ArticlePDF Available

A Review of Psychological Literature on the Health and Wellbeing Benefits of Biophilic Design


Abstract and Figures

Biophilic design has received increasing attention as a design philosophy in recent years. This review paper focused on the three Biophilic design categories as proposed by Stephen Kellert and Elizabeth Calabrese in "The Practice of Biophilic Design". Psychological, peer reviewed literature supporting the benefits of Biophilic design was searched for through the lens of restorative environments. Results indicate that there exists much evidence supporting certain attributes of Biophilic design (such as the presence of natural elements), while empirical evidence for other attributes (such as the use of natural materials or processes) is lacking. The review concludes with a call for more research on restorative environments and Biophilic design.
Content may be subject to copyright.
Buildings 2015, 5, 948-963; doi:10.3390/buildings5030948
ISSN 2075-5309
A Review of Psychological Literature on the Health and
Wellbeing Benefits of Biophilic Design
Kaitlyn Gillis * and Birgitta Gatersleben
Department of Psychology, Faculty of Arts and Humans Sciences, University of Surrey, Guildford,
Surrey GU2 7XH, UK; E-Mail:
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed; E-Mail:;
Tel.: +44-(0)1483-689306.
Academic Editor: Mallory Taub
Received: 7 July 2015 / Accepted: 19 August 2015 / Published: 25 August 2015
Abstract: Biophilic design has received increasing attention as a design philosophy in
recent years. This review paper focused on the three Biophilic design categories as proposed
by Stephen Kellert and Elizabeth Calabrese in “The Practice of Biophilic Design”.
Psychological, peer reviewed literature supporting the benefits of Biophilic design was
searched for through the lens of restorative environments. Results indicate that there exists
much evidence supporting certain attributes of Biophilic design (such as the presence of
natural elements), while empirical evidence for other attributes (such as the use of natural
materials or processes) is lacking. The review concludes with a call for more research on
restorative environments and Biophilic design.
Keywords: biophilic design; restorative environments; built environment; environmental
1. Introduction
Biophilic design is a design philosophy that encourages the use of natural systems and processes in
the design of the built environment [1]. Biophilic design is based on the Biophilia hypothesis, which
proposes that humans have an innate connection with the natural world [2] and that exposure to the
natural world is therefore important for human wellbeing. However, human interaction with nature is
often lacking in modern day societies [3] due to societal trends such as urbanization, building design, and
Buildings 2015, 5 949
lifestyle. The idea behind Biophilic design then is to incorporate natural features and systems into the
built environment in order to provide human beings with their much-needed exposure to nature [1].
Biophilic design has received increasing interest from the building industry around the world in
recent years. Two building rating systems that originated in the United States but are being promoted
globally incorporate Biophilic design directly; these are the Living Building Challenge [4], which
incorporates it through the Biophilia Imperative, and the new WELL Building Standard [5], which
incorporates it through the Biophilia Precondition and Biophilia Optimization. Consulting firms have
also championed the concept, notably Terrapin Bright Green, who have published various white papers
on Biophilic design [6] and Interface flooring, who have created a Human Spaces website [7] to
encourage discussion around Biophilic design.
This paper will review evidence for Biophilic design and will focus on environmental psychology
literature, which has a long tradition in examining the potential healing benefits of exposure to nature
and natural elements as proposed by environmental restoration theory. The paper also discusses
differences in the way individuals respond to nature. The paper will argue that there is a need for more
evidence to demonstrate how the different elements of Biophilic design affect different people.
2. What is Biophilic Design?
Biophilic design encourages the use of natural elements and processes as design inspiration in the
built environment [1]. The idea behind this is that exposure to natural environments and features have
positive effects on human health and wellbeing, which has been supported in a wealth of research [8].
According to the Biophilia hypothesis, these positive effects of exposure to nature originate in a
biological bond between humans and the natural world [2]. These ideas have been taken forward in two
theories developed in the Environmental Psychology literature: Attention Restoration Theory [9] and
Stress Recovery Theory [10]. Both theories suggest that some environments are stressful, others are not
and yet others can actively help people recover from stress and mental fatigue. Environments that evoke
positive moods, have properties that draw people’s attention without being stressful or demanding, can
help people recover more quickly and fully from mental fatigue and stress are known are restorative
environments [11]. According to Kaplan and Kaplan [9] and Ulrich and colleagues [12] natural
environments in particular contain elements that promote renewed attention by providing a sense of
being away, fascination, extent and compatibility [13]; and by containing elements that promote survival
and therefore positive appraisal [14]. Urban environments, on the other hand, tend to be full of
demanding, stressful, under stimulating or boring features.
Biophilic design then suggests that built environments could be made more restorative by
incorporating natural elements in their design. Gifford and McGunn [11] suggest that Biophilic design
can be viewed as belonging under a larger restorative design umbrella. Much of the small but growing
peer-reviewed literature on Biophilic design often cites research on restorative environments to support
the health and wellbeing benefits of Biophilic design [15–17]. Although the concept of Biophilic design
is relatively new, the plethora of research on nature and restorative environments makes a strong case for
the health and wellbeing potential of incorporating Biophilic design attributes into the built environment.
However, this research does not always test all aspects of Biophilic design and although there is
Buildings 2015, 5 950
significant evidence for the beneficial effects of exposure to natural environments, evidence for other
Biophilic aspects, such as the use of natural materials, is sparse.
The evolution of Biophilic design characteristics has lead to the recently published document
“The Practice of Biophilic Design” by Stephen Kellert and Elizabeth Calabrese [18]. The document
details the three experiences and 24 attributes of Biophilic design, and is an update on previous literature
on Biophilic design [1,3]. The three experiences and 24 attributes are listed in Table 1.
Evidence from over three decades of research on the impact of nature on human health and wellbeing
can justify the claim that Biophilic design is beneficial, although academic literature looking specifically
at Biophilic design is still relatively rare. One of the first academic papers on Biophilic design came from
Joye [17] who looked at empirical research from various fields of psychology and how it applied to
Biophilic design. Joye [17] concluded that existing research, mostly in the field of restorative
environments, lends support to the ideas of Biophilic design. The review [17] did not look for specific
literature on Biophilic design attributes [1], as this review does. Likewise, in a chapter on restorative
environmental design by Hartig and colleagues [19] restorative environments were looked at as a basis
for Biophilic design, but the chapter does not does not review specific Biophilic design attributes;
instead support for Biophilic design was focused on general support from restorative environmental
design research. Several years have passed since these reviews were conducted, and the evidence in
support of Biophilic design has increased. The current paper attempts to evaluate the evidence for each
of the three experiences distinguished by Kellert and Calabrese [18] to support the theory that Biophilic
design is beneficial for psychological wellbeing.
