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Schumann Resonance and Brain Waves: A Quantum Description


Abstract and Figures

In this paper for the first time we compared spectra of the brain and Schumann electromagnetic waves. We argue that both modes of electromagnetic radiation: brain waves and Schumann waves can be analyzed with the help of the Planck formula. From our calculation we deduced the temperature of the Schumann and brain waves T= 10-10 K.
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NeuroQuantology | June 2015 | Volume 13 | Issue 2 | Page 196-204
Marciak-Kozlowska and Kozlowski., Schumann resonance and brain waves
eISSN 1303-5150
Schumann Resonance and Brain Waves:
A Quantum Description
Miroslaw Kozlowski, Janina Marciak-Kozlowska
In this paper for the first time w ecom pared spectra of the brain and Schumann electro magnetic waves. We
arguethatboth modes of electromagneticradiation:brain waves and Schumann wavescan be analyzed with
thehelpof the Planckformula. Fromourcalculationwededucedthetemperatureof the Schumann and brain
Key Words: brainwaves,Schumannwaves,modelcalculation, Planckformula
DOI Number: 10.14704/nq.2015.13.2.795 NeuroQuantology 2015; 2: 196-204
1. Introduction1
Geospaceis the term that relates to the solar-
terrestrial environment and the relevant space
occupied by Earth and her fields. Schumann
Resonances (SR), global electromagnetic
resonances, excited by lightning, is one of the
natural electromagnetic (EM) fields in our
planetary environment. But resonances can be
atmosphere. The fundamental SR mode roughly
corresponds to a wave with a wavelength equal
to the circumference of the Earth. Transverse
resonanceis predominantlya local phenomenon
containing information on the local height and
conductivity of the lower ionosphere and on
Corresponding author:MiroslawKozlowski
Relevant conflicts of interest/financial disclosures:Theauthors
the first Schumann Resonance), will have
wavelengthsmuch largerthanthecircumference
ofthe Earth.ULFwaves,atapproximately1mHz
to1 Hz, playa major rolein propagating energy
throughout the magnetospheric system. At the
lowest end of this frequency band, the
wavelength of ULF waves is comparable to the
entire magnetosphere. In this frequency range,
the global structure of the magnetosphere can
lead to global cavity resonances and waveguide
modes. The structure of these modes is
determined by the gradients in the Alfvén and
fast mode speeds in the magnetosphericsystem.
SR is not the internally-generated resonant
frequency of the planet Earth,which is 10 Hz as
Tesla discovered. It is electromagnetic
oscillations - the Earth’s global electric circuit
consisting of the frequencies that play through
and ionosphere) as waves in a plasma. The
ionosphere is a highly-conductive region of
The solar-terrestrial environment is
climate and all organisms in the biosphere.
Interference patterns are the transducers of
NeuroQuantology | June 2015 | Volume 13 | Issue 2 | Page 196-204
Marciak-Kozlowska and Kozlowski., Schumann resonance and brain waves
eISSN 1303-5150
energy, which at its most fundamental is
described as information. Earth functions like a
planet-sized electrical capacitor or condenser,
storing electrical potential (Nikolaenko and
The space between Earth and the
50-375 miles that can sustain quasi-standing
waves at wave lengths of planetary dimension.
Electrical conductivity in the atmosphere is
driven largely by cosmic rays that generate a
torsion field. Conductivity increases
exponentially with altitude because the lower
atmosphere buffers collision frequency. The
ionosphere begins about 50 miles out from the
region is constantly exposed to harshultraviolet
therefore fill the ionospheric layers creating a
“spectral power station”. Lightning radiates
cavity. Global thunderstorms excite the
Schumann resonances, which can be observed
around 7.8, 14, 20, 26, 33, 39 and 45 Hz
The resonant spectrum is a superposition
of global lightning discharge. For these resonant
values to change, the planet would have to
The detection of Schumann resonances in
the ionosphere calls for revisions to the existing
models of extremely low frequency wave
propagation in the surface-ionosphere cavity.
itsinception.Normaldailyvariationranges ± 0.5
Hz. Driven by lightning, this primary SR pulse
calibrates us and enhances our physical and
mental well-being (Nikolaenko and Hayakwa,
That natural resonance helps us achieve
our optimal brainwave states, but this
2. Schumann Waves (SW)
That information is propagated as sequential
lengths are much longer than their widths is a
primary assumption of contemporary neuronal
1–100 m/s with space constants in the order of
about 1 mm. The fastest of these transients
conductive spaces along the axon barrels. The
ratios and scaling of the spatial and temporal
relationshipsof thesemediatorsof the“language
of the brain” share remarkable similarities to
lightning. Because lightning’s absolute spatial
scale is so large compared to the observer’s
reference point, minute characteristics are
discerned whose equivalence at the level of the
axon are below contemporary resolution.
of phenomena could encourage alternative
interpretations of the electromagnetic (EM)
components of action potentials and reveal
recondite relationships concerning neuronal
The identity between exogenous and
endogenous“electricity”is not really a new idea.
