ResearchPDF Available

DISTRIBUTION AND ACCUMULATION OF LEAD IN SOIL AND WHEAT

Authors:
  • Institute of Field and Vegetable Crops
  • Megatrend univesity Belgrade, Serbia, Faculty of biofarming

Abstract and Figures

Our environment is polluted by many organic and inorganic compounds, among which the most important are heavy metals. The aim of this paper is to determine the concentration of lead in soil and wheat. Eight samples of soil were used in the research, and the content of lead in the soil was measured after a two-hour acid digestion, using the AAS Varian Spectra 600. Analysis of the basic chemical characteristics has shown that they are not damaged. The soil reaction is within the limits from mildly acid to alkaline with calcium carbonate present. Concentration of humus is on the level of average supply as well as the concentration of nitrogen, except for the three localities as a result of inadequate application of nitrogen fertilizers. The examination of lead concentration in eight soil samples showed that it is above the limits of the Maximal Allowed Concentration. According to the results of the eight localities examined, there is a high concentration of lead in one of them, as a result of emission of lead from the traffic and Cement factory in Beočin. Concentrations of lead in plants are different from one locality to another and these plants are not contaminated with lead. This is caused by the important source of the exhaust emission such as traffic and Cement factory in Beočin. Examination of lead concentration is necessary in order to prevent further soil contamination. Efficient elimination of industrial and other waste is the crucial factor for healthy environment preservation.
Content may be subject to copyright.
The Second Joint PSU-UNS International Conference: Food, Agriculture and Environment Popovic et al.
262
DISTRIBUTION AND ACCUMULATION OF LEAD
IN SOIL AND WHEAT
Vera Popovic1, Vojin Djukic1 and Gordana Dozet 2
1Institute of Field and Vegetable Crops, Novi Sad
2Megatrend University, Faculty of biofarming, Backa Topola
Corresponding author: vera.popovic@ifvncns.ns.ac.rs
Original scientific paper
Popovic Vera, V. Djukic, G. Dozet (2008): Distribution and accumulation of lead in soil and Wheat. The Second
Joint PSU-UNS International Conference on BioScience: Food, Agriculture and Environment, June 22-24, 2008,
Novi Sad, Serbia, 292-296.
APSTRACT
Our environment is polluted by many organic and inorganic compounds, among which
the most important are heavy metals. The aim of this paper is to determine the concentration of
lead in soil and wheat. Eight samples of soil were used in the research, and the content of lead in
the soil was measured after a two-hour acid digestion, using the AAS Varian Spectra 600.
Analysis of the basic chemical characteristics has shown that they are not damaged. The soil
reaction is within the limits from mildly acid to alkaline with calcium carbonate present.
Concentration of humus is on the level of average supply as well as the concentration of
nitrogen, except for the three localities as a result of inadequate application of nitrogen
fertilizers. The examination of lead concentration in eight soil samples showed that it is above
the limits of the Maximal Allowed Concentration.
According to the results of the eight localities examined, there is a high concentration of
lead in one of them, as a result of emission of lead from the traffic and Cement factory in Beočin.
Concentrations of lead in plants are different from one locality to another and these plants are not
contaminated with lead. This is caused by the important source of the exhaust emission such as
traffic and Cement factory in Beočin. Examination of lead concentration is necessary in order to
prevent further soil contamination. Efficient elimination of industrial and other waste is the
crucial factor for healthy environment preservation.
Key-words: soil, wheat, lead, sources of the exhaust emission, environmental protection.
Introduction
Soil is vital ecological and agricultural resource which should be protected from further
degradation. Industrial revolution and progress in science and technology have had a great
influence on human treatment of nature. By adapting nature to his temporary needs, by wasting,
modifying and using natural wealth, in order to improve his life conditions, man at the same time
alters his environment. It is well-known that natural resources cannot be renewed easily, and that
short-time renewal is not possible. That is why great attention is given to environmental
protection. With fast population growth on the Earth, need for food is growing, although its
quality and yield can be lowered by heavy metal presence. It is essential to know the factors
which have influence on heavy metals and their bioaccessability (Popovic, 2002).
In this paper the consequences of the soil and wheat contamination on certain locations
are researched. Heavy metal accumulation, as well as accumulation of other metals which are
toxic for plants, could be the result of environmental pollution. Sources of heavy metal pollution
are exhaust emission from vehicles, metalwork industry, mines and melting plants, electronic
waste, atmospheric deposits (Kastori, 1993; Popovic, Basic, 2006).