Table 1. Experiences and attributes of Biophilic design by Kellert and Calabrese [18].
Direct Experience of Nature Indirect Experience of Nature Experience of Space and Place
Light Images of Nature Prospect and refuge
Air Natural materials Organized complexity
Water Natural colours Integration of parts to wholes
Plants Simulating natural light and air Transitional spaces
Animals Naturalistic shapes and forms Mobility and wayfinding
Weather Evoking nature
Cultural and ecological attachment
to place
Natural landscapes and ecosystems Information richness -
Fire Age, change and the patina of time -
- Natural geometries -
- Biomimicry -
3. Method
The review provides a specific environmental psychology perspective on Biophilic design.
Environmental psychology focuses on studying interactions between people and their physical (natural
and built) environment and therefore is particularly useful for understanding Biophilic design. The
literature review examines literature on people’s perceptions and attitudes towards the natural and built
environment (with reference to Biophilia) as well as their behaviours, feelings and experiences in such
environments. As such the review will draw on two important theories in environmental psychology
Buildings 2015, 5 951
literature: Attention Restoration Theory (ART) [9,13] and Stress Recovery Theory (SRT) [12] to examine
the evidence for positive experiences in environments with natural elements. Scopus and PsychInfo were
used to search for peer-reviewed, academic literature in the field of psychology. The review searched for
evidence of positive effects of each of the three Biophilic experiences on a range of psychological
outcomes such as improved cognitive functioning, reduced stress, and improved mood, which all
contribute to improved health and wellbeing. Figure 1 details the search methodology for this narrative
review. A vast amount of psychological literature was looked at for this review, which gives an overview
of some of the key findings. It is not meant to be exhaustive but to provide an insight into the quality and
quantity of evidence for each of the three Biophilic experiences as found in psychological literature.
Literature review Process
1. Databases:
Scopus, PsychInfo
2. Sources from
Biophilic design literature
Restorative environments
literature search
Key Terms
Key Terms
Attribute (or similar)
Inclusion Criteria
academic journals
Language (English)
Exclusion Criteria
Not related to environmental psychology
and/or built environment
Figure 1. Narrative review process.
4. Results
The following section details the results of the psychological literature search on the three Biophilic
design experiences. Some overlap exists between the independent variables (the 24 attributes) explored
Buildings 2015, 5 952
in research and this was mentioned in the overlapping attributes. For example, water will be seen as
being highly restorative in the built environment from both direct and indirect nature experience.
Moreover, different natural elements often feature together in environmental design, making it difficult
to distinguish clearly between different aspects of Biophilic design.
4.1. Direct Experience of Nature
The direct experience of nature experience and its relevant attributes yielded the most peer-reviewed
research for this paper. The direct experience of nature means having a direct contact with nature and
natural processes [18]. The eight Biophilic design attributes that are used in this experience are listed in
Table 1. The most researched attributes in this experience category in psychological literature are the use
of plants in the built environment and natural landscapes and ecosystems. Additionally, research from a
restorative environments perspective was also found on natural day, light, water and weather. Literature
exists on the wellbeing benefits of the other attributes but inclusion of them was outside the restorative
environments focus of this review paper.
4.1.1. Natural Light
Natural light has been promoted by various disciplines as being beneficial for wellness of building
occupants, including psychology [20]. However, in the research for this paper few results were found
that studied restorative environment research along with natural light. This may be due to the fact that a
psychological theory on the benefits of natural light has yet to be described [21] although Beute and
de Kort found that daylight was associated with perceived restorative potential [22]. Most of the research
on the benefits of natural light is approached through a biological explanation, such as circadian rhythms
and vitamin D production [21]. From a Biophilic view, humans evolved under natural, diurnal light
conditions and therefore natural light and natural light processes should be preferred and most
beneficial. From research on restorative environments, Zadeh and colleagues looked at the restorative
potential of natural light and windows [23]. This quasi-experiment found that the availability of natural
light and windows significantly improved mood and communication amongst nurses. Although the use
of windows and natural light may be confounding, a study on children in a classroom in Sweden [20],
found that children in rooms with daylight fluorescent lighting without windows had improved
concentration when compared when compared with children in classrooms with no windows and
conventional lighting. This study also lends support to the simulating natural light and air attribute in the
indirect experience of nature category. Daylight spectrum lighting that changes throughout the day to
mimic natural light, such as circadian lighting, could be a way to better reap the benefits of natural light.
4.1.2. Water
Water has also been found to be restorative, both through views of water [12] and sounds of water [24].
Kaplan and Kaplan [9] note how preferred environments often have a view of water and this was also
found in various other studies [25–27]. In fact, images of the urban environment that contained water
were found to be even more preferred than nature images containing no water [26]. As with views to
nature, the quality of water impacts the restorativeness, meaning that brown, dirty water will be less
Buildings 2015, 5 953
restorative than clean water [26]. Incorporating clean water elements into the built environment has also
been suggested by Ryan and colleagues [15] as a way to tap into the Biophilic benefits of water. Articles
that have focused on the psychological benefits of water have noted that there is much research on the
physiological benefits of water, however less so on the psychological wellbeing benefits. As part of the
results of a systematic, meta-analysis conducted by Volker and Kistemann in 2011 [27], water was found
to be restorative.
4.1.3. Plants
Plants have the ability to directly bring green, living nature into the indoor environment.
Psychological studies have demonstrated the health and wellbeing benefits of placing plants inside.
Bringslimark and colleagues [28] conducted a review of this evidence and concluded that plants have a
beneficial effect on stress reduction and pain tolerance. In an earlier study, Larsen and colleagues [29]
found that as the density of plants increased in an office setting, productivity decreased. At the same time,
positive affect increased. This is in contrast to a more recent study by Nieuwenhuis and colleagues [30] who
found that perceived and actual productivity increased for occupants in a green (including plants) office
space when compared with a lean (minimalist) office space.
Although much research has been conducted on the health and wellbeing benefits of plants, little
research has been done on the qualities of plants that humans prefer. In a study by Qin et al. [31], various
plant types were tested to identify the most beneficial type of plant based on psychological and
physiological assessment. The results indicate that small, green, lightly scented plants were the most
optimal for health and wellbeing. Plants with red flowers were found to be fatiguing after a period of
time [31]. This could be explained by research on colour and creativity, where red has been found to be
beneficial on tasks that require concentrated attention [32].
