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Eco-Cities - A Global Survey 2009 Part A - Eco-City Profiles

Authors:
Eco-Cities — A Global Survey 2009
Part A: Eco-City Profiles
Simon Joss
University of Westminster
www.westminster.ac.uk/ecocities
May 2010
Eco-Cities—A Global Survey 2009 (Joss, 2010
)
University of Westminster
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Acknowledgement
The Eco-Cities project has received generous seed funding from the Nirman
Foundation (Alexandria, USA). It is a joint venture with Robert Kargon (Johns
Hopkins University) and Arthur Molella (Smithsonian Institution). I am indebted
to their input into this survey research. I would also like to acknowledge the
research assistance of Daniel Tomozeiu.
Eco-Cities—A Global Survey 2009 (Joss, 2010
)
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Introduction
Efforts to render cities environmentally and socially sustainable are not new.
Urban planning and regeneration over the last one hundred years or so have been
significantly influenced by attempts to redress the perceived detrimental effects
of large-scale urbanisation, such as environmental degradation, social inequalities
and urban sprawl. The Garden City, the New Town and the Techno-City are
nineteenth and twentieth century exemplars of such attempts to reinvent the city
in the (post)industrial era.
More recently, these efforts have culminated in a new phenomenon – the so-
called eco-city. The term can be traced back to the mid-1970s, when it was first
coined in the context of the rising environmental movement. Throughout the
1980s and early 1990s, it remained mainly an innovative concept, with practical
examples few and far between. The United Nations ‘Earth Summit’ held in Rio de
Janeiro in 1992, and the resulting sustainable development programme (‘Agenda
21’), formed the background to a first wave of practical eco-city initiatives. For
example, Curitiba (Brazil) was heralded as one of the first eco-cities, on account
of its advanced, integrated public transport system. Waitakere (New Zealand)
became known for its attempt to integrate Western and Maori concepts of
sustainable resource management in its eco-city master plan. Schwabach, a small
German city, was selected by the federal government for a pilot study to develop
a model for ecological city development. In Sweden, all local authorities were
required to implement Local Agenda 21 plans to encourage environmental
innovation.
However, it is only in recent years that the eco-city phenomenon has become
truly global and mainstream, against the background of a majority of people now
living in cities and the growing international recognition of the scale and severity
of climate change. Thus, China is currently at the forefront of eco-city
development in East Asia, with international projects such as Dongtan and
Tangshan; in the United Arab Emirates, Masdar is being developed as a brand-
new zero-carbon city to be emulated elsewhere in the Middle East (and beyond);
Hacienda Ecocities in Kenya is promoted as a model sustainable city for Africa;
and Växjö (Sweden), Freiburg (Germany) and St Davids (United Kingdom) are
vying to be the ‘greenest city’ of Europe, while President Sarkozy recently
declared that Paris would become the first post-Kyoto capital eco-city.
The Eco-Cities Project
To date, there have been few systematic global surveys of eco-cities. The aim of
the Eco-Cities project, therefore, is systematically to map, analyse and compare
contemporary eco-city initiatives. The particular focus of this study is on trying to
gain a better understanding of the innovation and governance processes driving
and shaping eco-city developments. What distinguishes eco-cities from ‘normal’
cities? Why do eco-cities seem to have become globally mainstream in such a
short period of time? How are eco-cities located, designed and implemented?;
and can eco-cities be socially and democratically sustainable? In order to provide
answers to these questions, amongst others, the project is structured in three
parts: (1) an ongoing global survey of eco-city initiatives, the aim of which is to
establish the scale and diversity of current developments; (2) an in-depth
comparative analysis of a sample of eco-cities, with the aim of analysing key
characteristics, processes and contexts; and (3) a critical discussion of eco-cities’
capacity for innovating for environmental and social sustainability, and of related
governance processes.
Eco-Cities—A Global Survey 2009 (Joss, 2010
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Methodology
For the preliminary global survey – the present study – an initial ‘horizon-
scanning’ of recent eco-city initiatives was carried out during 2009-10 based on
an analysis of relevant literature, conference proceedings, policy documents and
websites of international networks and interest groups (including Eco-Cities;
Ecocity Builders; Ecocity World Summit; Sustainable Cities), using the
terms/descriptors ‘eco-city’ and ‘eco-town’ (the terms ‘urban regeneration’ and
‘urban sustainability’ proved to be too broad as analytical categories for this part
of the research). The search results were triangulated through cross-referencing
of information and sources. While this methodology may not capture all eco-city
developments (especially non-English, or local ones without international
outreach), it should nevertheless be sufficiently comprehensive and robust to
identify all major initiatives reported internationally. As this survey focuses on the
recent period, earlier initiatives which did not go beyond conceptual stage or were
abandoned (such as the Halifax and Whyalla eco-city projects in Australia) were
not included.
For each of the developments identified in this way, a brief profile was compiled,
including information about the nature of development, key actors involved, and
availability of data. Furthermore, in order to be able to identify various types of
eco-cities and discern current trends and patterns, the sampled eco-cities were
categorised according to the following variables:
Type of eco-city development I—new development
II—expansion of urban area
III—retro-fit development
Development phase 1—pilot/planning stage
2—under construction
3—implemented
Key implementation mode a—technological innovation
b—integrated sustainability vision/planning
c—civic empowerment
The present study is divided into two parts:
Part A (this document) lists the compilation of 79 eco-city profiles
Part B provides a cross-comparative analysis and discussion of the survey
results: Joss, 2010. “Eco-cites—a global survey 2009”. WIT Transactions on
Ecology and The Environment, vol 129, pp 239-250 (ISSN 1743-3541). See
also www.westminster.ac.uk/ecocities.
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List of Eco-City Profiles
City
Profile
City Profile
Aerial Treasure Island 1 Kampala 34
Amman 2 Kitikyushu + 5 35-40
Arcosanti 3 Kottayam + 5 41-46
Auroville 4 Logrono Montecorvo 47
Bahia de Caraquez 5 Loja 48
BedZED 6 Malmo 49
BicycleCity 7 Masdar 50
Black Sea Gardens 8 MenTouGou 51
Chalon-sur-Saone 9 Nieuw Terbregge 52
Changxing 10 North Bicester + 3 53-56
Clonburris 11 Oslo 57
Curitiba 12 Portland 58
Destiny Florida 13 Puerto Princesa 59
Dongtan 14 Reykjavik 60
Ecociudad Valdespartera 15 Rizhao 61
EcoVillage Ithaca 16 Segrate/Milano Santa Monica 62
Erlangen 17 Sydney 63
Ferrara 18 Songdo 64
Freiburg 19 Sonoma Mountain Village 65
Glumslov 20 Sseesamirembe 66
Gothenburg 21 St Davids 67
Greenwich Millennium Village
22 Tajimi 68
Gwang Gyo 23 Tangshan / Caofeidian 69
Hacienda Ecocities 24 Thames Gateway 70
Hamburg-Harburg 25 Tianjin 71
Hamm 26 Toronto 72
Hammarby Sjostad 27 Trondheim 73
Hanham Hall 28 Tudela 74
Heidelberg 29 Vancouver 75
Helsingor/Helsingborg 30 Vaxjo 76
Incheon 31 Waitakere 77
Johannesburg EcoCity 32 Wanzhuang 78
Kalundborg 33 Zilina 79
Eco-Cities—A Global Survey 2009 (Joss, 2010
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1 Aerial Treasure Island
Location North America – USA
Website http://ecocity.wordpress.com/2008/02/09/a
erial-treasure-island-in-san-francisco-bay/
Size 13,500 inhabitants
Type II - urban expansion
Phase 2 - under construction
Key implementation mode b - integrated sustainability vision/planning
Aerial Treasure Island, a decommissioned US military airbase originally built in
the 1930s on an artificial island in San Francisco Bay, is an initiative by San
Francisco city council to build a model sustainable community. The first
residents are scheduled to move in by 2013, while the project as a whole should
be completed by 2020 by Lennar Corporation as lead contractor. In addition to
converting the existing military barracks, there will be 6,000 newly built eco-
houses. 300 out of the 450 acres of island will be turned into parks and
agricultural allotments/farms. Aerial Treasure Island is designed as a self-
contained community offering all the necessary facilities and services (shops,
schools, hospitals etc), thus minimising transport requirements. A ferry service
will provide public transport to San Francisco city mainland.