The observation that atmospheric electricity,
lightning, and the electrical fields within living
systems, “nerve conduction,” shared similar
origins was considered as early as the 18th
century by Galvani and Volta. Galvani showed
jarsand electricmachineswas thesameas those
evoked during lightning when a long metallic
the sky. The similarity has been viewed
historically as more of a congruence of quality
than a potential blueprint for quantitative
characteristics. In the present comparison these
features are demonstrated. To facilitate
the similarities between action potentials and
the usual narrative discussion in the
The concept of scale-invariance or
recurrent ratios within measurements of the
physical world assumes an intrinsic repeated
structurewithinthevaryingincrements of space
(Δs) and time (Δt) as well as their relationship.
For example the proportion of matter (protons
and electrons) that occupies the space (volume)
occupied by an atom is about1 part per trillion.
The ratios of the volume of the sun and planets
within galactic space are the same order of
One temporal example is the equivalent
order of magnitude of the ratio of the electron
orbitaltimeofahydrogenatom toitsprecession
NeuroQuantology | June 2015 | Volume 13 | Issue 2 | Page 196-204
Marciak-Kozlowska and Kozlowski., Schumann resonance and brain waves
eISSN 1303-5150
andthe earth’s rotation to its spin axis gyration.
Comparable “scale-invariance” has been found
within the human brain and for functional EM
fields within the cerebrum and over very large
3. Classical description of the Schumann and
brain waves
The brain is a massive source of extremely low
frequency (ELF) signals that get transmitted
and natural biorhythms can be entrained by
strong external ELF signals, such as stationary
waves at Schumann resonance. Entrainment,
synchronization, and amplification leads toward
coherent large-scale activity, rather than typical
flurries of transient brainwaves. Thus, resonant
standing waves emerge from the brain, which
external bioinformation transfer, via ELF
electromagnetic waves (Nikolaenko and
Hayakwa, 2014).  These SR waves, exhibit non-
local character and nearly-instant
The EEG (electroencephalograph)
measures brainwaves of different frequencies
withinthebrain. RhythmicityintheEEGisakey
variable in the coordination of cortical activity.
Electrodes are placed on specific sites on the
scalpto detectandrecordtheelectricalimpulses
within the brain. Frequency is the number of
be compared to the frequencies on a
radio. Amplitude represents the power of
electrical impulses generated by the
brain.Volume orintensityof brainwaveactivity
Raw EEG frequency bands include Gamma
(higher than 30Hz); Beta (14-30Hz); Alpha (7.5-
13Hz); Theta (3.5-7.5Hz); and Delta (less than
frequency spectrum by 0.5 Hz or more. These
frequencies are linked to behaviors, subjective
feeling states, physiological correlates,
etc. Clinical improvement with EEG biofeedback
is traceable to improved neuroregulation in the
basic functions by appeal to their underlying
Schumann's resonance forms a natural
feedback loop with the human mind/body. Our
EM environment conditioned by this cyclic
our brains, and can also potentially carry
altered and new patterns of behavior facilitated
through the brain's web of inhibitory and
of vibrations it uses to communicate with itself
and the rest of the body; EEG equipment
distinguishes these waves by measuring the
speed with which neurons fire in cycles per
second. At their boundaries these waves can
overlap somewhat, merging seamlessly into one
another, so different researchers may give
slightlydifferentreadingsfortherangeof cycles
per second. Rate of cycling determines the type
of activity, kindling wave after wave over the
whole surface of the brain, by igniting more
There is a harmonic relationship between
the earth and our mind/bodies. Earth's low
frequency isoelectric field, the magnetic field of
the earth, and the electrostatic field which
emerges from our bodies are closely
interwoven. Our internal rhythms interact with
external rhythms, affecting our balance, REM
patterns, health, and mental focus. SR waves
probably help regulate our bodies' internal
clocks, affecting sleep/dream patterns, arousal
patterns, and hormonal secretion (Başar, 2011;
The rhythms and pulsations of the human
brain mirror those of the resonantproperties of
the terrestrial cavity, which functions as a
waveguide.This natural frequency pulsation is
not a fixed number, but an average of global
readings, much like EEG is an average of
brainwave readings. SR actually fluctuates, like
brainwaves, due to geographical location,
The most important slow rhythm is the
daily rhythm sensed directly as change of light.