4.1.4. Weather
Academic literature on the role weather plays on psychological restoration is limited; however, there
is some evidence supporting this attribute. In terms of this attribute in relation to the interior
environment, the argument made by Kellert and Calabrase [18] is that there is importance for building
occupants to maintain a connection to the exterior world, including its natural processes. People have
been found to prefer sunnier weather and that this weather also is rated higher in terms of perceived
restorativeness potential [22]. This lends support to the psychological restoration potential of the type
daylight, depending on the levels of sunshine. Translating this to the built environment further supports
the psychological benefits of natural light, while at the same time considering the quality of natural light
that people are exposed to while indoors.
4.1.5. Natural Landscapes and Ecosystems
The view of greenery from a window, which is listed under the natural landscapes and ecosystems
attribute, has been shown in several studies as having beneficial effects on the wellbeing of building
occupants. A major study by Ulrich [33] was on the benefits of green views when recovering from
gallbladder surgery. Patients who were recovering in a room with views to green trees recovered faster
Buildings 2015, 5 954
and required less pain medication than patients whose view was of a brick wall. This is a good indication
that in the built environment context, the type of view does matter. The type of view was also found to be
of importance in a study by Felsten [34]. More in depth-results of this paper will be discussed in the
images of nature attribute. However, Felsten found that a mundane view of nature during the late Fall
was less restorative than a simulated view of nature containing water and more dramatic nature [34].
This study again points to the significance of understanding the restorative potential of a natural view,
especially in climates and seasons where lush, green nature is unavailable.
In areas where an urban environment is the limiting factor towards viewing green nature, the
availability of green roofs have been found to be restorative. The extent of restorative potential depends
on the type of vegetation, with a popularly used vegetation type, sedum, being viewed as not being
significantly more restorative than non-vegetated roofs [35]. The authors note that the sedums used on
the pitched, residential roof were not green but rather reddish, which may have affected the appraisal of
the roof [35]. In a recent study of the micro-restorative potential of flat green roofs, white flowering,
green roofs were found to provide a micro-restorative effect on attention after only 40 s of viewing the
roof [36]. The authors of this study noted that they compared a white flowering flat green roof with a
barren grey roof; whether the largest effect of the roof was due to the greenness or white flower aspect
remains to be studied.
4.2. Indirect Experience of Nature
The second experience proposed by Kellert and Calabrese [18] is the indirect experience of nature.
This experience is important, as direct contact with nature may not be possible in every design situation,
such as in certain medical environments, and looks at representation of nature in the built environment.
This experience has ten attributes, which can be found in Table 1.
4.2.1. Images of Nature
The use of images of nature in the built environment has been widely investigated in environmental
psychology. Images of nature have been found to be as stress reducing as actual views of nature in
certain circumstances [37]. Building occupants’ need for human interaction with nature is so strong that
office workers have been found to compensate for a lack of nature exposure by adding images of nature
to the office environment [38]. By incorporating permanent Biophilic features into the built
environment, designers can ensure that everyone reaps the benefits with contact to nature, and not just
occupants that feel comfortable with personalizing their space, or those who have the ability to do so.
In an environment where direct exposure may not be possible, such as a sterile medical environment, images
of nature can provide a connection to the natural world for both patients and medical professionals.
Images of nature can even be more restorative than the view of real nature, depending on the content of
the image and the view of nature. Using Attention Restoration Theory (ART) as a framework, Felsten [34]
asked students to imagine they were mentally fatigued and to rate various images on their perceived
restorative potential. Felsten [34] found that students perceived mural views of nature with water as the
most restorative, even more than actual views of nature through a window of what Felsten calls
“mundane nature” [34], meaning that the trees were devoid of leaves, since it was late Autumn.
Buildings 2015, 5 955
Therefore, images of nature may have a large role in environments where exterior views with lush nature
may not be possible, due to seasons, adjacent buildings, or external environment.
4.2.2. Natural Materials
Natural materials are another Biophilic attribute that falls into this experience but this attribute has
received limited attention in academic research from a psychological perspective. The limited research
demonstrates that the amount and type of material is important for perceived restorative quality and
preference. Nyrud and colleagues [39] manipulated images of a patient hospital room with different
quantities and layouts of wood, using wood that was commonly used in the Norwegian building
industry, which was the location of the study. The amount of wood in a patient room that was most
preferred was an intermediate amount, with the floor, one wall and furniture being made of wood.
An entire wood surfaced room and a room with no wood were the least preferred amongst respondents [39].
Although the respondents had the same overall preference, there were differences, with physicians
providing overall higher ratings for the images than nurses [40]. The results of this study again
demonstrate that the amount and type of Biophilic feature, as well as the target audience, needs to be
considered in design. In terms of other research on natural materials, for this paper wood was the only
material found that was related to Biophilic design research. This provides an opportunity to investigate
other materials, such as natural stone, various clays, strawbale, hemp and other types of wood. Materials
that are indigenous to a building location could also be further investigated.
4.2.3. Natural Geometries
This attribute primarily deals with fractals, although also includes other natural geometries such as
the Fibonnaci sequence as well [18]. The study of fractals offers an explanation as to why humans are
restored by nature. Fractals occur when a pattern repeats itself as it gets smaller or larger, what Joye [17]
refers to as “self-similarity”. Kellert [1] notes that some notable historical buildings contain fractals, which
includes Gothic architecture, notably cathedrals [17]. Fractals have been found in many natural elements, for
example the romanesco broccoli. This could be an explanation as to why natural environments are often
preferred over built ones [40] or why fractals have been used in historical architecture.
4.3. Experience of Space and Place
The third and final experience, the experience of space and place, relates to the spatial elements of the
natural environment and how to replicate it into the built environment [18]. There are six attributes in
this experience, which are listed in Table 1. Based on the review of psychological literature on
restorative environments, three attributes will be discussed.
4.3.1. Prospect and Refuge
There has been work done on prospect refuge theory, however not in relation to restorative
environments [41–43]. One study on prospect and refuge in relation to restorative environments was
found for this paper [44]. The study was done in the natural world and did not use the built environment,
much like many of the previously cited studies related to restorative environments. Nature that is
Buildings 2015, 5 956
non-threatening is thought to be restorative and this can be applied to the built environment context as
well. Results from this study demonstrated that nature with high levels of views and low levels of
prospect were deemed restorative; nature with low level of views and high levels of prospect were not.
Although being in nature may have the potential of being more threatening than a controlled
environment in a building, the authors attribute the results in part to wayfinding, which has been studied
in the built environment context. Wayfinding is the ease at which a person can manipulate an environment.
When a person has problems finding their way, their levels of stress rise [45].
