta-analysis procedures were used to assess the moderator effects of task complexity for goal-setting studies conducted from 1966 to 1985 (n = 125). The reliability of the task complexity ratings was .92. Three sets of analyses were conducted: for goal-difficulty results (hard vs. easy), for goal specificity-difficulty (specific difficult goals vs. do-best or no goal), and for all studies collapsed across goal difficulty and goal specificity-difficulty. It was generally found that goal-setting effects were strongest for easy tasks (reaction time, brainstorming), d = .76, and weakest for more complex tasks (business game simulations, scientific and engineering work, faculty research productivity), d = .42. Implications for future research on goal setting and the validity of generalizing results are discussed.
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The problems that may arise from gamification have been largely ignored by researchers and practitioners alike. At the same time, use of gamification in recruitment, onboarding, training, and performance management are on the rise in organizations as businesses turn toward technology to meet their objectives. This chapter investigates drawbacks of using elements of games in each of these applications through a series of scenarios describing different gamified interventions. For each scenario, a discussion follows regarding potential problems with the intervention, how psychological science may explain this, how these errors can be avoided, as well as future directions for gamification research. Employee motivation is noted as a critical concern in gamification, and classic theories of motivation are utilized to help explain why some interventions may fail to motivate desired behavior. For training design, a popular area for gamification, practitioners are urged to consider the intended training outcomes before designing a training program with gaming elements.
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Research on the gamification of learning currently lacks a sturdy theoretical foundation on which to build new knowledge. In this chapter, we identify and explore several theories from the domain of psychology to provide this foundation. This includes the theory of gamified instructional design, classic conditioning theories of learning, expectancy-based theories, goal-setting theory, and self-determination theory. For each theory (or family of theories), we describe the theory itself, relate it to gamification research, and identify the most promising future research directions given that basis. In exploring these theories, we conclude that gamification is not a “new” instructional technique per se but is instead a new combination and presentation of classic motivational techniques. This combination may provide unique value over other approaches, but this is an unresolved empirical question. We conclude by making specific recommendations for both gamification researchers and practitioners to best advance the study of gamification given this sturdy theoretical basis.
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Background. The theory of gamified learning provides a theoretical framework to test the impact of gamification efforts upon learner behaviors and attitudes, as well as the effect of these behavioral and attitudinal changes on learning. It does so by providing mediating and moderating processes linking specific game elements to learning outcomes. Aim. This article links specific game elements common to leaderboards (conflict/challenge, rules/goals, and assessment) with a focal learner behavior, time on task, by exploring educational research on competition and psychological research on goal setting theory. Method. The mediating process of the theory of gamified learning is tested experimentally by assigning learners completing an online wiki-based project to a gamified version with a leaderboard or to a control version without a leaderboard. Leaderboard achievement was not tied to course grades. Results. Random assignment to leaderboards supported a causal effect. Students with leaderboards interacted with their project 29.61 more times, on average, than those in a control condition. Bootstrapping was used to support the mediation of the effect of gamification on academic achievement by this amount of time. Conclusions. The mediating process of the theory of gamified instruction is supported. Leaderboards can be used to improve course performance under certain circumstances.
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Background and Aim. Gamification has been defined as the use of characteristics commonly associated with video games in non-game contexts. In this article, I reframe this definition in terms of the game attribute taxonomy presented by Bedwell and colleagues (2012). This linking is done with the goal of aligning the research literatures of serious games and gamification. A psychological theory of gamified learning is developed and explored. Conclusions. In the theory of gamified learning, gamification is defined as the use of game attributes, as defined by the Bedwell taxonomy, outside the context of a game with the purpose of affecting learning-related behaviors or attitudes. These behaviors/attitudes, in turn, influence learning by one or two processes: by strengthening the relationship between instructional design quality and outcomes (a moderating process) and/or by influencing learning directly (a mediating process). This is contrasted with a serious games approach, in which manipulation of game attributes is typically intended to affect learning without this type of behavioral mediator/moderator. Examples of each game attribute category as it might be applied in gamification are provided, along with specific recommendations for the rigorous, scientific study of gamification.