The Second Joint PSU-UNS International Conference: Food, Agriculture and Environment Popovic et al.
263
Material and methods
The soil samples were shoveled from the ploughed field (0-30cm) and average soil samples
were mixed and then analysed. Samples were taken from the land registry of the following
boroughs: Petrovaradin, Sremska Kamenica and Bukovac, total of 8 soil (2 replication) and
wheat samples being taken from 8 sites (2 replication), Popovic, 2002. The samples were
analysed in the laboratory of the Institute of Field and Vegetable Crops in Novi Sad in order to
determine concentration of the heavy metal lead (Pb) in soil and wheat.
Using the usual methods at the Agroecological laboratory at the Institute of Field and
Vegetable Crops in Novi Sad, chemical characteristics of the soil and presence of heavy metals
in it were analysed (Manojlović et al., 1995). All this was done in accordance with the soil
research methods of the Jugoslav society for the soil research.
Basic plant structure was determined by destruction with nitrogenic acid and hydrogen
peroxide after a two-hour acid digestion, using the AAS Varian Spectra 600 (AAS). The results
were statistically processed.
Results and discussion
During the last ten years in our country, more research has been undertaken to determine
heavy metal distribution in arable soil (Sekulic et al., 1999, Popovic, Basic., 2006, etc.). Vehicles
are the most important environment pollutants with lead. Accumulation of lead in plants near
motorways depends on the following factors: distance of plants from the motorways, covering of
soil with plants, length of vegetation period and wind direction and intensity (Page et al., 1980).
Intensity of contamination is progressively lower further from motorways.
Heavy metals in the soil appear as a result of geochemical processes and from the
numerous external sources of contamination. Anthropogenic heavy metal sources can be
primary, when heavy metals are added as a result of soil cultivation, for example by fertilization,
or secondary, when heavy metals are added as a result of close activity. They are transmitted
through air contamination (Popovic, 2002).
The aim of this paper is to determine if there is a rise in concentration of lead in wheat and
soil and whether such a rise in the soil has an effect on the rise of lead concentration in wheat.
The other aim is to determine lead distribution in some parts of the wheat (root, trunk, leaf and
grain). Traffic systems have double effect on soil contamination as well as on environmentral
changes. Traffic pollutes the air with the exhaust emission (nitrogen and sulfur oxide, lead, soot
and dust). It causes noise and vibrations which damage surrounding ground. NATO air raids in
1999 had an extreme damaging effect onto this area and it takes some time to make final damage
evaluation (Popovic, 2002).
According to analysis of wheat and soil samples, which were taken from eight localities of
boroughs Petrovaradin, Bukovac and Sremska Kamenica, it can be concluded that the
concentration of heavy metal is different in these samples. Analysis of basic chemical
characteristics of the soil (Popovic, 2002, table 1) show that they are not changed.
Soil pH value ranges from poor acid to modest alkaline with free calcium carbonate present.
Content of humus and nitrogen in the soil is of average value, except for the three localities as a
consequence of inadequate application of nitrogen fertilizers, tab. 1.
The Second Joint PSU-UNS International Conference: Food, Agriculture and Environment Popovic et al.
264
Table.1. Chemical properties of soil
No. pH u 1M
KCl
pH
u H2O
CaCO3
%
Humus
%
N
%
Available P
mg/100g
K2O
mg/100g
1 6.62 7,77 0,17 2,77 0,183 19,3 88
2 7.02 8.08 0.50 2.71 0.179 29.8 100
3 7.10 8.25 0.84 2.35 0.115 9.8 44
4 7.40 8.31 7.95 2.27 0.150 34.9 100
5 7.38 8.40 6.97 2.35 0.115 27.2 78
6 7.40 8.39 8.93 2.02 0.133 58.1 62
7 7.40 8.37 7.53 2.30 0.152 20.5 73
8 7.51 8.50 15.48 1.62 0.107 22.1 28
Content of phosphorus varies from 9.8 mg/100g at locality 3 to 58.1 mg/100g at locality
6. This difference between the two localities is a result of inadequate application of fertilizers.
All this is a consequence of antropogenic influence on the concentration of this element in the
soil, while main substratum, on which these soils are cultured, does not show such great
differences in concentration of the element. On all localities examined, concentration of
potassium is high, very close to toxic concentration for the production of healthy food (localities
2 and 4) and ranges from 28-100 mg/100g of soil. Variability of potassium from minimum to
maximum is lesser than that of phosphorus as a result of buffer power in neutralizing the
fertilization with potassium. In summary, it can be said that there is a great antropogenic
influence on examined soils and their main characteristics. It is of great importance to educate
the population of these areas how to fertilize the soil properly.