4.3.2. Cultural and Ecological Attachment to Place
Another attribute proposed by Kellert and Calabrese [18] in this experience is cultural and ecological
attachment to place. Place attachment is an area of research in environmental psychology that “refers to
the sense of rootedness people feel toward certain places, a phenomenon sometimes called a sense of
place” [45]. The work that is relevant here is work on favourite places, which have been associated with
place attachment and restoration. But this work is conducted by only a handful of authors namely
Korpela [46,47] and Hartig [47]. Places that are perceived to be highly restorative have been found to
have strong place attachments for people [48]. In relation to this, in a 10-month longitudinal study,
natural environments, most likely due to their ability to afford restoration, have been found have a
stronger attachment as a favourite place [46]. An application of this with regards to Biophilic design or
built environments that incorporate nature was not found for this paper. Although the literature on
favourite places suggests that there is a link between place attachment and restoration this is highly
subjective and an experience that develops over time and perhaps not something that is simple to design.
It must also be noted that restorative environments do not need to be natural, which agrees with
Gifford and McGunn’s statement [11] that Biophilic design falls under a larger umbrella of restorative
design, and not necessarily vice versa. In a purely restorative environments context, Ouellette, Kaplan
and Kaplan [49] looked at a monastery as a restorative environment using ART as a framework and
found that the monastery served as a restorative experience. Through self-reports of the study’s
participants, the environment was noted as being restorative due to the soft fascinating elements of the
architecture, in agreement with ART. This could be applied to other environments as well, such as the
home. This does not take away from the benefits of Biophilic design. Literature, as identified in this
paper, on the benefits of incorporating nature in the built environment would suggest that while other
environments can be restorative, incorporating Biophilic attributes in to these same environments might
only increase the restorative potential of the environment.
5. Individual Differences
Individuals may respond differently to Biophilic elements, which need to be considered in Biophilic
design. Van den Berg and ter Heijne [50] found that male individuals and those that are higher sensation
seeker respond more positively to threatening encounters in nature than females and those that are lower
sensation seeker. Also found by Van den Berg and ter Heijne [50] was that any type of nature could yield
fear. This can be translated into the built environment, notably with environments that have high
prospect but cause some people who are fearful of heights to become stressed. Another individual
difference is that not everyone actually likes nature [51] and that this should be considered in design. In
Buildings 2015, 5 957
this study, Bixler and Floyd also note that this may be due to people being used to a building
environment, where the environment is relatively controlled [51]. Biophilic design may increase the
likeability of nature by more exposure to natural processes and elements in a controlled environment.
This can increase a person’s connection to nature [52] and may encourage them to engage more in
wilderness nature.
Individual differences in the built environment context have also yielded significant results. In a study
by Kweon and colleagues [53], images of abstract and nature art produced significant decrease in anger
and stress in male office workers, but not female. The abstract art used in the study was Biophilic in
nature, which was noted by the authors as explaining the results, since previous research had indicated
that abstract art was distracting [53]. Differences between genders in restorative environments were also
found by Shibata and Suzuki [54], where females demonstrated improved performance when plants
were incorporated into the room when compared with males. In both studies, context is important, where
the type of task [54] and environment may play a large role in the different outcomes by gender. This can
be used by designers when considering Biophilic design by understanding the type of task and stressors
that people will experience in their environment.
6. Current Trends in Biophilic Design
Although much research on restorative environments has focused on the visual sense, recent research
in the field of restorative environments has yielded a shift from the visual sense to the auditory sense and
olfactory senses. This shift supports Kellert and Calabrese’s statement that the experience of nature is
multisensory [18]. Referring back to the study by Qin and colleagues [31] on the use of plants, the type of
plants that were most highly rated as restorative were those that were slightly fragrant. Additionally, the
sound of bird song [55] and nature sounds including water has been perceived to be highly restorative [24].
Part of the complexity of Biophilic design is that although much research has been done on the
individual elements of Biophilic design (e.g., Plants, images of nature, and natural light) the
combinations of elements has received little attention in research. The first longitudinal study on a
Biophilic-designed space that incorporates various elements of Biophilic design is currently underway in
Australia [16]. The study looks at natural light, plants, natural ventilation, prospect and views, use of
non-synthetic materials, recycled materials, and an open-plan workspace. The space that is being studied
is a work-site construction office and the first paper of the two-year study was published using three
months of data. The preliminary results after three months indicate that the various benefits of Biophilic
design are being realized in the space. This includes reduced stress, improved productivity, and
improved wellbeing, which all fall under the benefits of being in a restorative environment as well.
As stated by Kellert [1], Biophilic design works with low-impact environmental design to create
buildings that are what he calls restorative environmental design, which are not to be confused with
restorative environments which is a focus in this paper. With the current focus on green building design,
Biophilic design attributes have an opportunity to enhance green building design strategies. Biophilic
design is incorporated into the Living Building Challenge [4] which is perhaps the most progressive
green building rating system on the market, and in order for a building to achieve “Living” certification,
it must meet the requirements for each of the 20 imperatives, including Imperative 09 Biophilic
Environments. Imperative 09 requires that the design team look at the six Biophilic elements as proposed
Buildings 2015, 5 958
by Kellert [1] and demonstrate how they have been incorporated into the design. Beyond this imperative,
the Living Building Challenge (LBC) also has other imperatives that touch upon Biophilic attributes,
such as Imperative 07, Civilized Environment, which promotes fresh air and natural light for building
occupants (Attributes 1 and 2; see Table 1) Imperative 16, Universal Access of Nature and Place and
Imperative 19, Beauty and Spirit. Imperative 16 ensures projects do not impede upon natural light, fresh air,
or disturb natural waterways on adjacent developments and people (Attributes 1, 2 and 3; see Table 1), while
Imperative 19 ensures that projects integrate elements that are pleasing for people, which could include
cultural and spiritual celebration (Attribute 24; see Table 1).
The WELL Building Standard is a brand new rating system that was launched in 2014 and focuses on
the human health and wellbeing in the built environment [5]. This standard includes two areas that are
dedicated to Biophilic design, one compulsory and the other optional, with the compulsory area being
modelled after the LBC Imperative 09, Biophilia. Other areas in the system exist that tap into Biophilic
design as well, such as areas that focus on providing outdoor air, on-site food production, daylight and
circadian lighting, as well as the potential for other areas as well. This is a positive step towards
integrating more Biophilic design principles in the built environment.
In another recent publication on Biophilic design, Terrapin Bright Green synthesize the concepts put
forth by Kellert [1], Cramer and Browning [56] and others and propose 14 patterns of Biophilic design in
order to help aide designers in creating Biophilic space [15]. This is a good start and opportunity for
designers who are looking for design advice to go when searching for Biophilic design strategies.