Rhythms connected with the daily rhythm are
called circadian (an example is pineal gland
melatonin secretion). Some experiments in the
day, and closer to one lunar day (24h and 50
NeuroQuantology | June 2015 | Volume 13 | Issue 2 | Page 196-204
Marciak-Kozlowska and Kozlowski., Schumann resonance and brain waves
eISSN 1303-5150
by the following periods: the Moon's rotation
(29.5 days); the Earth's rotation (365.25 days);
Sun spots (11 and 22 years); the nutation cycle
(18.6years);the rotationoftheplanets(88days
to 247.7 years); and all the way out to the
Veryimportantrhythmsarein theorderof
1-2hours,like hormonesecretion,anddominant
have the Sun's electromagnetic oscillation of 10
Hz, while the Earth-ionosphere SR system is
resonantat frequenciesinthetheta,alpha,beta1
Different species often have internal
theseoscillatorsis then phase lockedloop (PLL)
synchronized with the natural rhythms.
called “zeitgeber”. The mechanism of optical
synchronization can be shown. The presented
the interaction of internal and external rhythms
This bioelectrical domain is geared to
thalamocortical generation of rhythmic activity.
In neurofeedback, what is being trained is the
degree of rhythmicity of the thalamocortical
regulatory circuitry. Rhythmicity manages the
electrical domain. One role advocated for
for harnessing brain electrical activity which is
spatially distributed while maintaining it as a
single entity. Brainwaves indicate the arousal
dimension, and arousal mediates a number of
conditions. Changes in sympathetic and
parasympathetic arousal "tunes" the nervous
Deltawaves are the slowest but highest in
sleep, non-REM sleep, trance, and
unconsciousness. Theta waves mean 'slow"
daydreaming or recalling emotions and
sensations. Focus is internal in this state
between waking and sleep. Under stress it may
manifest as distraction, lack of focus. Alpha
waves aid relaxation and overall mental
coordination, calmness, alertness, inner
decision making, processing information, mental
activity, and focus. Gamma appears to relate to
simultaneously processing information from
different brain areas: memory, learning abilities,
integrated thoughts, information-rich task
processing. Gamma rhythms modulate
perception and consciousness, which disappears
with anesthesia. Synchronous activity at about
The brain responds to inputs at a certain
frequency or frequencies. The computer can
createwaveformpatternsor certainfrequencies
that compare with the mind's neural signals in
terms ofmind patterns. If people can control
their mind patterns, they can enter different
states of being (mental relaxation, study, etc.).
sound or vibration that reflects the thought
patterns? When the mind responds to certain
harmonicfrequencythatthe mind vibrates to or
can attune to? What does the study of harmonic
resonance - sound or vibration have to do with
rhythm. Sound is measured incycles per second
(HertzorHz). Eachcycleofawave isinrealitya
single pulse of sound. The average range of
16Hzand20,000Hz. Wecannothear extremely
the discrete signals along the axon barrel. An
average net potential difference for an action
potential (-70 to +50 mV) is 1.2 × 10-1 V which
would exert on each unit charge of 1.6 × 10-19
Coulomb (A·s) an energy of 1.9 × 10-20 J. If we
assume ~1010 neurons occupy human cerebral
cortices with an average frequency of
propagationof1Hz, the total energy per second
involved with just the effects of all action
is1.3× 10-3m3.Thisresultsinanenergydensity
lightningstroke involves a flow of ~10 Coulomb
(C) of electrons across a potential difference of
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108V resulting in 109J.There are about 70–100
lightning flashes/s worldwide resulting in
4.3 × 1012 J per kiloton (kT) of standard
explosives such that the energygenerated every
approximately 14 min by global electrical
discharges is equivalent to about a 20 kT
Most of this energy from lightning
within the biosphere. The volume of this shell,
assuming a radius of 6,378 km for the earth,
would be about 1 × 1018 m3. This means the
energydensitywouldbe1011J/s·1018m3 or 10-7
J/s·m3 (10-7 W/m3). This energy density is
remarkably similar to that generated by action
potentials within the brain. When applied across
therangeof powerofphotonemissionsnear the
skull when subjects engage in specific
the power of electroencephalographic (EEG)
4. Scaled densities
About 5 C is distributed within a lightning
channel with an average current of 100 A.