One out of eight localities examined has high content of Pb. Since Pb concentration at one
locality is above 100 mg/g, it can be concluded that the examined soil is contaminated with Pb.
12,5 % of all the localities examined are contaminated with Pb (table 3). Results of our research
show that there are significant differences in lead concentration among the samples near the low
frequency roads, high frequency roads and fields far away from the heavy traffic. Significant
difference between minimal and maximal values is a result of discontinuity in lead emission.
Maximal Allowed Concentration for lead in the soil is 100 mg/kg (Popovic, 2002).
Table 2.Total content of lead (mg/kg) in soil in examined locations (digested with HNO3 i H2O2)
No. Location Description of locations e.g. traffic Pb mg/kg
1 Petrovaradin Trandžament, Vinogradarska street,
parcel across the building number 7
Near a low frequency
road 45.17
2 Petrovaradin Trandžament, on the right side of the
field, 700 m from the locality 1 Field 42.27
3 Petrovaradin From Dinka Šimeunovića street after,
the tunnel on the left, above the suburb Field
36.33
4 Bukovac Bukovac valley, on the right of the road
Petrovaradin-Bukovac
Near a medium
frequency road 70.27
5 Bukovac Towards the suburb 300 m from a medium
frequency road 70.33
6 Bukovac Entrance of the suburb on the right of
the road
Near a medium
frequency road 71.53
7 Bukovac ZIG locality - above the suburb on the
right Field 77.23
8 Sr. Kamenica Mišeluk, 200m from the tunnel on the
left
Near a medium
frequency road 110.63
Maximal Allowed Concentration - MAC 100.00
The Second Joint PSU-UNS International Conference: Food, Agriculture and Environment Popovic et al.
265
Table 3. Distribution of Pb (mg/kg) through Maximal Allowed Concentration
As the analysis of lead concentrations shows there is a great influence of exhaust emission
(traffic) on its concentration in the soil. According to traffic frequency there are localities with
low frequency and medium frequency roads as well as fields further away from the heavy traffic
(table 4). It is obvious that the concentration of Pb is growing as the traffic becomes heavier.
In the fields near low frequency roads, concentration of Pb is 45.17 mg/kg, near medium
frequency roads 110.6 mg/kg and in the fields, further away from heavy traffic the concentration
is 77.23 mg/kg. From the results presented in table 4, it can be concluded that the concentration
of Pb is higher close to Cement factory in Beočin, in other words, there is significantly higher
concentration of lead there than in areas with the same traffic frequency.
Table 4. Content of lead in soils (mg/kg) depending on traffic frequency at the examined
localities
Low Frequency Medium Frequency Field
No.
Locality Pb mg/kg No.
Locality Pb mg/kg No.
Locality Pb mg/kg
1 Petrovaradin 45.17 4 Bukovac 70.27 2 Petrovaradin 42.27
5 Bukovac 70.33 3 Petrovaradin 36.33
6 Bukovac 71.53 7 Bukovac 77.23
8 Sr.Kamenica 110.6
X
45.17
X
80.68
X
51.94
This is probably combined influence of the two sources of emission of lead-traffic and
Cement factory in Beočin, which resulted in high concentration of lead inside the same group of
localities divided by traffic frequency.
That in two of the localities the roots and one of the localities the trunk of the wheat
were contaminated by lead (Table 5) . The measured values of lead in the wheat grain studied
were under the MAC, and therefore the soil can be considered healthy in this regard.