Biophilic design does not need to follow a rating system in order to be successful. The most important
aspect of Biophilic design is tapping into the innate connection humans have with the natural world and
ensuring that people feel this connection while inside. Historical evidence supporting this design
philosophy dates back millennia [57]; well before the establishment of a rating system and even current
buildings may have Biophilic design properties without being labelled as such. The benefit of
incorporating Biophilic design into a rating system is that rating systems have the ability to shift the
conversation in the building industry. This has been seen in recent years with green building rating
systems, such as the Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) and Building Research
Establishment Environmental Assessment Methodology (BREEAM) rating systems [58]. As it stands
right now, WELL is extremely new and already much talked about, collaborating with the United States
and Canada Green Building Councils [59] and the LBC is only growing in uptake, with eight projects
having achieved “Living” certification since its inception in 2006. By identifying rating systems that
directly use Biophilic design in them, the point of this section is only to inform of industry uptake in
Biophilic design directly; this does not mean that this is the only way to achieve a Biophilic space.
7. Conclusions
A review of Biophilic design from a restorative environment perspective yielded many results
demonstrating the benefits of Biophilic design for human wellbeing. It is acknowledged that the review
is by no means exhaustive and some of the attributes that have been proposed by Kellert [1] may have
been studied in areas of literature, inside and outside of psychology, and are not included in this paper.
However, the majority of work on Biophilic design refers to environmental restoration theory as an
underlying basis. As such this review focused on psychological literature examining the evidence for the
Buildings 2015, 5 959
restorative qualities of being Biophilic attributes, or the extent to which the presence of such elements in
a built environment can help foster recovery of stress and mental fatigue. Empirical evidence supports
the use of plants, water, wood, etc., in creating spaces that provide an opportunity for human wellbeing.
Three additional points need to be made in response to this review:
7.1. Biophilic Design is not a One Size Fits all Approach
Like many design philosophies, Biophilic design strategies need to be employed in consideration with
the building occupants, location, and function. There may be a threshold for the amount of plants and the
type of plants that will be beneficial for certain human activity. For productivity, a room with too many
plants may decrease productivity while improving affect [29]. A room with many red plants may be
psychologically draining on the occupants or can be beneficial for short-term concentrated attention [31].
Restoration does not need to happen at all times; it is situational and contextual, meaning that the needs
for a Biophilic home surrounded by green nature will be different from those of a Biophilic office in a
central, extremely densely developed urban environment. Sometimes nature and replications of nature is
not restorative and therefore stressful for humans [44], and when applying Biophilic principles into the
built environment, this needs to be considered. Finally, some environments can be restorative that are not
necessarily filled with plants [49].
Individual differences between building occupants also need to be considered. Men and women react
differently to images of nature, with men showing a marked decrease in anger [53]. Further individual
differences may also play a role but have not been studied much.
7.2. Suggested Areas for Further Research in Restorative Environments
Although nature is multisensory, the vast amount of research on restorative environments depends on
the visual aspects of nature. This is changing as research is looking at other senses with regards to
restorative potential, however for this review, much of the literature found depended on the visual sense.
The Biophilia hypothesis would suggest that much of nature and its processes are beneficial for humans
and therefore, restorative. This would include natural light, natural and indigenous materials, etc. and all
the human senses. However academic work for certain attributes, such as natural light and natural
materials, and their link to restoration was limited. As called for in other works cited in this review, more
research is needed in other areas of restorative environments, which is currently dominated by greenery.
7.3. Suggested Areas for Further Research on Biophilic Design
There is a need for a systematic review of the literature perhaps broadening it out to a wide range of
literature in psychology, health, planning, architecture and engineering. There is also a need to
understand more about the specific contribution of different design features not only in terms of
wellbeing—as was the focus of this review—but also in terms of sustainability, and to better understand
how different factors work together to achieve positive outcomes and optimize building design.
While individual attributes of Biophilic design have been studied on their own, there has been little
research on the various combinations of proposed attributes. Do plants and natural materials have a
larger impact than plants and water? Does natural light have a larger impact on attention than plants?
Buildings 2015, 5 960
How is research on natural light and concentration in school children coincided with ART and SRT?
There are so many exciting areas of future research on this topic and that of restorative environments,
which will yield a greater understanding of the mechanisms and potential for design based on a Biophilic
design philosophy.
The authors would like to thank Stephen Kellert and Elizabeth Calabrese for granting permission to use
Table 1, experiences and attributes of Biophilic Design, from their work, The Practice of Biophilic Design.
Author Contributions
This paper is related to current MSc research by Kaitlyn Gillis on Biophilic design through the
department of Environmental Psychology at the University of Surrey. Kaitlyn Gillis was the primary
contributor to this paper. Birgitta Gatersleben provided invaluable guidance and knowledge in the form
of paper organization, content contributions and revisions.
Conflicts of Interest
The authors declare no conflict of interest.
1. Kellert, S.R. Dimensions, Elements, and Attributes of Biophilic Design. In Biophilic Design: The
Theory, Science, and Practice of Bringing Buildings to Life; Heerwagen, J., Mador, M., Eds.;
Wiley: Hoboken, NJ, USA, 2008.
2. Wilson, E.O. Biophilia; Harvard University Press: Cambridge, MS, USA, 1984.
3. Kellert, S.R. Building for Life: Designing and Understanding the Human-Nature Connection;
Island Press: Washington, DC, USA, 2005.
4. Living Building ChallengeSM 3.0: A Visionary Path to a Regenerative Future. Available online:
(accessed on 5 August 2015).
5. WELL Building Standard Resources. Available online:
(accessed on 5 August 2015).
6. Terrapin Collaborates with Organizations to Challenge Assumptions and Develop Solutions that Lead to
Improved Environmental and Financial Performance through Research, Planning, Guidelines, and
Product Development. Available online: (accessed on 20
June 2015).
7. Humman Spaces. Available online: (accessed on 23 August 2015).
8. Bowler, D.; Buying-Ali, L.; Knight, T.; Pullin, A. The Importance of Nature for Health: Is There a
Specific Benefit of Contact with Green Space? Available online: http://www.environmentalevidence.
org/wp-content/uploads/2014/07/SR40.pdf (accessed on 6 July 2015).
9. Kaplan, R.; Kaplan, S. The Experience of Nature: A Psychological Perspective; Cambridge
University Press: Cambridge, UK, 1989.
Buildings 2015, 5 961
10. Joye, Y.; van den Berg, A.E. Restorative environments. In Environmental Psychology: An
Introduction; Steg, L., van den Berg, A.E., de Groot, J.I.M., Eds.; Wiley: Hoboken, NJ, USA, 2012.
11. Gifford, R.; McGunn, L.J. Appraisals of built environments and approaches to building design that
pomote well-benig and healthy behavior. In Environmental Psychology: An Introduction; Steg, L.,
van den Berg, A.E., de Groot, J.I.M., Eds., Wiley: Hoboken, NJ, USA, 2012.