m the current flows through a channel with a
radius of about 1 cm. With this cross-sectional
area the density is 10 × 101 A divided by3.14 ×
the major movements of ions that affect the
transmission of EM field-mediated information
thissmall annulusaroundtheaxonwouldbe2×
10-14 m2. Given the average current of 10-9 A
(from the approximately 103 ion channels each
with 1 pA capacities around the ring or
the cross-sectional current “density” would be
Consequently even though the current is
much larger in a lightning stroke because of its
absolutesizebyafactorof 1010, the “minuscule”
axon potential current is comparable per cross-
axons would affect the coefficients rather than
the order of magnitude. It may also be relevant
that the actual charge and current per lightning
stroke also displays a comparable range in the
coefficient of variation. Such a large relative
magnitude of potential across neuronal
membranes is not a new concept. For example,
the 90 mV potential differences across a 10 nm
membrane is equivalent to 9 × 107 V/m. Most
lightning (90%) is between clouds. The leader
moves in discrete jumps of 50 m at about 1.2 ×
105 m/s to 1.5 × 105 m/s. This conspicuous
conductionoflighteninghasaratioof[1.2× 105
m/s]/50 m or 2.4 × 103 Hz (about 2 kHz or 0.5
ms) which is remarkably similar to the absolute
refractory period of the action potential. In
comparisontheactionpotential moves along the
myelinated axon in discrete steps of 1 mm
The wave shape characteristics of action
potentials and lightning flashes are similar. All
lightning pulses were the same polarity; most
were single peak but about one-third were
multiple-peaked.Althoughthemeanwidthof the
overshootdurationto the initial peak was 5.7 μs
(SD: 2.1). This ratio is within the range of the
typical relative refractory to absolute refractory
period in the average axon. More recent
measurements of artificially triggered lightening
revealed comparable peak widths. Interestingly,
theinitial-stagedischargetimewas about 20 ms
andthetimebetweenstrokesrangedfrom 18 to
210ms (mean87ms).Thisintervaliswithin the
range of the global rostral–caudal propagating,
microstates that determine a percept and
consciousness (Nikolaenko and Hayakawa,
Although the velocity of a leader exceeds
the 10 m/s values exhibited by non-myelinated
axons by a factor of 1.2–1.5 × 104, the scaled
the major mediator of the action potential,is  30
Daltons or 48×10-27 kg while the mass of an
electron is 9.8×10-31 kg. The difference is in the
order of 104. The coefficients converge more
closely when the range of hydration states
(accompanying H2O molecules) associated with
about 10 m above the ground it creates an
electric field sufficient to initiate discharges
rising from the ground (streams). When contact
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is made between the upward and downward
fieldsa heavysurgeofcurrentoccurswithin1–5
ms. This surge produces the luminosity that
progresses up the path produced by the step
leader at ~108 m/s. About 40–50 ms after the
50 m long, moves from the cloud to the ground
an average of three to four strokes with a
maximum around 20. The approximately 10 m
interface or boundary where the exchange of
energy between the atmosphere and ground
occursis about3×10-3thelength ofthepathway.
Forcortical axons with lengthsbetween 1 and 5
mm, this would be equivalent to a length of
between 3 and 15 μm whichis  withinthe range
of the length of the terminalendings or boutons
The surge of current lasting for 1–5 msis
of the contents of the synaptic vesicles. The
energy transfer mediated by the mass of
molecules released from the vesicles into the
synaptic space would be analogous to this
relatively large increment of current. The
occurrencesofsubsequentsurges fromthecloud
to the ground after an interval of 40–50 ms or
to the first and second surges of vesicular
The billions of action potentials and their
generate emergent phenomena inferred by EEG
measurements that include microstates and
surface. Between the earth’s surface and the
lower ionosphere there is a shell of optimum
conduction within which the results of focal
energies in one area are generated throughout
from global thunderstorm activity are the main
excitation sources within the earth-ionospheric
cavity. These omnipresent pulses propagate for
behave as a “cortical manifold” for distributing
tissue-level energies throughout the biosphere.
The fundamental frequency (1/s = Hz) is the
velocity divided by the circumference. Assuming
the speed of light of 3 × 108 m/s and the
this values, often described as the Schumann
resonancescanbe obtained bytakingthesquare
root of [(n(n + 1))/2] multiplied by the base
frequency (7.8 Hz), where n is the progressive
series of integers 1, 2, 3,…, etc. Those that have
beenmeasuredhavepeaksaround8,14, 20,and
chapter on “Towards a physics of the neocortex”
comparable solutions exist for the human brain.