2 Amman
Location Middle East - Jordan
Website http://ecocity.wordpress.com/2008/05/26/jo
rdan-to-build-green-city-for-one-million/
Size 1 million inhabitants
Type II - urban expansion
Phase 1 - planning stage
Key implementation mode a - technological innovation
The team behind the Masdar (UAE) project (see profile no 40) in 2008
announced plans to build a major new district for one million inhabitants in
Amman, Jordan. The development aims to address the large demand for
additional, mainly middle-class housing facing Amman. Some of the eco-
solutions developed in Masdar will be applied here on a larger scale, although
the new neighbourhood is not designed to be fully carbon-neutral. Houses will
be designed to maximize energy efficiency, while renewable energy will be
generated on site through wind and solar power plants. Advanced water and
waste recycling systems will be used to minimise waste. The project is
scheduled to commence in 2010, with a construction end date not currently
available.
Eco-Cities—A Global Survey 2009 (Joss, 2010
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3 Arcosanti
Location North America - USA
Website www.arcosanti.org
Size 5,000 inhabitants (currently 50-150)
Type I - new development
Phase 2 - under construction
Key implementation mode b - integrated sustainability vision/planning
The construction of this self-declared ‘experimental town’ built in the desert of
Arizona began in 1959. The town is based on the vision of architect Paolo Soleri
to realise his concept of ‘arcology’, combining architecture with ecology. Among
Arcosanti’s innovations are the layout of the town following the features of the
surrounding landscape, and terraced greenhouses. Currently still a work in
progress, the site serves mainly as an education centre offering accommodation
and workshops for architecture students and visitors.
4 Auroville
Location Asia - India
Website www.auroville.org
Size 1,500 inhabitants
Type I - new development
Phase 2 - under construction
Key implementation mode d - civic empowerment/involvement
This self-styled ‘universal city in the making’ focuses on bringing together
people from different countries and backgrounds to live in an ecologically
friendly and harmonious way. Initiated in the 1960s by a group of volunteers
inspired by Indian scholar Sri Aurobindo, Auroville has been endorsed by
UNESCO and the Indian Governement. The development consists of a series of
small settlements where sustainable farming is practiced. Auroville has also
participated in several reforestation campaigns in the region. The project has,
however, been criticised by some for relying on a polluting, private transport
system for goods and people.
Eco-Cities—A Global Survey 2009 (Joss, 2010
)
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5 Bahia de Caraquez
Location South America - Ecuador
Website http://www.ecuador.us/bahiadecaraquez.ht
m
Size 30,000 inhabitants
Type I - new development
Phase 3 - implemented
Key implementation mode a - technical innovation
Bahia de Caraquez was devastated in 1997 and 1998 by El Nino and an
earthquake, respectively. As a consequence, the city had to be completely
rebuilt, for which the regional authorities of the Sucre region used an eco-city
development model in collaboration with Japanese environmental NGO Action
for Mangrove Reforestation (ACTMANG). Key characteristics include an
advanced waste recycling system (including organic waste), permaculture
allotments and farms in the surrounding areas, and community schools offering
environmental training. More recently, a large scale reforestation project has
been underway in the areas surrounding the city.
6 BedZED
Location Europe - United Kingdom
Website http://www.bioregional.com/what-we-
do/our-work/bedzed/
Size 82 homes and 20 businesses
Type II - urban expansion
Phase 3 - implemented
Key implementation mode a - technical innovation
BedZED, short for Bedington Zero Energy Development, was opened by
Bioregional (a leading UK sustainable community development business) in
Sutton (South-West London) in 2001 as the largest mixed-use sustainable
community in the UK. 50 percent of its houses are under private ownership,
while the other half provides housing for ‘key workers’ (such as nurses and
teachers) and social housing. The aim of BedZED is to combine technological
innovation with behavioural change: buildings incorporate advanced insulation
and ventilation systems, while inhabitants’ resource consumption is
automatically monitored. Thus, energy saving, locally sourced food, sustainable
transportation and waste recycling are actively promoted. Although the planned
biomass burner has to date proved difficult to implement, solar and wind energy
are produced on site. In 2007, BedZED residents consumed 45% less energy
and 50% less water than the average of residents of Sutton Council.
Eco-Cities—A Global Survey 2009 (Joss, 2010
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7 BicycleCity
Location North America - USA
Website www.bicyclecity.com
Size Not yet known
Type I - new development
Phase 1 - planning stage
Key Implementation mode b – integrated sustainability vision/planning
Bicycle City is a concept for a car-free city developed in the USA. It embodies a
comprehensive vision for environmentally and socially sustainable cities and
communities, with a strong focus on bicycling and walking. The initiative
appears more conceptual than rooted in concrete plans, acting as promoter of
new ideas and a change of policy within existing cities across the USA and
beyond.
8 Black Sea Gardens
Location Europe - Bulgaria
Website http://www.blackseagardens.com/
Size Not yet known
Type I – new development
Phase 1 - planning stage
Key Implementation mode b – integrated sustainability vision/planning
Black Sea Gardens aims to become the ‘world’s first carbon-neutral luxury
resort’. The resort, built by Bulgarian property companies with involvement of
London-based architects Foster & Partners, is designed as a chain of five villages
located on the coast of the Bulgarian Black Sea. The plan includes public
transport using electric vehicles, with private cars prevented from entering the
resort. The layout of the resort closely follows the features of the local
environment. There is no indication of the timescale of the project.
Eco-Cities—A Global Survey 2009 (Joss, 2010
)
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9 Chalon-sur-Saone
Location Europe - France
Website http://www.add-
home.eu/docs/AMI_scheda_progetto_SAINTJ
EAN_ADDHOME.pdf
Size 180 homes
Type II - urban expansion
Phase 3 - implemented
Key Implementation mode a - technological innovation
The resort town of Chalon-sur-Saone in Burgundy developed one of its former
farming areas into a new eco-neighbourhood, ‘Saint Jean des Jardins’. Opened
in 2005, the new houses incorporate sustainable small-holding, in keeping with
the tradition of the area. Public transport is encouraged by walking and biking
routes and a bus service. A central heating plant and grey water system reduces
energy and water consumption. The municipality also opened an ‘ecomuseum’
with focus on the regional heritage.
10 Changxing
Location Asia - China
Website http://www.wannian.com.cn/EN/NewsShow.
aspx?CID=20081212162037375430&AID=2
0081212162200062434
Size 70,000 inhabitants
Type II - urban expansion
Phase 1 - planning stage
Key Implementation mode a - technological innovation
Changxing Ecological City – based on a master plan published in 2005 by the
Beijing authorities – is a private-sector initiative led by Vanion Group with
international input including Arup. It aims to create a new cultural and industrial
centre (science park) to the West of Beijing. The development will include a
mixture of residential units, office buildings and public facilities. The aim is to
balance environmental, social and economic needs and, thus, to achieve ‘energy
efficiency, environmental friendliness, economic growth, and social harmony’.
Energy consumption is to be reduced by 20 percent through energy efficient
buildings. 15 percent of energy will be produced from renewable sources.
Transport-related CO
2
emissions are to be cut by half (in comparison with
existing cities) through an integrated public transport system.
Eco-Cities—A Global Survey 2009 (Joss, 2010
)
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11 Clonburris
Location Europe - Republic of Ireland
Website http://www.clonburris.ie/index.php?option=c
om_content&task=view&id=26&Itemid=0
Size 15,000 homes
Type II - urban expansion
Phase 1 - planning stage
Key Implementation mode a - technological innovation
Work on Clonburris, a new district of Dublin, was started in 2007. The focus is
on implementing several technological innovations and encouraging behavioural
changes among residents. In the building phase, recycled and sustainable
materials have been used. Energy efficiency and renewable energy will be
standard requirements for all new building. Local food production will be
encouraged by providing allotments to all residents. A sustainable lifestyle will
be further promoted by, for example, banning tumble dryers and providing
communal areas for drying clothes.
12 Curitiba
Location Latin America - Brazil
Website http://www.curitiba.pr.gov.br/siteidioma/?idi
omacultura=2
Size Over 1.5 million inhabitants
Type III - retro-fit
Phase 3 - implemented
Key Implementation mode a - technological innovation
Curitiba has a longstanding, international reputation as one of the first eco-
cities, initiated in the 1970s under the then leadership of Mayor Jaime Lerner.