12. Ulrich, R.S.; Simons, R.F.; Losito, B.D.; Fiorito, E.; Miles, M.A.; Zelson, M. Stress recovery during
exposure to natural and urban environments. J. Environ. Psychol. 1991, 11, 201–230.
13. Kaplan, S. The restorative benefits of nature: Toward an integrative framework. J. Environ. Psychol.
1995, 15, 169–182.
14. Hartig, T.; Evans, G.W.; Jamner, L.D.; Davis, D.S.; Gärling, T. Tracking restoration in natural and
urban field settings. J. Environ. Psychol. 2003, 23, 109–123.
15. Ryan, C.O.; Browning, W.D.; Clancy, J.O.; Andrews, S.L.; Kallianpurkar, N.B. Emerging nature-based
parameters for health and well-being in the built environment. Int. J. Archit. Res. 2014, 8, 62–75.
16. Gray, T.; Birrell, C. Are biophilic-designed site office buildings linked to health benefits and high
performing occupants? Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2014, 11, 12204–12222.
17. Joye, Y. Architectural lessons from environmental psychology: The case of biophilic architecture
Rev. Gen. Psychol. 2007, 11, 305–328.
18. Kellert, S.R.; Nature by Design: The Practice of Biophilic Design. Available online: (accessed on
23 August 2015).
19. Hartig, T.; Bringslimark, T.; Patil, G.G. Restorative Environmental Design: What, When, Where
and for Whom? In Biophilic Design: The Theory, Science, and Practice of Bringing Buildings to
Life; Kellert, S.R., Heerwagen, J., Mador, M., Eds.; Wiley: Hoboken, NJ, USA, 2008.
20. Küller, R.; Lindsten, C. Health and behavior of children in classrooms with and without windows.
J. Environ. Psychol. 1992, 12, 305–317.
21. Beute, F.; de Kort, Y.A.W. Salutogenic effects of the environment: Review of health protective
effects of nature and daylight. Appl. Psychol. Health Well-Being 2014, 6, 67–95.
22. Beute, F.; de Kort, Y.A.W. Let the sun shine! Measuring explicit and implicit preference for
environments differing in naturalness, weather type and brightness. J. Environ. Psychol. 2013, 36,
23. Zadeh, R.S.; Shepley, M.M.; Williams, G.; Chung, S.S.E. The impact of windows and daylight on
acute-care nurses’ physiological, psychological, and behavioral health. Health Environ. Res. Des. J.
2014, 7, 35–61.
24. Alvarsson, J.J.; Wiens, S.; Nilsson, M.E. Stress recovery during exposure to nature sound and
environmental noise. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2010, 7, 1036–1046.
25. Wilkie, S.; Stavridou, A. Influence of environmental preference and environment type congruence
on judgments of restoration potential. Urban For. Urban Green. 2013, 12, 163–170.
26. White, M.; Smith, A.; Humphryes, K.; Pahl, S.; Snelling, D.; Depledge, M. The importance of water
for preference, affect, and restorativeness ratings of natural and built scenes. J. Environ. Psychol.
2010, 30, 482–493.
27. Völker, S.; Kistemann, T. The impact of blue space on human health and well-being–Salutogenetic
health effects of inland surface waters: A review. Int. J. Hyg. Environ. Health 2011, 214, 449–460.
Buildings 2015, 5 962
28. Bringslimark, T.; Hartig, T.; Patil, G.G. The psychological benefits of indoor plants: A critical
review of the experimental literature. J. Environ. Psychol. 2009, 29, 422–433.
29. Larsen, L.; Adams, J.; Deal, B.; Kweon, B.S.; Tyler, E. Plants in the workplace: The effects of plant
density on productivity, attitudes, and perceptions. Environ. Behav. 1998, 30, 261–281.
30. Nieuwenhuis, M.; Knight, C.; Postmes, T.; Haslam, S.A. The relative benefits of green versus lean
office space: Three field experiments. J. Exp. Psychol. Appl. 2014, 20, 199–214.
31. Qin, J.; Sun, C.; Zhou, X.; Leng, H.; Lian, Z. The effect of indoor plants on human comfort.
Indoor Build. Environ. 2014, 23, 709–723.
32. Mehta, R.; Zhu, R. Blue or red? Exploring the effect of color on cognitive task performances.
Science 2009, 323, 1226–1229.
33. Ulrich, R. View through a window may influence recovery. Science 1984, 224, 420–421.
34. Felsten, G. Where to take a study break on the college campus: An attention restoration theory
perspective. J. Environ. Psychol. 2009, 29, 160–167.
35. White, E.V.; Gatersleben, B. Greenery on residential buildings: Does it affect preferences and
perceptions of beauty. J. Environ. Psychol. 2011, 31, 89–98.
36. Lee, K.E.; Williams, K.J.H.; Sargent, L.D.; Williams, N.S.G.; Johnson, K.A. 40-second green roof
views sustain attention: The role of micro-breaks in attention restoration. J. Environ. Psychol. 2015,
42, 182–189.
37. Kjellgren, A.; Buhrkall, H. A comparison of the restorative effect of a natural environment with that
of a simulated natural environment. J. Environ. Psychol. 2010, 30, 464–472.
38. Bringslimark, T.; Hartig, T.; Patil, G.G. Adaptation to windowlessness: Do office workers
compensate for a lack of visual access to the outdoors? Environ. Behav. 2011, 43, 469–487.
39. Nyrud, A.Q.; Bringslimark, T.; Bysheim, K. Benefits from wood interior in a hospital room:
A preference study. Archit. Sci. Rev. 2014, 57, 125–131.
40. Hagerhall, C.M.; Purcell, T.; Taylor, R. Fractal dimension of landscape silhouette outlines as a
predictor of landscape preference. J. Environ. Psychol. 2004, 24, 247–255.
41. Stamps, A.E. Some findings on prospect and refuge: I1. Percept. Mot. Skills 2008, 106, 147–162.
42. Stamps, A.E. Some findings on prospect and refuge: II1. Percept. Mot. Skills 2008, 107, 141–158.
43. Fisher, B.S.; Nasar, J.L. Fear of crime in relation to three exterior site features prospect, refuge, and
escape. Environ. Behav. 1992, 24, 35–65.
44. Gatersleben, B.; Andrews, M. When walking in nature is not restorative—The role of prospect and
refuge. Health Place 2013, 20, 91–101.
45. Bell, P.A.; Greene, T.C.; Fisher, J.D.; Environmental Psychology; Lawrence Erlbaum: Mahwah, NJ,
USA, 2001.
46. Korpela, K.M.; Ylén, M.; Tyrväinen, L.; Silvennoinen, H. Stability of self-reported favourite places
and place attachment over a 10-month period. J. Environ. Psychol. 2009, 29, 95–100.