The probability density function for myelinated
cortico-cortical propagation peaks at about 6–9
m/s with the half-width of the distribution is
estimates of the neocortical surface areas range
from 1,600 to 4,000 cm2. The effective cortical
radius after flat-mapping is between 11 and 18
cm. As a result the non-dispersive brain waves
frommode n=1wouldbebetween7and18Hz.
with head size, defined by the cube root of the
product of three linear measures. As the size
increased over a normal range of volunteers the
The EM signals associated with lightning
are propagated through a medium. The simplest
calculation of a time constant is the product of
the resistance (in Ohms) and capacitance in
Ohms [(kg·m2)/(A2·s3)] and capacitance is 8.8 ×
10-12 F/m [(A2·s4)/(kg·m2)]/m or 32.56 × 10-10
S/m. When multiplied by the circumference of
the earth, the time constant is 130 ms or about
7.7Hz;this is within the naturalvariationof the
Cerebral tissue is also a medium. The
permeability (inductance/m) of cortical gray
matter at 1 kHz is about 10-2 Henrys, while the
permittivity of gray matter is 2 × 10-1 F/m.
Applicationofthe formula f = 1/(2π(LC)-1/2),the
equation for resonance frequency of a closed
circuit, results in a value of about 7 Hz. The
with the Schumann solutions indicates that
higher order harmonics may exist within EM
fields within cerebral space and be associated
with specific functions. There are often strong
correlations between fluctuations in power
values measured by quantitative EEG across
traditional frequency bands. That resonance
could occur between fields within cerebral
volumes and the Schumann phenomena may
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EEG activity into delta, theta, alpha, and beta
activity with a myriad of complexes and
transients have been considered both emergent
and reflective of “distant” fields of neuronal
activity. As shown by Koenig et al. (1981) all of
activity are measured within the Schumann
(earth–ionospheric) cavity or as local electric
field configurations during thunderstorms. In
addition, biofrequency (1–100 Hz) pulses of
about0.5ms whosecarrierfrequenciesdiminish
from100kHz toabout10kHzatdistances more
than 1000 km from the source display
magnitudes in the nanoTesla (nT) to picoTesla
Within the range of 7 –40 Hz the electric
field components associated with the EM fields
generated through the ionospheric–earth cavity
are about mV/m, while the magnetic field
components are between 1 and 10 pT. For
comparison the magnetic field intensities within
galaxies are in the order of 10-10 T with upper
limits of 10-13 T for extragalactic fields. In a
mannersimilarto the changing, averaged power
outputs of neuronal activity within the cerebral
volumethat can vary in response to fluctuations
in subtle external energy, the Schumann values
The long-term averages for the Schumann
frequency, damping, and amplitude change as a
function of solar proton events (SPE). They
increase the Schumann resonance frequency
from a reference value of ~7.8 Hz by between
the proton flux. The amplitude of the resonance
increased by several 10% from a mean value of
about 1.0 pT. Electric fields within the mV/m
range and magnetic fields within the pT range
also define the operating intensities overly
spatially distributed cerebral functions. The
strong correlations between variable power
densitieswithinthe ionosphere–earthcavityand
as well as the quantum-like properties of
interhemispheric interactions indicate that
physical connectivity may be pervasive. Phase
modulation has been considered the most
divided by the square root of v2/c2. Because the
EM fields associated with lightening generated
within the earth–ionospheric cavity are within
the 10–100 kHz (“atmospherics” or “sferics”)
shiftisremarkablysimilar to phase comparisons
associated with the presence of the continuous
“40 Hz-oscillations” over the entire cerebral
cortical mantle. An approximately 12 ms phase
shift between the rostral and caudal pole of the
brainhas been reported (Pollk, 1982 search for
the “missing” equivalents between lightning and
actionpotentials could be revealingin a manner
similar to the search for Mendeleyev’s missing
elements in the Periodic Table. There is no
synapse, although back propagation might be
considered a conceptual candidate. However,
backpropagationinfluences the dendrites ofthe
neuronfromwhich theactionpotentialhasbeen
propagated. Its variable effect dependsupon the
extent by which the neuron’s action potential
a positively charged return stroke towards the
cloud. Within a synaptic scenario, this would be
equivalent to a “return field” transiently
of the action potential. If the quantitative scale-
invariant relationships between lightning and
action potentials can be generalized in this
context, then impulse magnetic flux densities
from the post-synaptic membrane must emerge