Table 5. Content of lead (Pb) (mg/kg) in soil and plants of 8 locations
Sample Locality Pb soil
(mg/kg)
Pb root
(g/kg)
Pb trunk
(g/kg)
Pb leaf
(g/kg)
Pb grain
(g/kg)
1 Petrovaradin 45.17 20.76
15.67
31.62 0.1
2 Petrovaradin 42.27 32.88
41.82
34.77 5.84
3 Petrovaradin 36.33 34.46
0.1
22.40 0.1
4 Bukovac 70.27 23.10
13.05
31.57 0.1
5 Bukovac 70.33 21.64
2.47
15.96 0.1
6 Bukovac 71.53 37.04
33.75
20.54 1.37
7 Bukovac 77.23 48.13
26.26
26.74 0.1
8 Sr. Kamenica 110.63 48.50
9.36
0.1 0.1
Parameter Pb mg/kg
number of samples 8
minimum 36.33
maximum 110.63
average value 73.48
Maximal Allowed Concentration 100
measuring through MAC 8 samples = 12.5
The Second Joint PSU-UNS International Conference: Food, Agriculture and Environment Popovic et al.
266
Measured values in plants are lower than maximum that are issued by regulations, and the
refore the crop can be considered as healthy food.
Conclusion
According to the analyses of soil and wheat on eight localities of boroughs Petrovaradin,
Bukovac and Sremska Kamenica, that concentration of lead is concluded to be different from
one locality to another. Soil contamination with exhaust emission from vehicles is a current
problem, still unsolved. From the results presented in this paper it is found that the most
significant sources of contamination were so called ’’mobile sources’’ and Cement factory in
Beocin. The content of lead is growing with the growth of traffic intensity. Basic chemical
characteristics of soil are not changed. One out of eight localities examined has high content of
total lead. Maximal Allowed Concentration in the soil for lead is 100 mg kg-1. Measured values
are lower than maximum issued by regulations, and thus conclude that the wheat (grain) is not
contaminated with lead.
In order to reduce or prevent contamination, we propose the measures of environmental
protection: usage of new types of engines which will enable total exhaust combustion and usage
of exhaust filters. Analysis of lead in the soil is necessary in order to prevent contamination of
soil on which wheat and other plants used in food industry are grown.
References
1. Kastori, R. (1993): Teški metali u životnoj sredini, Poljoprivredni fakultet, Institut za
ratarstvo i povrtarstvo, Novi Sad.
2. Manojlović, S., Ubavić, M., Bogdanović, Darinka, Dozet, D. (1995): Praktikum iz
agrohemije, Novi Sad.
3. Page, A. l. (1980) Environment Sci Technol. 4. 140-142.
4. Pravilnik o dozvoljenim koncentracijama opasnih i štetnih materija u zemljištu i vodi za
navodnjavanje i metodama njihovog ispitivanja, Sl. glasnik RS, broj 23, 1994.
5. Popović Vera (2002): Određivanje rezidualnih količina teških metala odabranog
lokaliteta u cilju zaštite životne sredine. Magistarski rad, Univerzitet u Novom Sadu,
Centar za Univerzitetske studije, Inženjerstvo za zaštitu životne sredine, 1-88.
6. Popović, Vera, Bašić, Đ. (2006): Nikal u zemljištu Srema, Eko – konferencija, Novi Sad.
7. Sekulić, P., Dozet, D., Navalušić, Julijana (1999): Zagađenje zemljišta i biljaka
olovom iz izduvnih gasova motornih vozila u prigradskom naselju, Institut za ratarstvo i
povrtarstvo, Novi Sad.
Article
Full-text available
This study reports the contents and sources of Cu, Hg, Cr, Ni, Co, Zn, Pb, Cd, As, and B pollution in soil samples from Srem in the province of Vojvodina (Republic of Serbia). They are collected in the vicinity of local industrial facilities. The main objective of this study is evaluating the impact of the industrial facilities on the eventual contamination of soils used mostly for agricultural manufacturing. This paper describes the implementation of the combination of methods to estimate the ecological status and determine potential ecological risk. This study applies sequential extraction, pollution indices, comparison with the guidelines, and statistical analysis. Other soil parameters, such as organic matter content, pH, and clay content were measured to evaluate their influence on the trace element content. The investigated soil samples exhibited the raised contents of Ni, Hg, and Cu. Elevated contents of toxic elements observed in localities accommodated within an impact zone affected by industrial complexes, indicating a correlation between the contamination of surrounding soil and potential impact on plants. The most mobile elements are Hg, Cd, and B, while Cr is the least mobile and potential least bioavailable. The results indicate Cr and Ni content increase marking the presence of bedrock, notably in the area of underlying ultramafic rocks and the surface zones influenced by diluvial-proluvial and alluvial processes. The second source of Cr and Ni in the soils of Srem is industrial activities such as leather, cement industry, as well as the metal processing factory.