Its reputation is mainly built on its pioneering integrated bus system, which has
resulted in increased public transport and a reduction in traffic congestion. More
recently, the city has piloted a recycling systems based on incentives (food-for-
recyclables exchange system) and public education. The city’s network of parks
and green spaces has been expanded with the aim to enhance the
environmental, social and cultural dimensions of urban living. Curitiba is
currently considering the introduction of an underground public transport
system.
Eco-Cities—A Global Survey 2009 (Joss, 2010
)
University of Westminster
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13 Destiny Florida
Location North America – USA
Website http://www.destinyflorida.com/
Size Not yet known
Type I - new development
Phase 1 - planning stage
Key Implementation mode a - technological innovation
Plans for Destiny Florida, which aims to be ‘America’s first eco-sustainable city’
were launched in 2008 by Pugliese Development Company. The new city will be
located in the middle of the Florida peninsula and aims to offer its private
residents an environmentally sustainable way of living. Based on projections
that show Florida’s population to double by 2050 and urban sprawl to replace
most of the existing green space, Destiny Florida promises an urban
environment, in which green space is preserved. Much of its 64 square miles of
territory will be protected from development, following its principles of ‘4Cs’:
conservation, countryside, centres, and corridors. It is among the 16 cities
included in the Clinton Foundation’s sustainable cities initiative. It has signed up
to a reduction of CO
2
emissions by 80 percent by 2050 compared with 1990
levels of a similarly sized US city.
14 Dongtan
Location Asia – China
Website http://www.dongtan.cn/English/english.html
http://www.arup.com/_assets/_download/8C
FDEE1A-CC3E-EA1A-
25FD80B2315B50FD.pdf
Size Up to 70.000 inhabitants
Type I - new development
Phase 2 - under construction
Key implementation mode a - technological innovation
Dongtan was launched in 2005 as a flagship project of the Chinese government
aimed at addressing the dual challenge of meeting the country’s need for
urbanisation while improving environmental performance. Located outside
Shanghai at the mouth of the Yangtze river, the city is designed to consist of
zero-energy buildings (ZEBs); a green-house gas neutral transport system; a
self-sufficient water system; and fully renewable energy system. In addition,
Dongtan aims to increase biodiversity through the wetlands surrounding the
city. The project is developed by the Shanghai Industrial Investment
Corporation (SIIC) and British engineering firm Arup (see also profile no 8). The
first part was supposed to be finished in 2010 in time for the Shanghai World
Expo, but has been delayed due to a combination of the world financial crisis
and local political developments.
Eco-Cities—A Global Survey 2009 (Joss, 2010
)
University of Westminster
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15 Ecociudad Valdespartera
Location Europe - Spain
Website http://www.valdespartera.es/
Size 9,500 houses
Type II - urban expansion
Phase 3 - implemented
Key implementation mode a - technological innovation
Ecociudad Valdespartera was initiated in 2001 through a co-operation between
the municipal and regional authorities of Zaragoza with the aim to convert
decommissioned military barracks into social housing and public facilities. The
new district of Zaragoza is designed to meet current Spanish sustainable
building criteria. The design incorporates the features of the surrounding
environment. Buildings are oriented towards the sun to optimise natural heating
and to allow the use of solar panels; grey water is used to water gardens; and
vertical wind shields protect from prevailing winds. Green spaces containing
native species have been interspersed with the dense network of streets. The
first residents moved into the new district in 2004.
16 EcoVillage at Ithaca
Location North America - USA
Website http://www.ecovillage.ithaca.ny.us/
Size 60 houses
Type I - new development
Phase 3 - implemented
Key Implementation mode a – integrated sustainability vision/planning
Located in Upstate New York, EcoVillage at Ithaca promotes a more sustainable
way of living for its residents and acts as an educational model. It aims to
present an alternative to mainstream American urban living, by balancing a
healthy and socially rich lifestyle with environmental sustainability. In addition
to the residential dwellings, EcoVillage at Ithaca also includes organic farms,
green spaces, offices and an education centre. Current projects under
development include a wind power plant, biological waste water treatment and
grey water recycling systems, bio fuel production, and a school.
Eco-Cities—A Global Survey 2009 (Joss, 2010
)
University of Westminster
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17 Erlangen
Location Europe - Germany
Website http://www.erlangen.de/en/desktopdefault
Size 100,000 inhabitants
Type III - retro-fit
Phase 3 - implemented
Key Implementation mode a - technological innovation
Located in Bavaria with just over 100,000 inhabitants, the university town of
Erlangen is considered one of the most eco-friendly cities in Europe. Following
the lead of other German cities, in particular Freiburg (see profile no 19), during
the 1980s Erlangen introduced new policies to bring about more
environmentally friendly transport and energy production. Under the leadership
of the city’s mayor, an extensive bicycle network was implemented, resulting in
an increase in bicycle use of 75 percent. Several areas of the city have been
pedestrianised, while the tram network has been extended. In 1989, Erlangen
won the Top-Ecocity award of the Japanese national ecocity network.
18 Ferrara
Location Europe - Italy
Website http://ferrara.comune.fe.it/
Size 130,000 inhabitants
Type III - retro-fit
Phase 3 - implemented
Key Implementation mode a - technological innovation
Ferrara, located in the province of Emilia-Romana, has mainly focused on one
area of what it calls ‘urban eco-transformation’: using advanced technological
innovation, the town has implemented a highly efficient waste recycling system,
focusing on both waste separation and recycling. The city won an award by the
European Sustainable Cities and Towns Campaign in 2003.
Eco-Cities—A Global Survey 2009 (Joss, 2010
)
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19 Freiburg
Location Europe-Germany
Website www.friburg.de
Size 220,000 inhabitants
Type III - retro-fit
Phase 3 - implemented
Key Implementation mode a - technological innovation
Since the 1970s, Freiburg has developed a reputation as Germany's ‘ecological
capital’. In 1986, the city adopted a master plan for a sustainable city based on
environmentally sustainable energy supply, resulting in advanced (solar
technology based) energy efficiency and public transport programmes. In 1996,
Freiburg passed the Climate Protection Protocol aimed at reducing CO
2
emissions by 25 percent below 1992 levels by 2010. Over a ten year period,
CO
2
emissions were reduced by more than ten percent per capita. There has
been a 100 per cent increase in public transport use, with up to 35 percent of
residents being non-car owners. Several neighbourhoods are experimenting with
passive energy houses using specially designed insulation and air-flow systems.
20 Glumslov
Location Europe - Sweden
Website http://advantage-
environment.com/byggnader/passive-
houses/
Size 2,000 inhabitants
Type III - retro-fit
Phase 3 - implemented
Key Implementation mode a - technological innovation
Glumslov has become internationally known for its patented passive – or ‘self-
heating’ – houses, which capture and retain heat based on design and insulation
technology. Electricity and warm water are generated from renewable sources,
mainly solar panels. Energy consumption per unit is approx. half of a
comparable regular house. The Glumslov passive house system has been used
as a model by city authorities elsewhere, such as the London regional
authorities (including Thames Gateway, see profile no 57).
Eco-Cities—A Global Survey 2009 (Joss, 2010
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21 Gothenburg
Location Europe - Sweden
Website http://www.inhabitat.com/2009/03/16/swedi
sh-super-city-envisions-gothenburg-as-
ecotopia/
Size 500,000 inhabitants
Type III - retro-fit
Phase 1 - planning stage
Key Implementation mode a - technological innovation
In 2009, plans were unveiled to transform Gothenburg into a ‘super sustainable
city’, prompted by predictions of a significant population growth by 2020. The
aim is to both ‘green’ and grow the city, while preventing urban sprawl. The
dense, interconnected urban landscape would feature rooftop gardens providing
locally sourced food, ‘intelligent’ water- and energy-harvesting roads, as well as
solar panels and wind turbines. A zero-carbon ‘personal rapid transit’ system is
envisioned together with rain-protected cycling ‘highways’. The city government
has yet to decide how and when to adopt these plans.
22 Greenwich Millennium Village
Location Europe - United Kingdom
Website http://www.englishpartnerships.co.uk/gmv.h
tm
Size 3,000 houses
Type II - urban expansion
Phase 2 - under construction
Key Implementation mode a - technological innovation
Greenwich Millennium Village, located in South East London, is a Millennium
Communities initiative launched by the UK government in 1997. The sustainable
housing programme, led by English Partnerships (the UK’s national regeneration
agency), has involved the transformation of Europe’s largest former gasworks
into a new residential district. It opened in 2000, and by 2008 approx. one third
of the total of 3,000 houses was completed. The aim is to cut 80 percent of
primary energy use in its buildings by using modern materials and building
techniques, with solar panels and wind turbines providing renewable energy.