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This paper reviews the current body of empirical research on persuasive technologies (95 studies). In recent years, technology has been increasingly harnessed to persuade and motivate people to engage in various behaviors. This phenomenon has also attracted substantial scholarly interest over the last decade. This review examines the results, methods, measured behavioral and psychological outcomes, affordances in implemented persuasive systems, and domains of the studies in the current body of research on persuasive technologies. The reviewed studies have investigated diverse persuasive systems/designs, psychological factors, and behavioral outcomes. The results of the reviewed studies were categorized into fully positive, partially positive, and negative and/or no effects. This review provides an overview of the state of empirical research regarding persuasive technologies. The paper functions as a reference in positioning future research within the research stream of persuasive technologies in terms of the domain, the persuasive stimuli and the psychological and behavioral outcomes.
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In recent years, “gamification” has been proposed as a solution for engaging people in individually and socially sustainable behaviors, such as exercise, sustainable consumption, and education. This paper studies demographic differences in perceived benefits from gamification in the context of exercise. On the basis of data gathered via an online survey (N=195) from an exercise gamification service Fitocracy, we examine the effects of gender, age, and time using the service on social, hedonic, and utilitarian benefits and facilitating features of gamifying exercise. The results indicate that perceived enjoyment and usefulness of the gamification decline with use, suggesting that users might experience novelty effects from the service. The findings show that women report greater social benefits from the use of gamification. Further, ease of use of gamification is shown to decline with age. The implications of the findings are discussed.
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Over 40 years of research on the effects of goal setting has demonstrated that high goals can increase performance by motivating people, directing their attention to a target, and increasing their persistence (Locke & Latham, 2002). However, recent research has introduced a dark side of goal setting by linking high performance goals to unethical behavior (e.g., Schweitzer, Ordóñez, & Douma, 2004). In this paper, we integrate self-regulatory resource theories with behavioral ethics research exploring the dark side of goal setting to suggest that the very mechanisms through which goals are theorized to increase performance can lead to unethical behavior by depleting self-regulatory resources across consecutive goal periods. Results of a laboratory experiment utilizing high, low, increasing, decreasing, and “do your best” goal structures across multiple rounds provide evidence that depletion mediates the relationship between goal structures and unethical behavior, and that this effect is moderated by the number of consecutive goals assigned.
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This paper reviews peer-reviewed empirical studies on gamification. We create a framework for examining the effects of gamification by drawing from the definitions of gamification and the discussion on motivational affordances. The literature review covers results, independent variables (examined motivational affordances), dependent variables (examined psychological/behavioral outcomes from gamification), the contexts of gamification, and types of studies performed on the gamified systems. The paper examines the state of current research on the topic and points out gaps in existing literature. The review indicates that gamification provides positive effects, however, the effects are greatly dependent on the context in which the gamification is being implemented, as well as on the users using it. The findings of the review provide insight for further studies as well as for the design of gamified systems.
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Gamification is the use of game design elements and game mechanics in non-game contexts. This idea has been used successfully in many web based businesses to increase user engagement. Some researchers suggest that it could also be used in web based education as a tool to increase student motivation and engagement. In an attempt to verify those theories, we have designed and built a gamification plugin for a well-known e-learning platform. We have made an experiment using this plugin in a university course, collecting quantitative and qualitative data in the process. Our findings suggest that some common beliefs about the benefits obtained when using games in education can be challenged. Students who completed the gamified experience got better scores in practical assignments and in overall score, but our findings also suggest that these students performed poorly on written assignments and participated less on class activities, although their initial motivation was higher.
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The authors summarize 35 years of empirical research on goal-setting theory. They describe the core findings of the theory, the mechanisms by which goals operate, moderators of goal effects, the relation of goals and satisfaction, and the role of goals as mediators of incentives. The external validity and practical significance of goal-setting theory are explained, and new directions in goal-setting research are discussed. The relationships of goal setting to other theories are described as are the theory’s limitations.