and cross the synapse into the presynaptic
synapse. In other words, a comparison with
lightning would predict that sub-threshold,
electrotonic-like shifts in voltage (approximately
of the arrival of the major action potential. It is
law: for every force there is an equal and
of the (heart) atria after its depolarization (P)
during electrocardiographic measurements is
masked by the QRS component of the massive
between lightening and action potentials evoke
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the possibility of mutual interaction. In addition
to comparable values for magnetic and electric
fields, the power density for Schumann
resonances within the 8–21 Hz range is in the
magnitude as the power density of photon
emissions from the human brain during
measures from quantitative EEG. Laboratory
ks to simulated lightening-related sferics by
generating 10 kHz signatures (amplitude 50 nT,
alpha band and experiences similar to those
attributed to natural phenomena were reliably
elicited. The similarities in quantitative
characteristics between action potentials and
lightening presented in this paper might be
expected if the intrinsic organizations of matter
and energy are reflected within different spatial
and temporal levels of observation. Perhaps by
careful quantification and observation of the
larger phenomena, such as lightning, processes
can be discerned that will point the direction of
5. Quantum description of Schumann and
brain waves
fields.  In the model (Marciak-Kozlowska and
Kozlowski,2013)weassumed(i)the brainisthe
thermal source in local  equilibrium with
temperature T.(ii) The spectrum of the brain
where E is the  photon energy in eV, =Planck
constant,2 ,
 
The energies of the photons are the maximum
values of energies of waves. In this paper we
the emission of black body brain and Schumann
wavesweproposethe wellknowformulaforthe
In thermodynamics we consider Planck
typeformula for probabilitydEforthe emission
oftheparticle(photonsas wellasparticleswith
m≠0) with energy (E,E+dE )by the source with
N (E)dE= AE2 e (-E/kT) dE (2)
applicationsinnuclear and elementary particles
physics kT is recalculated inunits of energy. To
equivalentto1.3 10-23 Joule= 1.3 10-23/(1.6 10-
19) eV =  0.8 10-4 eV. For comparison measured
and calculated energy densities we applied the
( )
m eV
dP BE e
 
 
where dP dE  denotes radiation surface energy
density for waves with frequency   E, E +dE
where, B is the normalization constant T is the
In Figures 1-3 we present the results for
brain waves and in Figures 4-6 for Schumann
waves. As can be easily seen the agreement of
Figure 1. Energy density spectrum for brain waves,
Figure 2. Energy density spectrum for brain waves,
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Figure 3.Comparison energydensityspectrum of thebrain
waves calculated and measured. The line is the result of
Figure 4. Energy density spectrum for Schumann waves,
Figure 5. Energy density spectrum for Schumann waves,
As can be easily seen (Figures 1-6) we obtained
measured energy density profiles. We conclude
that both radiations are emitted from source
which is in -equilibrium thermodynamic state
(Planck-type formula).  It is quite interesting
conclusion for Universe is also in equilibrium
described by the same Planck formula but with
different temperatures Temperature of CBR is
much higher (1010 times) for that CBR do not
Figure 6. Comparison theoretical to measured
energy density for Schumann waves. The blue
6. Conclusions
In this paper we argue that both modes of
electromagnetic radiation: brain waves and
Schumann waves can be analyzed with thehelp
ofthePlanck type formula. From ourcalculation
we deduced the temperature of the source and
the shape of the energy density. We obtained
the good agreement with the measured
Başar E. Memory as the whole brain work: a large-scale
model based on oscillations in super-synergy. Int J
ChangJ.Studies and DiscussionofPropertiesof Biophotons
andTheirFunctions. NeuroQuantology 2008; 6(4): 420-
Marciak-Kozlowska J and  Kozlowski M.  On the brain and
cosmic background photons. NeuroQuantology 2013;
NunezP. Towardsa physicsofthe neocortex.InNeocortical
DynamicsAnd theHuman EEGRhythms,ed.NunezP. L.,
Polk C. Schumann resonance. In CRC Handbook of
Atmospherics, 1982; Vol. 1, ed. Volland H., editor. Boca
... Следователно животът на Земята винаги е зависел от наличието на това електромагнитно поле -ЕMF (electromagnetic field) (Hollenbach, Herndon, 2001). Влиянието на електромагнитните вълни на Schumann, които участват в общия енергиен баланс на Земята, се основава на честота на трептене, която е близка до тази на човешкия мозък (Kozłowski, Marciak-Kozlowska, 2015). Въздействието, което те оказват върху човешкия организъм, е свързано с поддържането на биологичния часовник и хормоналния баланс, с регулирането на имунозащитните качества на организма и т.н. ...