Article
Full-text available
Content of potentially toxic elements was examined in soils from Srem (Vojvodina), to evaluate industrial facilities as pollution sources. Based on the distribution of the elements, the results of sequential extraction, enrichment factor (EF), ecological risk factor (Er), ecological risk index (RI), and statistical analysis, the current ecological status of the soils was determined. Elements in soils around the industrial facilities can be grouped into the five significant components derived by the principal component analysis (PCA), which explains 78.435% of the total variance. Al, Fe and Mg, and K and Mn are associated with two lithogenic components, respectively. Anthropogenic origin is identified for Hg and Cd. Mixed sources, geogenic and anthropogenic, are identified within two PCA components; one wich includes As, Pb, B, Zn, and the other: K and Cr, Ni and Cu. Cluster analysis (CA) corroborated the results obtained by PCA. The preliminary results revealed that the soils studied in a vicinity of industrial facilities in Srem have been exposed to different degrees of pollution. Among the characterized studied elements, Pb, Cd, Hg, Cu, Ni, and Cr are the main contaminants. Based on calculated EF, the studied soils show minor to severe enrichment with heavy metals. Ecological risk assessment results indicate that Cd and Hg carry the highest ecological risk level, and Zn and Cr the lowest.
Research
Full-text available
Wheat is one of the most important grains in the world. Wheat is not only the most important agricultural crop, but also one of the most important agricultural products in Europe. Suffi ce it to say that this is the product from which it receives desperately bread and a number of food products. Toxic metals originating from contaminated air and soil. The land is my toxic metals found as a result of their presence in the parent rocks. Also, the effective application of organic and mineral fertilizers leads to soil contamination. Toxic metals plant adopts the root from the soil, and from the atmosphere through the leaves.
Article
Full-text available
Production of high-quality forage from alfalfa is influenced not only by the presence of nutrients, but also by the absence of harmful elements, such as heavy metals. The examination of the total heavy metals content (Ni, Cr, Pb and As) in gleyic chernozem soil of Srem loess terrace in Hrtkovci, under alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) were carried out in 2011 in order to determine suitability for the production of safe forage. It total content of Pb, As and Crwas below the maximum permitted concentrations. The content of As, Cr and Ni was higher in the surface layer, unlike Pb, whose content was higher in the deeper layers of soil. A significant positive correlation was found between the total content of Ni, Cr and As. An increased concentration of Ni was found, which was above the maximum permitted concentration. It is necessary to further control its content and accessibility examination and extraction from plants, to prevent its entry into the food chain and provide safe food.
Teški metali u životnoj sredini, Poljoprivredni fakultet, Institut za ratarstvo i povrtarstvo
  • R Kastori
Kastori, R. (1993): Teški metali u životnoj sredini, Poljoprivredni fakultet, Institut za ratarstvo i povrtarstvo, Novi Sad.
Određivanje rezidualnih količina teških metala odabranog lokaliteta u cilju zaštite životne sredine. Magistarski rad
  • Popović Vera
Popović Vera (2002): Određivanje rezidualnih količina teških metala odabranog lokaliteta u cilju zaštite životne sredine. Magistarski rad, Univerzitet u Novom Sadu, Centar za Univerzitetske studije, Inženjerstvo za zaštitu životne sredine, 1-88.
Zagađenje zemljišta i biljaka olovom iz izduvnih gasova motornih vozila u prigradskom naselju, Institut za ratarstvo i povrtarstvo
  • P Sekulić
  • D Dozet
  • Julijana Navalušić
Sekulić, P., Dozet, D., Navalušić, Julijana (1999): Zagađenje zemljišta i biljaka olovom iz izduvnih gasova motornih vozila u prigradskom naselju, Institut za ratarstvo i povrtarstvo, Novi Sad.
Pravilnik o dozvoljenim koncentracijama opasnih i štetnih materija u zemljištu i vodi za navodnjavanje i metodama njihovog ispitivanja
Pravilnik o dozvoljenim koncentracijama opasnih i štetnih materija u zemljištu i vodi za navodnjavanje i metodama njihovog ispitivanja, Sl. glasnik RS, broj 23, 1994.