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Crowdsourcing is a market of steadily-growing importance upon which both academia and industry increasingly rely. However, this market appears to be inherently infested with a significant share of malicious workers who try to maximise their profits through cheating or sloppiness. This serves to undermine the very merits crowdsourcing has come to represent. Based on previous experience as well as psychological insights, we propose the use of a game in order to attract and retain a larger share of reliable workers to frequently-requested crowdsourcing tasks such as relevance assessments and clustering. In a large-scale comparative study conducted using recent TREC data, we investigate the performance of traditional HIT designs and a game-based alternative that is able to achieve high quality at significantly lower pay rates, facing fewer malicious submissions.
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Social loafing has been described as the phenomenon in which participants who work together generate less effort than do participants who work alone (e.g., Latané, Williams, & Harkins, 1979). Subsequent research (Harkins & Jackson, 1985; Williams, Harkins, & Latané, 1981) has shown that a particular aspect of this paradigm leads to the loafing effect. When participants "work together," their outputs are pooled (combined) so that evaluation of individual output is not possible. In those studies, the evaluation potential of the experimenter has been emphasized. However, when the experimenter could not evaluate individual outputs, neither could the participants evaluate themselves. In this study we tested the possibility that the opportunity for the participants to evaluate themselves would be sufficient to eliminate the loafing effect. In two experiments, the evaluation potential of the experimenter (experimenter evaluation vs. no experimenter evaluation) was crossed with the potential for self-evaluation (self-evaluation vs. no self-evaluation). In both experiments, consistent with previous loafing research, the potential for evaluation by the experimenter was sufficient to increase motivation, whether participants could self-evaluate or not. However, when the experimenter could not evaluate the participants' outputs, the potential for self-evaluation reliably improved participant performance. In fact, self-evaluation was the only motivation needed for participants to exert as much effort as that exhibited by participants who could be evaluated by the experimenter.
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The authors investigated the influence of goal orientation on sales performance in a longitudinal field study with salespeople. As hypothesized, a learning goal orientation had a positive relationship with sales performance. This relationship was fully mediated by 3 self-regulation tactics: goal setting, effort, and planning. In contrast, a performance goal orientation was unrelated to sales performance. These results suggest that a focus on skill development, even for a veteran workforce, is likely to be associated with higher performance. Management should seek evidence of a learning goal orientation when selecting new employees, while avoiding an excessive focus on performance goal orientation without a comparable skill-development focus.
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Assessed the practical significance of E. Locke's theory (see record 1968-11263-001) of goal setting, using a time series design. Data were collected on the net weight of 36 logging trucks in 6 logging operations for 12 consecutive months. Results show that performance improved immediately upon the assignment of a specific hard goal. Company cost accounting procedures indicated that this same increase in performance without goal setting would have required an expenditure of a quarter of a million dollars on the purchase of additional trucks alone. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Two central constructs of applied psychology, motivation and cognitive ability, were integrated within an information-processing (IPR) framework. This framework simultaneously considers individual differences in cognitive abilities, self-regulatory processes of motivation, and IPR demands. Evidence for the framework is provided in the context of skill acquisition, in which IPR and ability demands change as a function of practice, training paradigm, and timing of goal setting (GS). Three field-based lab experiments were conducted with 1,010 US Air Force trainees. Exp 1 evaluated the basic ability–performance parameters of the air traffic controller task and GS effects early in practice. Exp 2 evaluated GS later in practice. Exp 3 investigated the simultaneous effects of training content, GS and ability–performance interactions. Results support the theoretical framework and have implications for notions of ability–motivation interactions and design of training and motivation programs. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Whether you're a manager, company psychologist, quality control specialist, or involved with motivating people to work harder in any capacity—Locke and Latham's guide will hand you the keen insight and practical advice you need to reach even your toughest cases. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)