... Това поле е фоново и не вреди на човешкото тяло, дори е необходимо за протичането на нормален човешки живот. По време на слънчеви изригвания нивото на естествения електромагнитен фон се покачва и оказва вредно влияние на хората, но по принцип естественият фон е с няколко порядъка по-нисък от нивата на електромагнитното излъчване, получени от антропогенни източници (в повечето случаи -създадени от човека) (Kozłowski, Marciak-Kozlowska, 2015). ...
... Humans live and work in an environment of natural and artificial electromagnetic fields [1]. The human body can be considered as an electromagnetic system at the cellular level. ...
... Хората живеят и работят в среда от естествени и изкуствени електромагнитни полета [1]. Човешкото тяло може да се разглежда като електромагнитна система на клетъчно ниво. ...
... Via electroencephalography (EEG) it was proven that the brain generates electromagnetic waves in the low-frequency range. Human brainwaves oscillate particularly within the frequency bands of 1 to 40 Hz, thereby within the orders of the Schumann Resonances [22]. The wavebands of the brain, also called states of consciousness, are arranged in the following four spectra. ...
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Over the course of time in the digital age, oscillating processes were utilized in various realizations. Life without these became hardly imaginable. Schumann resonances are electromagnetical resonances or eigenfrequencies (radio waves), which originate from the oscillation in a hollow space shell. Their average basic frequency is 7,83Hz. The above-mentioned radio waves emerge from energy discharges such as thunderstorms, lightning or solar wind within the earth’s surface and the ionosphere. They exist around the globe. Various scientists have discovered a correlation to our health on the basis of studies and experiments; their absence can result in a variety of disorders from headaches to cancerous diseases. Nevertheless, the field is considered controversial. It has not yet been researched thoroughly, which significant impact it has on beings. This shows that further research is appropriated. The objective is an analytical consideration of the impact of a technical application of the Schumann resonance on living organisms. Furthermore, this paper is concerned with the consideration and comparison of various hypotheses and studies. The here mentioned frequency range also covers brainwaves, there should be a direct influence on certain brain areas. Furthermore, the investigations shall function as the basis for further experiments at Johannes Gutenberg University, Germany.
... The resonant standing waves emerge from the brain, under the right conditions facilitates internal and external bioinformation transfer, via ELF electromagnetic waves. (Kozlowski, M. & Kozlowska, J.M. 2015). ...
Full-text available
In this theoretical article, I discussed first, the nature of sensation,in general. I represented the concept of sixth sense, compared to similar terms. Then I introduced the nature of sixth sense experience, and psychical eight senses, compared to five ordinary senses. At the end of talking about sensation, after previous logic representation, I suggested and deducted hypothesis one; exchanging sixth sense with remote sense, which detects and senses stimulations far from the current point. Second, I introduced the nature of perception in general, then extra-sensory perception (ESP) types and brief history about, the nature of Psychokinesis (PK), and how science interpreted such phenomena. At the end of this article, I suggested, as above, hypothesis two; ESP is a function of remote sensor organ that gives us the ability to act through distance, subjectively through entangled entity.
... Quantum processes derive, and are sometimes isomorphically evidenced in macroreality (Tamulis et al., 2015, p.2;Cai et al., 2010;Pauls et al., 2013;Conte 2010;Marciak-Kozlowska and Kozlowski, 2015;Conte and Lucas, 2015). Isomorphisms, and/or self-similar structural dynamism across scales are evident. ...
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The mathematics, physical and cognitive science of Elio Conte has uncovered essential pieces of form and structural dynamics which are isomorphic across scales, and may be observed in macro-ontologic and ontopsychologic neuroanatomical interactivity. This paper will take depth psychology alongside of neuroscience, and detail several of these parallels. A proposed relation between the pre-space and its subsequent projection as defined by Clifford algebra and the formative activities of the unconscious in perception is put forward. The derivation of logic from quantum theory and its simultaneous role as a formative basis beneath quantum theory are drawn into macro-focus with neuroanatomical symbolic analysis to be observed in the mental system as isomorphic in basic structure. A hint is provided at the possible implications of this series of analyses.
The potential of electromagnetic fields (EMFs) for disease treatment and health enhancement has been actively pursued over the recent decades. This review first provides a general introduction about natural EMFs and related biological effects. Then the recent progress on the EMF treatment of some common diseases (such as cancer, diabetes, wound healing and neurological diseases, etc.) has been carefully reviewed and summarized. Yet, the blindness on the selection of therapeutic EMF parameters still hinders the broad application of EMF therapy. Moreover, the unclear mechanism of EMF function and poor reproducibility of experimental results also remain big challenges in the field of bioelectromagnetics. Bionics is a useful methodology that gains inspiration from nature to serve human life and industry. We have discussed the feasibility of applying bionic approach on the selection of therapeutic EMFs, which is based on the findings of natural EMFs. Finally, we advocate that the detailed information of EMFs and biological samples should be thoroughly recorded in future research and reported in publications. In addition, the publication of studies with negative results should also be allowed.