The project is scheduled to be completed by 2015, including a school, hospital
and shopping facilities.
Eco-Cities—A Global Survey 2009 (Joss, 2010
)
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23 Gwang Gyo
Location Asia - South Korea
Website www.mvrdv.nl
Size 77,000 inhabitants
Type I - New development
Phase 1 - Planning stage
Key implementation mode a – technological innovation
The plans for this new city, launched in 2008 as a joint venture between
Daewoo Consortium and Gwanggyo municipality, are based on the ‘dense city’
concept by Dutch architects MVRDV. A self-sufficient city of 77,000 inhabitants
located 35 km south of Seoul, Gwang Gyo will consist of a series of ‘termite-
shaped’ buildings aimed at creating vertical green spaces to improve natural
ventilation and reduce energy and water usage. The design follows the ‘power
centre’ strategy used in contemporary Korean town planning, providing a centre
for mixed public housing, retail, offices, and leisure/cultural facilities, linked in a
nodular network to other urban centres. In 2009, the plans were under
consideration for approval by the Gyeonggi provincial authority, with completion
envisaged by 2011.
24 Hacienda Ecocities
Location Africa - Kenya
Website http://www.haciendakenya.com/
Size 6,250 housing units
Type II - urban expansion
Phase 1 - planning stage
Key Implementation mode a - technological innovation
Hacienda Ecocity is currently being developed near Mombasa containing 6,250
housing units, with completion expected by approx. 2015. The project is a
blueprint for a series of other developments catering mainly for middle class
residents planned across Kenya, with the second to be located near Nairobi.
Hacienda eco-city Mombasa is designed to be entirely self-sufficient for both
residential and commercial areas in terms of renewable energy (including a
solar power station producing 12 MW) and water supply. Waste water will be
recycled using a special wetland and filtration system. The town is promoted to
offer price stability, service reliability and security for its residents.
Eco-Cities—A Global Survey 2009 (Joss, 2010
)
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25 Hamburg-Harburg
Location Europe - Germany
Website http://www.inhabitat.com/2009/08/19/eco-
city-seeking-highest-rating-from-the-three-
major-major-green-rating-systems/
Size 200,000 inhabitants
Type III - retro-fit
Phase 1 - planning stage
Key Implementation mode a - technological innovation
The Hamburg-Harburg harbour is the site of a large scale ecocity retro-fit
project, which involves adapting the former port facilities and creating new
office and residential space. The project was launched in 2009 and styles itself
as ‘Germany’s first entirely sustainable creative-industrial corporate
development’. Energy consumption is to be cut by 30 percent (compared with
2010 levels) through use of renewable energy (including wind turbines and solar
water heating systems) and energy saving technologies and materials. Most
buildings will feature green rooftops.
26 Hamm
Location Europe - Germany
Website http://www.hamm.de/cgi-bin/
Size 180,000 inhabitants
Type III - retro-fit
Phase 3 - implemented
Key Implementation mode a - technological innovation
The town of Hamm in North-West Germany is known within the country as an
eco-city pioneer, going back to the 1990s when it was chosen by the regional
government as a model city for sustainable policy planning. In 1998, it was
awarded the title of ‘national capital for environmental protection’. The town has
implemented a comprehensive sustainable transport system including bicycles,
electric buses, trains and riverboats. It is also known for its stakeholder and
public involvement in local decision-making.
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27 Hammarby Sjostad
Location Europe - Sweden
Website http://showcase.hcaacademy.co.uk/case-
study/ecotowns-hammarby-sjstad-
sweden.html
Size 35,000 inhabitants
Type II - urban expansion
Phase 3 - implemented
Key Implementation mode a - technological innovation
The sustainable regeneration of the Hammarby Sjostad brown field close to
Stockholm was part of the city’s 2004 Olympic Games bid. While the bid itself
failed, work on Hammarby Sjostad has continued, with completion expected in
2015. The project includes an integrated transport system aimed at achieving
80 percent public transport by 2010 with the support of free ferry transport and
a bio fuel carpool scheme. Solar panels on most buildings, and water and waste
recycling systems are other features of this new district.
28 Hanham Hall
Location Europe - United Kingdom
Website http://www.hanhamhall.co.uk/
Size 170-220 houses
Type II - urban expansion
Phase 2 - under construction
Key Implementation mode a - technological innovation
The regeneration of the area around a former hospital in suburban Bristol was
hailed by its developers English Partnerships (the UK’s national regeneration
agency) as ‘England’s first zero carbon development’, serving as a blueprint for
the government’s eco-towns (see profile no 43). Building firm Barratt was
awarded the contract to build the development on the basis of its ‘Green House’
design, which meets the government’s zero-carbon house building criteria for
2016. Hot water and electricity are to be produced by a community biomass
boiler; waste collected and sorted in a nearby recycling centre; garden
allotments made available to all the residents; and a car-share club scheme put
in place. Work began in 2009, and the first residents are scheduled to move in
at the beginning of 2011.
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29 Heidelberg
Location Europe - Germany
Website http://www.icdmuenchen.um.dk/en/service
menu/News/GermanysEcoCities.htm
Size 150,000 inhabitants
Type III - retro-fit
Phase 3 - implemented
Key Implementation mode a - technological innovation
Heidelberg is among the pioneers in Germany in terms of promoting urban
energy efficiency and energy saving. Through the implementation of a rigorous
CO
2
monitoring scheme, the old university town managed to cut green house
gas emissions in public buildings by 35 percent by the early 2000s compared
with 1993. Since then, new, more ambitious targets have been set with focus on
encouraging residents and private businesses to cut CO
2
emissions.
30 Helsingor/Helsingborg
Location Europe - Denmark/Sweden
Website http://www.ecocity-
project.eu/DetailedProjectInformation_Helsin
gorHelsingborg.html
Size 140,000 inhabitants
Type II - urban expansion
Phase 2 - under construction
Key Implementation mode a - technological innovation
This European Commission-funded initiative (see also profiles no 60, 61 and 66)
brings together these two neighbouring Danish and Swedish towns in pursuit of
sustainable urban development. The first, now complete phase of the project
focused on increasing the energy efficiency of existing buildings. The second
phase, currently underway, entails the building of several new developments
according to strict energy efficiency norms. Various technological applications,
such as solar panels and heat pumps for water heating, are being tested and
compared. A new education centre with focus on renewable energy was opened
in Helsingborg, alongside a new cultural centre in Helsingor. Future plans
include a large biomass boiler.
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31 Icheon
Location Asia - South Korea
Website http://www.inhabitat.com/2009/08/31/foste
r-partners-to-design-south-korean-eco-city/
Size 320,000 residents
Type I - new development
Phase 1 - planning stage
Key Implementation mode a - technological innovation
Unveiled in August 2009 following a national competition, the plans for this new
South Korean city promise to eclipse Masdar (see profile no 40) as the world’s
most sustainable city. The mixed-use development, which spreads across three
sites interconnected by high speed rail, combines residential areas with an
industrial zone. The latter is designed to attract technology firms and research
laboratories specialising in environmental sustainability, especially developers of
photovoltaic cell and wind turbine technology. As the city will be built on green
field sites in an agricultural region, rooftops have been designed as gardens to
substitute for lost land and to maintain biodiversity. The project, led by
architects Foster & Partners, is due for completion within the next 10-15 years.
32 Johannesburg EcoCity
Location Africa - South Africa
Website www.ecocity.org.za
Size Initially 30 houses, with a further 60 planned
Type I - new development
Phase 2 - under construction
Key Implementation mode b – integrated sustainability vision/planning
Located in Ivory Park near Johannesburg, this programme was launched in
1999. It consists of a series of activities and projects centred upon the EcoCity
concept, which aims to offer alternative strategies to mainstream development
approaches and to showcase practical, community-based sustainability
innovations combining environmental, social and economic elements. The
EcoVillage project itself comprises three eco-houses (out of a total of 30 in
phase 1) completed to date with support from Bioregional UK (see profile no 6).
The project promotes indigenous gardens and permaculture, and grey water
recycling (using a solar-powered pumping system) for land irrigation. Traditional
local brick production promotes both economic and environmental sustainability,
by creating employment and reducing reliance on imported cement. The
completed project will feature a traditional African Kraal (homestead).