47. Korpela, K.M.; Hartig, T.; Kaiser, F.G.; Fuhrer, U. Restorative experience and self-regulation in
favorite places. Environ. Behav. 2001, 33, 572–589.
48. Devine-Wright, P.; Howes, Y. Disruption to place attachment and the protection of restorative
environments: A wind energy case study. J. Environ. Psychol. 2010, 30, 271–280.
49. Ouellette, P.; Kaplan, R.; Kaplan, S. The monastery as a restorative environment. J. Environ.
Psychol. 2005, 25, 175–188.
Buildings 2015, 5 963
50. Van den Berg, A.E.; Heijne, M. Fear versus fascination: An exploration of emotional responses to
natural threats. J. Environ. Psychol. 2005, 25, 261–272.
51. Bixler, R.D.; Floyd, M.F. Nature is scary, disgusting, and uncomfortable. Environ. Behav. 1997, 29,
52. Tang, I.-C.; Sullivan, W.C.; Chang, C.-Y. Perceptual evaluation of natural landscapes the role of the
individual connection to nature. Environ. Behav. 2015, 47, 595–617.
53. Kweon, B.-S.; Ulrich, R.S.; Walker, V.D.; Tassinary, L.G. Anger and stress: The role of landscape
posters in an office setting. Environ. Behav. 2007, 40, 355–381.
54. Shibata, S.; Suzuki, N. Effects of an indoor plant on creative task performance and mood.
J. Psychol. 2004, 45, 373–381.
55. Ratcliffe, E.; Gatersleben, B.; Sowden, P.T. Bird sounds and their contributions to perceived
attention restoration and stress recovery. J. Environ. Psychol. 2013, 36, 221–228.
56. Cramer, J.S.; Browning, W.D. Transforming building practices through biophilic design.
In Biophilic Design: The Theory, Science, and Practice of Bringing Buildings to Life; Kellert, S.R.,
Heerwagen, J., Mador, M., Eds.; Wiley: Hoboken, NJ, USA, 2008.
57. Ramzy, N.S. Biophilic qualities of historical architecture: In quest of the timeless terminologies of
“life” in architectural expression. Sustain. Cities Soc. 2015, 15, 42–56.
58. World Green Building Trends: Business Benefits Driving New and Retrofit Market Opportunities
in over 60 Countries. Available online:
Green_Building_Trends_SmartMarket_Report_2013.pdf (accessed on 5 August 2015).
59. International WELL Building Institude: News. Available online:
(accessed on 5 August 2015).
© 2015 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article
distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution license
... The architectural components and spaces enclosures create a setting for human-bird interactions and enrich these interactions [16]. A comprehensive embodied perspective has been paid to the relationship between the body and the immediate environment in which it is situated [17][18][19]. Previous research on the association between varying degrees of enclosure and human psychological indicators points to the fact that exposure to open spaces has restorative benefits and has been demonstrated to be critical in stress reduction [20,21]. ...
... Feedback on emotions and Seligman's PERMA model of subjective well-being indicators were used to evaluate participants' experiences. The study found that positive sentiments in the natural environment contribute to an increased sense of well-being, which has been verified by earlier research [17,19,29,33]. Additionally, the researchers reported that interactions with birds in conditions (in this case, nature or route) result in a stronger human-nature connection. ...
Full-text available
Interactions between humans and animals benefit human health and well-being. There has been little study on the effects of bird encounters on people. This study addresses this conceptual gap by analyzing the results of a between-subjects experiment with 136 undergraduate students who were randomly assigned to experience one of four 360 stereo panorama virtual environments representing four encounters, namely "bird depicted in images," "Birds in a Cage," "Watching Birds in Nature inside a path," and "Birds in nature." Following their encounter in a virtual environment, participants assessed their experience in terms of spatial awareness, emotions, psychological well-being, and connection to nature through the use of an online survey. Standard descriptive statistics, correlation, Kruskal–Wallis, and post hoc Bonferroni analysis are used in data analysis. The findings suggested that experiences with birds in open surroundings were more likely to affect participants' spatial perception, emotions, psychological health potentials, and connection to nature than encounters with birds in confined places. This study is critical for environmental awareness since maintaining biodiversity and wildlife is inextricably linked to the potential well-being and quality of life of the human population who are part of the ecosystem.
... Biophilic design, stemming from the concept of biophilia, has become a new approach to incorporate the positive experiences of nature into the design of the built environment (Kellert, 2018). Since people in urban societies spend most of their time indoors (WHO, 2013), integrating nature into the indoor living environment could generate a health-supportive environment (McSweeney et al., 2015;Gillis and Gatersleben, 2015). Even simulated nature like posters or pictures can have a significant relaxing effect (Beukeboom et al., 2012;McMahan and Estes, 2015). ...
... Hence, integrating plants indoors could be a relatively inexpensive approach in health promotion, not only for mental health but also towards healthier food choices. Indoor plants are a way to improve the direct experience of nature indoors (Gillis and Gatersleben, 2015) and are a key element of biophilic design, bringing the mental/physical restorative characteristics of nature into the built environment (Soderlund and Newman, 2015). The current study lends support to the biophilic design through the mentally restorative effects of indoor plants. ...
Aim Urbanized environments may stimulate unhealthy food choices and stress. Several theories explain that exposure to green nature can counter these stress effects. Since we spend most time indoors, integrating nature in the interior could be a promising health promotion tool. Hence, we tested whether the beneficial effect of nature for stress recovery is also present in indoor settings via the use of plants or green colors, and whether it is applicable on eating behavior as a new outcome. Methods The 92 participants (18-30y, 16% men) were divided into four groups. Each viewed a 6-min slideshow with room pictures containing either green plants, green objects, greyscale plants or greyscale objects to allow distinction between color- and plant-effects. Group differences were tested for the perceived restorativeness scale, psychological recovery and eating behavior. To allow psychological recovery testing, participants were exposed to a stressor before the picture slideshow via the Trier Social Stress Test. The change of self-reports (stress, positive and negative affect) and psychophysiology (heart rate and vagal-induced heart rate variability RMSSD) post-slideshow versus pre-slideshow was checked. Eating behavior outcomes included change in hunger, craving, and food choice (for fruits, vegetables and snacks). Results From the four picture sets, the green plants pictures were reported as most mentally restorative and appeared most beneficial for post-stressor recovery of positive affect, but not for negative affect or stress recovery. The green plants group also had higher preference for vegetables and lower preference or craving for (unhealthy) snacks. Those significant group differences were mainly due to the presence of plants and only occasionally due to the green color. Conclusion Indoor green plant pictures were associated with higher mental restorativeness and healthier food choices. Integrating plants in the interior seems to be a relevant health promotion approach, while applying green colors seems less relevant.