Users of naturally ventilated (NV) buildings often try to adapt to maintain thermal comfort when thermal dissatisfaction is perceived, while this ability seems to be unnecessary for those living in air-conditioned spaces. Such a thermal subjective difference led to an establishment of the adaptive model, which was included in the ASHRAE Standard-55:2004 in 2004, to reflect thermal comfort requirement of NV-building users. Some forms of this American standard was officially adopted by Thai's Rating of Energy and Environmental Sustainability in 2012. However, its suitability for local application has remained questionable, thereby necessitating the need for more field-based research to gain a better understanding of local people's requirement for indoor thermal environments. This field research aimed to investigate users' adaptive thermal comfort using 517 datasets consisting of respondent personal information, subjective votes, and adaptive actions and thermal environmental data of three NV meditation halls in Thailand. The results reveal the inaccuracy of the predicted mean vote method. The respondents' neutral temperatures are higher than their thermal preference. Moreover, the 80% indoor acceptable thermal range in the study was slightly wider compared to a limit suggested by the ASHARE Standard. Regarding thermal adaptations, personal adjustments played a significant role in the first sequence of action, whereas psychological adaptations were more important in the later sequences.
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In this paper we present the model calculations of the normalized energy spectra of the brain and the cosmic background photons. It was shown that both spectra can be calculated with the same formula (Planck black body formula) with different temperatures. For Cosmic Background the temperature is T=2.53x10-4 eV = 2.53 K and for brain photons T= 7.8x10-15 eV = 7.8 x10-11 K.
The cooperative efforts of physical and biological scientists over the past half century have resulted in a tentative, first order understanding of biological membranes and the behavior of single neurons. Nevertheless, recent work has further exposed the neuron as a highly complex system whose behavior is likely to be the subject of study for many years to come. In fact, the vast discrepancy between real neurons and the „neurons“ of neural network theory has prompted some researchers to label the latter „morons.“ However, even complete understanding of the operation of single neurons or simple neural systems is, by itself, unlikely to add much to our understanding of higher brain function. Partly for this reason, there is an active interest in the field of neural networks, or much more generally, brain dynamics.
Biophotons (BPHs) are weak photons within or emitted from living organisms. BPH emission originates from a de-localized coherent electromagnetic field within living organisms and is regulated by the field. Based on experimental results concerning Poisson and sub-Poisson distributions of photocount statistics, the coherent properties of BPHs and their functions in cell communication are described in this paper. We discuss functions of BPH roles in some important processes, including DNA replication, transcription, protein synthesis, and cell signalling, and in the processes of oxidative phosphorylation and photosynthesis.
According to recent trends, memory depends on several brain structures working in concert across many levels of neural organization; "memory is a constant work-in progress." The proposition of a brain theory based on super-synergy in neural populations is most pertinent for the understanding of this constant work in progress. This report introduces a new model on memory basing on the processes of EEG oscillations and Brain Dynamics. This model is shaped by the following conceptual and experimental steps: 1. The machineries of super-synergy in the whole brain are responsible for formation of sensory-cognitive percepts. 2. The expression "dynamic memory" is used for memory processes that evoke relevant changes in alpha, gamma, theta and delta activities. The concerted action of distributed multiple oscillatory processes provides a major key for understanding of distributed memory. It comprehends also the phyletic memory and reflexes. 3. The evolving memory, which incorporates reciprocal actions or reverberations in the APLR alliance and during working memory processes, is especially emphasized. 4. A new model related to "hierarchy of memories as a continuum" is introduced. 5. The notions of "longer activated memory" and "persistent memory" are proposed instead of long-term memory. 6. The new analysis to recognize faces emphasizes the importance of EEG oscillations in neurophysiology and Gestalt analysis. 7. The proposed basic framework called "Memory in the Whole Brain Work" emphasizes that memory and all brain functions are inseparable and are acting as a "whole" in the whole brain. 8. The role of genetic factors is fundamental in living system settings and oscillations and accordingly in memory, according to recent publications. 9. A link from the "whole brain" to "whole body," and incorporation of vegetative and neurological system, is proposed, EEG oscillations and ultraslow oscillations being a control parameter.