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33 Kalundborg
Location Europe - Denmark
Website http://www.symbiosis.dk/
Size 3,500 houses + industry
Type II - urban expansion
Phase 3 - implemented
Key Implementation mode a – technological innovation
Kalundborg pioneered the concept of the ‘symbiosis industrial park’, according
to which businesses are co-located in such a way as to encourage the sharing of
resources and, thus, increase resource efficiency. To date, 20 companies,
including a fertilizer company, a pharmaceutical institute, and a gypsum and
cement factory have set up business there. The industrial park and residential
area are located around a clean-coal plant and a fjord. The companies draw on
the by-products of the plant and the available sea water.
34 Kampala
Location Africa - Uganda
Website http://enviro.org.au/enews-
description.asp?id=788
Size 1,4 million inhabitants
Type III - retro-fit
Phase 3 - implemented
Key implementation mode b - integrated sustainability vision/planning
Kampala has experienced many of the problems facing fast growing cities in
developing countries, including traffic congestion, a lack of adequate housing
and air and water pollution. In response, the municipal government initiated a
programme of ‘greening’ the city. In the early 2000s, it introduced a series of
bylaws – since implemented nationwide – promoting urban agriculture and food
production, which transformed the local food supply system. The municipality
also created national parks in and around the city, thus managing to control
urban sprawl. Furthermore, it introduced a traffic congestion fee and an
extensive bus network, in order to encourage public transport. More recently, it
embarked on refurbishing two housing estates (Naguru, Nakawa) to provide
modern, environmentally sustainable accommodation for 30,000 people.
Kampala has become known as Africa’s garden city.
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35-40 Kitakyushu; Minamata; Obihiro;
Shimokawa; Toyama; Yokohama
Location Asia – Japan
Website http://www.gov-
online.go.jp/pdf/hlj_img/vol_0015et/04-
17.pdf
Size varied
Type III - retro-fit
Phase 2 - under construction
Key implementation mode b - technological innovation
In 2009, the Japanese government (Ministry of Environment; Ministry of
Economy, Trade and Industry) selected Kitakyushu, Minamata, Obihiro,
Shimokawa, Toyama and Yokohama from a total of 82 applications for eco-city
development. The choice was made both on the basis of the six cities’ track
record as sustainability champions and their future plans. The initiative aims to
encourage other cities to follow the example of the six eco-city developments.
Yokohama began to implement the so-called G30 programme in 2003, which
aims to reduce waste by 30 percent by 2010. Civil society actors coined the
slogan ‘less waste, no litter – that’s Yokohama culture’, which has since been
adopted by the city council.
Kitakyushu, a former industrial centre is in the process of transforming itself
into a renewable energy centre, by turning its industrial base into solar farms.
Several former industrial buildings have been turned into environmental
sustainability training centres.
Toyama experienced a steep, 30 percent increase in CO
2
emissions between
1999 and 2003, twice the national average. In response, an electrified public
transport system (including a light railway) forms the centre piece of the city’s
current emissions reduction programme.
Obihiro, which is situated in a biodiverse area, has initiated a reforestation
programme around the city, including over 400 ha of previous agricultural land.
Furthermore, the city’s expertise in recycling agricultural and domestic waste
will be used to create a regional waste recycling centre.
Minamata was known for many years as Japan’s most polluted city. Since the
1990s, it has embarked on concerted sustainability action programme. It now
has the country’s most advanced waste separation and recycling system, with
household waste separated into more than twenty categories.
Shimokawa initiated a large reforestation programme, as well as installed a
wood biomass boiler operated by the city council.
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41-46 Kottayam; Puri; Thanjavur; Tirupati;
Ujjain; Vrindavan
Location Asia - India
Website http://www.ecocities-india.org
Size 166,000 inhabitants
Type III - retro-fit
Phase 2 - under construction
Key Implementation mode b – integrated sustainability vision/planning
In 2001, Kottayam was selected by the Indian government as the first of six
pilot eco-city initiatives aimed at carrying out various retro-fit adaptations to
established cities. One of the key objectives of the Kottayam project is to
improve the areas around the city, and in particular the sustainability of the
city’s rivers. Work began in 2005 to clean up the rivers and the adjacent
swamps, to develop aquacultures, and to create more recreational areas. In
addition, the aim is to implement advanced grey water and waste management
systems across the city. A series of environmental indicators have been
developed, in order to be able to measure the rate of improvement. The city will
serve as a site of learning and training for (federal) civil servants as well as
specialists in water and waste management.
If Kottayam proves successful, the other five designated eco-city initiatives in
Puri, Thanjavur, Tirupati, Ujjain, and Vrindavan will focus on three main areas:
improving sanitation in public spaces; making public transport more efficient
and environmentally sustainable; and improving facilities and conditions for
tourists.
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47 Logrono Montecorvo
Location Europe - Spain
Website http://www.e-
architect.co.uk/spain/logrono_eco_city.htm
Size 3,000 homes
Type II - urban expansion
Phase 1 - planning phase
Key Implementation mode a – technological innovation
In 2007, the regional government of La Rioja launched its plan to create
Ecociudad Montecorvo, an extension of its capital Logrono. The new
neighbourhood aims to achieve a CO
2
-neutral footprint by relying on renewable
energy (solar and wind power). The linear urban layout is characterised by its
compactness – occupying only ten percent of the 56 ha site – and a close
alignment with the surrounding environment. In addition to retail and leisure
facilities, the new district will feature parkland and a renewable energy research
centre and museum. The onsite production of renewable energy is expected to
make annual savings of around 6,000 tons of CO
2
emissions. The planning
process was met with resistance from the municipal authorities. The first
buildings are expected to be completed by 2013.
48 Loja
Location South America - Ecuador
Website http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_hb6376
/is_2_20/ai_n29330367/
Size 1,4 million inhabitants
Type III - retro-fit
Phase 3 - implemented
Key implementation mode a - technological innovation
Loja, the capital of the Ecuadorian province by the same name for years
experienced high levels of both air and aquatic pollution, as well as persistent
waste management problems. In 1996, the city’s newly elected mayor (Jose
Castillo) embarked on a sustained programme of ‘eco-transformation’:
measures were adopted to reduce air and water pollution, including the
introduction of low polluting buses; all new buildings were required to include at
least 20 percent green space; and a program of reforestation was initiated in
and around the city. The city also gained a reputation for its advanced waste
management and recycling system: a mandatory waste separation and recycling
policy – now also including organic waste – was introduced and enforced by a
penalty system, with the rate of recycling reaching up to 95 percent.
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49 Malmo
Location Europe - Sweden
Website www.malmo.com
Size 285,000 inhabitants
Type III – retro-fit
Phase 3 – implemented
Key implementation mode a – technological innovation
Following rapid economic decline in the 1990s and the subsequent shift towards
a service-based economy, Malmo embarked on a concerted programme –
including its acclaimed BoO1 harbour district – of urban regeneration according
to sustainable principles and reinventing itself as ‘climate’- / ‘solar’- / ‘eco’-city.
Houses were retro-fitted to achieve up to 35 percent more energy efficiency; a
new recycling system and a sustainable transport system (with experimental
electric street cars) were initiated; and plans are currently under way to build
two major solar thermal and photovoltaic plants. The city aims to be ‘carbon-
neutral’ by 2020 and run on 100 percent renewable energy by 2030. Malmo is
frequently held up as a model ‘retro-fit’ eco-city.
50 Masdar
Location Middle East - United Arab Emirates
Website www.masdar.ae
Size 40,000 inhabitants & 50,000 commuters
Type I – new development
Phase 2 – under construction
Key implementation mode a – technological innovation
Launched in 2006, Masdar proclaims itself as the world’s first fully ‘carbon-
neutral, zero-waste’ city in the making. Situated on the outskirts of Abu Dhabi
with governmental support, the project is an attempt to transform the Emirate
into a global leader in sustainable energy technologies. The city’s master plan
mixes principles of traditional Arab architecture (providing natural ventilation
and minimising heat impact) with modern high-technology innovation. Public
transport will consist of a solar-powered ‘personal rapid transport’ system;
energy will be generated by photovoltaic technology; water will be recycled
through irrigation recovery; and waste will be incinerated to generate power and
heat. The new city aims to become an international hub for renewable energy
research and development, led by the Masdar Institute of Science and
Technology (in cooperation with MIT, Cambridge USA). Work started in 2008,
and the first buildings are scheduled for completion in 2011.
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51 MenTouGou
Location Asia - China
Website http://www.vtt.fi/uutta/2008/20080229.jsp?
lang=en
Size 270,000 inhabitants
Type II - urban expansion
Phase 1 - planning stage
Key implementation mode a - technological innovation
The district of MenTouGou in West Beijing was selected by the Chinese
authorities as a major growth area. Through a collaboration with VTT, a Finnish
technical research organisation, work was begun in 2007 to retro-fit the existing
neighbourhood and to build new housing and office space. There are two main
foci: first, the use of advanced technology to achieve greater energy efficiency,
reduced waste production, more efficient water management, and a low-
emission public transport system. The second focus is on preserving the area’s
biodiversity. The latter is also expected to improve the city’s reputation as a
tourist destination.
52 Niew Terbregge
Location Europe - The Netherlands
Website http://www.nieuw-terbregge.nl/en
Size 3,000 inhabitants
Type II - urban expansion
Phase 2 - under construction
Key implementation mode a - technological innovation
The new neighbourhood of Rotterdam has been developed under the European
Commission-funded RE-Start (Renewable Strategies and Technology
Applications for Regenerating Towns) cross-national programme involving eight
European countries. The aim of the programme, which started in the mid 1990s,
is to reduce carbon emissions by at least 25 percent, while at the same time
promoting high-quality living. In the demonstration project of Niew Terbregge,
the houses incorporate energy efficient designs; both individual and collective
renewable energy technology; and an advanced grey water recycling system.
Furthermore, the district has implemented a programme of stakeholder
engagement, including joint consultation with residents, developers and utility
companies.
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57 Oslo
Location Europe - Norway
Website http://www.iclei.org/index.php?id=9329
Size 520,000 inhabitants
Type III - retro-fit
Phase 3 - implemented
Key implementation mode A - technological innovation
Oslo counts among the early pioneers of urban sustainability in Europe. Building
on the Local Agenda 21 principles, in 2001 the city adopted the so called ‘Earth
Charter’. It also introduced a city-wide carbon foot print monitoring system.
Public transport has been made more environmentally sustainable using various
experimental hybrid fuel technology solutions. A comprehensive recycling
system was successfully introduced. In 2003, Oslo was awarded the European
Sustainable City award. More recently, the city has extended its sustainability
efforts to the redevelopment of its harbour area.
53-56 North West Bicester; Rackheath;
St Austell; Whitehill-Bordon
Location Europe - United Kingdom
Website http://www.communities.gov.uk/news/
Size Between 5,000 and 7,000 homes each
Type I - new development
Phase 1 - planning phase
Key implementation mode a - technical innovation
In 2009, the UK government announced plans for the first four in a series of
new eco-towns across England to address the national shortage of housing. The
decision to build four new towns (from originally twelve selected sites) followed
a lengthy and at times controversial public consultation process. The new eco-
towns are to be built on either brown- or green-field sites in Cornwall (St
Austell), Hampshire (Whitehill-Bordon), Norfolk (Rackheath) and Oxfordshire
(North West Bicester). Overall, the aim is to provide homes for around 30,000
inhabitants within a period of five years. The new eco-towns are mostly new-
builds, although in some cases they will also incorporate some refurbished
buildings. They are located in the proximity of nearby towns, in order to take
advantage of existing public transport networks and amenities. The building
process is supposed to involve 30 percent less green house gas emissions than
traditional building processes. The towns will incorporate renewable (wind/solar)
energy production and transport systems (e.g. electric vehicles).
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59 Puerto Princesa
Location Asia - Philippines
Website http://www.puertoprincesa.ph/index.php?pa
ge=gi
Size 200,000 inhabitants
Type III - retro-fit
Phase 3 - implemented
Key implementation mode b - integrated sustainability vision/planning
Puerto Princesa, the second largest city in the Philippines and an international
resort, trades on its green credentials, in order to remain one of the leading
tourist destinations in the region. Stringent laws are in place to protect the city’s
surrounding areas, in particular a UNESCO World Heritage underground river
system. The city authorities also initiated an ambitious reforestation
programme. In an effort to reduce CO
2
emissions, the ubiquitous tricycles,
which serve as main transport means for the city’s residents, have been
converted to run on electricity and are sold for a quarter of the price of
conventional tricycles.
58 Portland
Location North America - USA
Website www.portlandonline.com
Size Over half a million inhabitants (metropolitan
area over million)
Type III - retro-fit
Phase 3 - implemented
Key implementation mode a - technological innovation
For many years, Portland has been ranked as one of the greenest US cities.
Early achievements include an integrated public transport system and the
pedestrianisation of the city centre. The city established an integrated planning
and sustainability office with focus on key areas including energy efficiency,
waste management, and green building design. New buildings have to comply
with strict regulations concerning building materials and greenhouse gas
emissions, resulting in the largest number of LEED certified buildings among US
cities. The city and regional authorities are noted for their strong land-use
planning, including establishing substantial green zones in and around the city
to control urban expansion.
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60 Reykjavik
Location Europe - Iceland
Website http://saveecodestinations.wordpress.com/2
009/04/16/green-city-tour-reykjavik-
iceland/
Size 120,000 inhabitants
Type III - retro-fit
Phase 3 - implemented
Key implementation mode a - technological innovation
Iceland’s capital, where half of the country’s population resides, is at the
forefront of an ambitious national plan to turn the country 100 percent free of
fossil fuel by 2050. The initial measures focused on public transport, with buses
switched to hydrogen technology. More recently, new hydro- and geothermal
plants have begun to be built. Since 2003 a network of hydrogen stations has
been installed across the city, in an attempt to encourage the conversion of
regular cars to hydrogen technology.
61 Rizhao
Location Asia - China
Website http://wwww.rizhao.gov.cn/en/rizhao.asp
Size 3,000,000 inhabitants
Type II - urban expansion
Phase 2 - under construction
Key implementation mode a - technological innovation
Rizhao, or ‘city of sunshine’, has a longstanding reputation for its environmental
sustainability due to its status a coastal resort with little heavy industry. With
the appointment of a new mayor in 2001, the city embarked on its current
programme of switching to solar power technology. A majority of houses have
since been equipped with photovoltaic cells, while almost all households have
solar water heating systems. All street and public lighting is solar powered. In
addition to this retro-fitting, the city has also begun work on new
neighbourhood developments using strict environmental standards.
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62 Segrate / Milano Santa Monica
Location Europe - Italy
Website http://www.milanosantamonica.it/
Size 2,000 units
Type II - urban expansion
Phase 1 - planning stage
Key implementation mode b - integrated sustainability vision/planning
This new neighbourhood of Milan is based on the concept of ‘bio-architecture’,
promoting the design of the urban landscape in close alignment and harmony
with the surrounding environment. The compact neighbourhood will only make
up ten percent of the overall area, with the rest developed as green space to
enhance biodiversity. Solar power and heating will provide electricity and hot
water for the new houses. It remains unclear what (public) transport system is
planned for travel into Milan city centre. The project, which is financed and
developed by private bank Vegagest, is due for completion in 2013.
63 Sydney
Location Australasia - Australia
Website http://www.cityofsydney.nsw.gov.au/Enviro
nment/Overview/default.asp
Size 4,300,000 inhabitants
Type III - retro-fit
Phase 2 - under construction
Key implementation mode b - integrated sustainability vision/planning
Based on two successive local government acts (1993; 1999), Sydney has
embarked on a concerted sustainability programme addressing environmental,
social and economic issues. Using various sustainability indicators, the city’s use
of resources is closely monitored. An environmental partnership between the
city authorities and civil society groups was established; an extensive public
information campaign on conservation and sustainability was put in place; and a
household energy savings programme was launched. More recently work on
White Bay, a new neighbourhood, has begun using strict environmental norms.
There, local transport will be based on a new system of stackable electric mini-
cars.
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64 Songdo
Location Asia – South Korea
Website http://www.inhabitat.com/2009/09/04/song
do-ibd-south-koreas-new-eco-city/
Size 75,000 inhabitants and 300,000 commuters
Type I - new development
Phase 2 - under construction
Key implementation mode a - technological innovation
Work on the new city of Songdo, a private initiative by New Songdo
International City Development (NSIC; 70 percent owned by US and 30 percent
by Korean companies) began in 2004, with completion expected by 2015. Some
40 percent of the overall area of 1500 acres will consist of green space,
including a large central park modelled on New York. Other copies of famous
city features will include Venice-style canals. Environmental features will
comprise: an integrated public transport system; rooftop gardens; LED public
lighting; renewable energy generation; an advanced recycling system; and the
enhancement of biodiversity through protected green spaces. The city aims to
become the largest LEED (Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design)
certified private development in the world, with over 120 certified buildings.
65 Sonoma Mountain Village
Location North America – USA
Website http://www.sonomamountainvillage.com/
Size 2,000 units
Type I - new development
Phase 2 - under construction
Key implementation mode b - integrated sustainability vision/planning
Developed on a derelict industrial site, Sonoma Mountain Village (SOMO, in
Sonoma County, California) aims to become a leading urban sustainability
development based on the notion of integrating the use of advanced technology
with a design centred upon the needs of its residents and businesses. This
includes a ‘five-minute lifestyle’ concept, whereby all public amenities and
facilities should be located within a five minute walking distance, thus cutting
down on emissions and improving the work-life balance. The new town
development includes a business cluster, which is designed to attract new
businesses with strong environmental credentials (one of its first companies is a
steel frame producing company fully using renewable energy and recycling its
waste). A series of sustainability education and events programmes is planned
for residents. Work began in 2009, with the first buildings scheduled for
completion in late 2010 and overall project completion due in 2025.
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66 Sseesamirembe
Location Africa - Uganda
Website http://www.sseesamirembe.com/
Size 200 sq miles
Type I – new development
Phase 2 – under construction
Key implementation mode b – technological innovation
Sseesamirembe Eco-City (or Lake Victoria Free Trade Zone) was initiated in
2006 by the Ugandan government, with financial backing from China ($1.5bn;
one of the largest Chinese investments in Africa to date). The development
stretches an area of some 200 square miles, including multi-use urban
developments, sustainable agricultural land and forests, green belts and nature
reserves. It is planned as a low-carbon area providing a competitive operational
base with efficient infrastructures, administrative support and high-tech services
to attract new businesses to the region. The initiative incorporates principles of
nature conservation, pedestrian-friendly, energy-efficient urban design and
renewable energy production.
67 St. Davids
Location Europe - UK
Website www.stdavids.co.uk
Size 1800 inhabitants
Type III – retro-fit
Phase 3 – implemented
Key implementation mode b – integrated sustainability vision/planning
St. Davids, the UK’s smallest city, has gained a reputation for its green practices
and policies. Following a sharp economic decline in the late 1980s/early 1990s,
the city – led by civil society actors, including the Eco-City group – began to
shift its focus to innovation in environmental sustainability and eco-tourism.
With support from the National Lottery, it launched a programme to become the
UK’s first ‘carbon neutral’ city, by experimenting with and implementing various
solar heating and photovoltaic, as well as water conservation and recycling,
systems. It also runs an education and tourism programme, attracting on
average half a million visitors annually. Revenues from this are reinvested in
new sustainability technology innovation, including for example a recent study
to test the feasibility of installing a tidal turbine in the Ramsey Sound that could
provide the city with 100 percent renewable electricity.
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68 Tajimi
Location Asia – Japan
Website http://www.japanfs.org/en/mailmagazine/ne
wsletter/pages/027839.html
Size 100,000 inhabitants
Type III - retro-fit
Phase 3 - implemented
Key implementation mode c - civic empowerment
Tajimi is among the leaders in Japanese eco-city development, having won the
national ‘Top Eco-City’ award as early as 2003. Its approach to urban
sustainable development combines community involvement with transparent
information on environmental impacts. New developments and the retro-fitting
of existing buildings – using advanced sustainable technologies, such as rooftop
gardens and solar panels – are carried out by prior public consultation.
Characteristically, urban sustainability as a planning issue is integrated across
all of the city’s administrative departments.
69 Tangshan/ Caofeidian
Location Asia - China
Website http://www.tangshan.gov.cn/
Size 3 million inhabitants
Type III/I – retro-fit/ new development
Phase 2 – under construction
Key implementation mode a – technological innovation
In 1976, an earthquake levelled Tangshan city, after which it was rebuilt
according to higher sustainable standards than most other Chinese cities. In
2006, on the 20
th
anniversary of the earthquake, the Chinese President
launched an initiative to consolidate the city as a pioneer for sustainable urban
development. Industries that found themselves surrounded by residential areas
due to the city’s recent growth have been relocated to the periphery. At the
same time, strict water and waste recycling requirements have been imposed on
all industrial sites. A new district, Caofeidian, is being built to meet the demand
for additional housing. It will feature renewable energy and energy conservation
technologies. Migrant workers are provided with health care and educational
support. Agricultural production in the city’s hinterland has been encouraged to
switch to non-pesticide methods.
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70 Thames Gateway
Location Europe – United Kingdom
Website http://www.communities.gov.uk/thamesgate
way/
Size Around 1.6 million inhabitants
Type II - urban expansion
Phase 2 - under construction
Key implementation mode a - technological innovation
The Thames Gateway is Europe’s largest regeneration project stretching along
the river Thames, incorporating parts of London and the counties of Essex and
Kent. The ‘eco-region’, as it is promoted, comprises urban, brown field and
green space, and is to be developed according to economic, social and
environmental sustainability criteria. The Thames Gateway Development
Corporation (TGDC) was set up in 2000 as a strategic planning authority,
bringing together over twenty local, regional and national authorities and
organisations. It is in charge of the implementation of both large-scale projects,
such as the Channel Tunnel rail extension and the Olympic Village, and smaller
projects, such as the refurbishment of housing estates. In 2010, the Thames
Gateway Institute for Sustainability was launched as a cross-institutional
research and innovation centre to support the development of the region.
71 Tianjin
Location Asia - China
Website http://www.tianjinecocity.gov.sg/
Size 350,000 inhabitants
Type II – urban expansion
Phase 2 – under construction
Key implementation mode a – technological innovation
Tianjin Eco-City is a new district of the historic city of Tianjin. It is being built
with technology and expertise from Singapore, drawing on the two countries’
previous experience of developing the Suzhou Industrial Park. While initially the
district will derive energy from a waste incinerator plant, several other options
for energy generation are under consideration, including clean fuel, renewable
(solar) and geothermal energy. All buildings will conform to stringent energy
efficiency standards. The district is planned to allow for up to 90 percent public
transport, cycling and walking. Advanced water saving and waste management
systems will be implemented. The existing wetlands around the city will be
protected to enhance biodiversity. Work began in 2008 and is scheduled to take
between ten and fifteen years to completion.
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72 Toronto
Location North America – Canada
Website http://www.toronto.ca/environment/index.ht
m
Size 2.5 million inhabitants
Type III - retro-fit
Phase 3 - implemented
Key implementation mode a - technological innovation
In the early 1990s, Toronto launched a concerted sustainability programme led
by the city’s environment office, with the main focus on the reduction of
greenhouse gas emissions. By 2009, a reduction of 40 percent was achieved in
comparison with 1990 levels, leading to the award of the Pollution Prevention
Award by the Canadian government. Current plans are to reduce greenhouse
gas emissions by 80 percent by 2050. Other significant initiatives have included
a bylaw providing residents and businesses with incentives to install green
rooftop systems.
73 Trondheim
Location Europe – Norway
Website http://www.ecocity-
project.eu/TheProjectTrondheim.html
Size 170,000 inhabitants
Type II - urban expansion
Phase 2 - under construction
Key implementation mode a - technological innovation
As part of its participation in the European Commission-funded Eco-City
programme, in 2005 Trondheim began a programme of retro-fitting residential
and public buildings and designing new buildings according to stringent
sustainability standards. ‘Intelligent’ meters in all new buildings help monitor
energy and water consumption. Solar and biomass plants have been installed to
produce renewable energy. A waste to energy system with an efficiency of over
75 percent is in place. The Eco-City programme also includes Tudela,
Helsingor/Helsingborg and Zilina (see profiles 30, 61, and 66).
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74 Tudela
Location Europe – Spain
Website http://www.ecocity-
project.eu/TheProjectTudela.htmlproject.eu/
TheProjectTrondheim.html
Size 30,000 inhabitants
Type II - urban expansion
Phase 2 - under construction
Key implementation mode a - technological innovation
As part of the European Commission-funded Eco-City programme (see also
profiles no 30, 60 and 66), Tudela has focused on improving energy efficiency
and generating renewable energy. The latter includes an advanced, mixed
energy system that concurrently harnesses wind, photovoltaic and thermal
energy. Apart from retro-fitting many existing buildings, a new neighbourhood is
under construction using sustainable building materials. Energy efficiency in the
new buildings is to be achieved through the use of a sophisticated monitoring
and demand-supply system.
75 Vancouver
Location North America – Canada
Website http://www.vancouver-ecodensity.ca/
Size 570,000 inhabitants
Type III - retro-fit
Phase 2 - under construction
Key implementation mode a - technological innovation
In 2008, Vancouver City Council adopted the ‘EcoDensity Charter’, following two
years of political and public deliberation on the future direction of urban
planning for the city. The charter’s key principles are sustainability, affordability
and liveability. In practice, all applications for new developments must meet the
Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) standard. In addition,
land to be developed will be rezoned so as to ensure the inclusion of substantial
green spaces. The charter will be used to develop further action plans.
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76 Vaxjo
Location Sweden - Europe
Website www.vaxjo.se
Size 56,000 inhabitants
Type III – retro-fit
Phase 3 – implemented
Key implementation mode a – technological innovation
Vaxjo, known as one of Europe’s greenest cities, has for the last two decades
been engaged in an ongoing programme of sustainable urban innovation with
focus on three main areas: shifting towards renewable energy, improving
energy efficiency, and encouraging behavioural changes among its inhabitants.
Originally, its interest in sustainability was prompted by the energy crisis of the
1970s and developed into various action programmes in the following decades.
The process intensified following the adoption of the Local Agenda 21. In recent
years, innovation has extended to waste treatment, organic waste-to-energy
production, and improving public transport. The city council uses an ‘eco-
budgeting’ process to integrate its sustainability agenda in all policy sectors.
77 Waitakere
Location New Zealand - Australasia
Website www.waitakere.govt.nz/
Size 200,000 inhabitants
Type III – retro-fit
Phase 3 – implemented
Key implementation mode c – civic empowerment/involvement
New Zealand’s fifth largest city, Waitakere was formed in 1989 through the
amalgamation of the City of Waitemata and three neighbouring boroughs. At the
heart of its early mission was to make Waitakere an ‘eco-city’ based on blending
Agenda 21 principles with traditional Maori values. Existing buildings have been
retro-fitted to render them more energy efficient and improve grey water
recycling. At the same, time all new buildings have to meet strict energy
efficiency standards. Public grants are available to residents for installing solar
panels.
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78 Wanzhuang
Location Asia – China
Website http://www.arup.com/Projects/Wanzhuang_
Eco-city.aspx
Size 400,000 inhabitants by 2025
Type I - new development
Phase 1 - planning stage
Key implementation mode b - integrated sustainability vision/planning
Wanzhuang Eco-City aims to be a model for bridging the urban-rural gap in
China. Building on an existing village infrastructure in the Wanzhuang region,
the new urban development seeks to preserve, harness and enhance the
established local traditions and agricultural knowledge. The existing villages will
be incorporated in the new network of urban centres, thus preserving the social
fabric while providing new development opportunities. The site was selected by
the Chinese government in the mid 2000s, and is being developed
collaboratively by Shanghai Industrial Investment Corporation (SIIC) and
international engineering firm Arup (see also profile 14). The project is expected
to be completed by 2025.
79 Zilina
Location Europe – Slovakia
Website http://www.ecocity-project.eu
Size 85,000 inhabitants
Type II - urban expansion
Phase 2 - under construction
Key implementation mode a - technological innovation
Zilina has associate status in the European Commission-funded Eco-City
programme. The aim is to encourage knowledge transfer from eco-city
development taking place in Helsingor/Helsingborg, Trondheim and Tudela (see
profiles no 30, 60, 61). Zilina has initiated the construction of a new eco-
neighbourhood.
Chapter
This introduction presents an overview of the key concepts discussed in the subsequent chapters of this book. The book argues that the world faces water security challenges of a scale previously unseen and largely unsuspected by its population. New models of integrated water management are required to address complex multi-stakeholder demand patterns and water-related responsibilities. The book describes the fundamentals of water resources, the current state of water stress through our live, eat and consume activities, and how current policy, regulation and water management seek to address water scarcity and increasing water insecurity. It proposes a new way forward characterised by conceptual, physical and institutional integration of all aspects of the management of our planet's water, an approach which transcends current valiant yet largely unsuccessful attempts to implement Integrated Water Resource Management (IWRM).
Chapter
Dieses Kapitel greift die große Vision der ökologischen Zukunftsstadt auf und beschreibt ihre Wurzeln, Zugänge und Umsetzungen. Im ersten Abschnitt werden ideale Städte als Leitbilder definiert und beschrieben. Es wird gezeigt, dass die Moderne als Initiator funktionaler und effizienter Stadtentwicklung bestehende Ansätze aufgriff und weiterentwickelte. Darauf baute das Leitbild der sogenannten Nachhaltigen Stadt des 21. Jahrhunderts auf, deren Interpretation vielfältig ist, ökologische Komponenten einschließt und verbindlicher Beurteilungs- und Gestaltungskriterien bedarf. Im Abschnitt 2 werden die Kriterien, die das Konzept von Ökostädten bilden, näher erläutert. Es soll deutlich werden, dass, je nach Perspektive und bezogen auf Naturprozesse („ökologische“ Kriterien) eine große Zahl von Kriterien oder auch nur wenige herangezogen werden können. Im 3. Abschnitt wird das Leitbild Ökostadt anhand von Beispielen in Neubauprojekten „von oben“ und in Stadtteilprojekten und in Aktionen zu mehr Freiraum und Natur „von unten“ vorgestellt. Das Leitbild Ökostadt nimmt so reale Gestalt an, kann aus verschiedener Perspektive beurteilt werden und ist damit in jedem einzelnen Projekt neu zu definieren. Es wird gezeigt, dass die große Vision der Ökostadt oftmals sicher ambitioniert und in jedem Einzelprojekt neu zu definieren ist, dass es aber auch auf in kleinen Schritten angestrebt werden kann. So entsteht ein aufbauender Zugang zum Thema, der die Vision zu einem praktisch handhabbaren Projekt werden lässt.
Article
The ‘eco-city,’ and related concepts and practices of ‘sustainable urbanism,’ have since the early 2000s gained growing international popularity and entered mainstream policy as a consequence of the forceful combination of global climate change concerns and a rapidly urbanizing world population. Sustainable urbanism engages with various aspects of environmental, economic, and social sustainability concerning the urban context. Eco-cities are initiatives that variably promote and pursue sustainable development in relation to urban infrastructure, services, and community at district, town, or metropolitan levels. Governance challenges involved include effective coordination of innovation, planning, and development across policy sectors; integration across urban scales; and engagement with stakeholders and communities. The need for global sustainable city frameworks and standards becomes more apparent as both the number of practical initiatives and international cooperation increase.
Efforts to innovate in urban sustainability have in recent decades culminated in a new phenomenon: eco-cities. In recognition of the key role played by cites both as the cause of, and potential solution to, global climate change and rapid urbanisation, the concept and practice of eco-cities have since the early 2000s gained global significance and become increasingly mainstream in policy-making. This study provides an analysis of contemporary eco-city developments by systematically mapping some 79 recent initiatives at global level; evaluating key characteristics (including development type, phase and implementation mode) and discussing the factors (such as technological development, cultural branding, and political leadership) that drive and condition innovation in this area. The article concludes by outlining a research agenda for addressing both the challenges and opportunities of future eco-city governance.
Conference Paper
Use of public transportation is on a rise, enabling greener cities and improvement of the quality of life of the city residents. The challenge for the public transportation system is that its demands are non linear and the passengers' experience depends on many human factors. UnCrowdTPG is a mobile service and a research platform that has been developed for understanding the mobility patterns of the users of public transportation services in Geneva (TPG), as well as their experience with respect to the crowds perceived aboard the vehicles. UnCrowdTPG models algorithmically this experience using crowdsourcing techniques and it provides to the individual estimations of the future expected experiences aboard, thus enabling them to better plan their journeys with respect to the crowds. In this paper we position the UnCrowdTPG service as a research platform. Additionally we discuss the research questions in areas like local governance and public healthcare supported by the data analysed collectively from all UnCrowdTPG users. We also discuss the challenges for implementing the truly smart transportation system in a small-sized European city like Geneva.
ResearchGate has not been able to resolve any references for this publication.