... Individuals report feeling more relaxed when viewing green buildings ornated with climbing plants than when looking at concrete nuded buildings (Elsadek et al., 2019). These results have convinced the general public that green elements in the built environment offer beneficial effects (Gillis & Gatersleben, 2015;Bolten & Barbiero, 2020). Unfortunately, it is not always possible to introduce nature vegetation into a built environment. ...
Full-text available
Green environments are said to have a positive impact on spontaneous physical activity and well-being. However, high quality psychological measures in natural settings are difficult to collect. In the present study, we offer a detailed report on how virtual reality may provide a controlled environment for immersive user testing. Virtual Reality (VR) was here used to test the impact of colorful floor markings on the spontaneous speed of walking, gaze behaviour, as well as perceived changes in and physiological mesures of affective states. The reactions of 36 adult participants were evaluated in Grey and Green VR environments of an urban university campus. Results in VR revealed similar results than that reported in natural settings: participants walked slower and had higher heart rates in Green than in Grey urban settings, indicating more pleasurable experiences. VR results provided nevertheless more detailed description of user experience with the possibility to quantify changes in gaze strategy as a function of the presence or absence of color designs. Spontaneous walking was slower with colorful designs than without. Gaze behaviour presented longer fixation times with colorful designs than without. Finally, physiological responses indicated that mean heart rates were similar across environments and predicted the physical effort of the task. However, greater means in heart rates were observed in the environments presenting colorful designs, suggesting that colors may be a powerful tool to trigger alertness and pleasure in Grey urban cities. Virtual reality is reported here as an innovative method to quantify psychological experiences during free exploration in gait. Applicable to a broad range of research topics in the psychological sciences, explicit guidelines are made available to share computer code and data sets for further exploitation.
... Biophilic design is not merely about introducing trees and vegetation (e.g., green roofs, green walls, water sensitive urban design) into built settings-it consists of eliciting biophilic responses such as restorative moments (Gifford and McGunn, 2012;Gillis and Gatersleben, 2015) as part of the overall built environment experience. We propose that direct, indirect, and place-based experiences (the basic tenets of biophilic design) on campuses can lead to connectedness-to the place/campus, to other people, and to one's self. ...
Full-text available
University Campuses remain important settings for nurturing and supporting student health and quality of life (QoL). Research shows the health benefits of nature experiences may be facilitated by campus spaces and activities that afford connectedness. Connectedness to nature, others, and self may allow students to cope with mental fatigue, stress, and a constant need for restoration. Despite recent encouraging trends, we still lack an integrative conceptual framework to describe the mechanisms involved in achieving connectedness for making recommendations for campus design. In this conceptual review, we examine students’ connectedness in campus settings in relation to biophilic elements and attributes. We aim to understand how both direct and indirect pursuits in nature and also place-based experiences on campus foster connectedness and consequently impact students’ health and QoL. Our analysis shows that connectedness seen through the lens of Kellert’s biophilic design principles and aided by Alexander’s pattern language provides a relational and long-term perspective on recommending strategies for connecting students to nature, to others, and to themselves in campus settings.
... Since the health influences of biophilia are supported by robust empirical evidence [11,[14][15][16][17][18][19][20], researchers have started to explore how to employ biophilia principles in design practice [6,[21][22][23]. Stephen Kellert (1943Kellert ( -2016 first coined the term for design activity that aimed to "rebuild a positive relationship between the natural environment and human in the modern built environment" as "biophilic design" [24][25][26][27]. The innovative approach revealed that biophilia research started to transfer from basic research to practical design application and affected sustainable design strategies. ...
There is mounting evidence suggesting that workplace design directly connects with workers’ health and wellbeing. Additionally, the personal status of the mind can affect subjective attitudes and feelings towards the environment. In this study, the impacts of biophilic design attributes in offices on workers’ health and wellbeing are examined. A new post-occupancy evaluation(POE) questionnaire is developed for evaluating the biophilic design for workplace health and wellbeing. A questionnaire and field observations of two green building offices in Singapore and Shenzhen, China, are performed. The main obtained results are: (i) the questionnaire results show that the workers have a moderately high evaluation of the biophilic attributes in the workplace for improving health and wellbeing; (ii) there are significant differences between the self-reported health and nature relatedness of various ages and genders. Furthermore, the present study provides designers with new weighted biophilic design guidelines, specifically for workplace design practices.
... Based on the biophilia theory, these beneficial impacts of nature exposure stem from a biological relationship between people and the natural world. These principles have been advanced by two major theories, namely, the attention restoration theory and the stress recovery theory [39]. According to these theories, some surroundings cause stress while others do not, and some can actively assist people in recovering from stress and mental weariness. ...
Full-text available
Since the COVID-19 crisis has caused the cancellation of a great number of travel plans in the last two years, this study examines the prospects of the post-COVID-19 era, during which we expect tourism will return strongly. The impact of the epidemic on people’s attitudes toward tourism, particularly their tourist choices, appears to be a major challenge for post-COVID-19 international tourism development. Very little is known about tourists’ accommodation preferences during the period emerging after the COVID-19 crisis. With a long and challenging experience of lockdowns, stress, and fear of disease, the current study attempts to examine peoples’ preferences for hotel attributes during the post-COVID-19 era. It examines factors contributing to peoples’ preferences for hotels with biophilic attributes. A total of 507 Iranian undergraduate and graduate students participated in the study. They answered questions on their perceived stress, level of depression, the specific burden of COVID-19, the perceived benefits of nature, and their preferences for biophilic design attributes in their accommodation. The online survey was conducted from August to October 2021. We found that the burden of COVID-19 increased the stress level of the respondents, which consequently increased the chance of depression. We further found that perceived stress and the benefits of nature significantly affect tourists’ preferences for exposure to nature and hotels with biophilic attributes. Based on the data, we suggest that the demand for biophilic buildings will be strongly increased during the post-COVID-19 era.
... Since the health influences of biophilia are supported by robust empirical evidence [11,[14][15][16][17][18][19][20], researchers have started to explore how to employ biophilia principles in design practice [6,[21][22][23]. Stephen Kellert (1943Kellert ( -2016 first coined the term for design activity that aimed to "rebuild a positive relationship between the natural environment and human in the modern built environment" as "biophilic design" [24][25][26][27]. The innovative approach revealed that biophilia research started to transfer from basic research to practical design application and affected sustainable design strategies. ...
Full-text available
There is mounting evidence suggesting that workplace design directly connects with workers’ health and wellbeing. Additionally, the personal status of the mind can affect subjective attitudes and feelings towards the environment. In this study, the impacts of biophilic design attributes in offices on workers’ health and wellbeing are examined. A new post-occupancy evaluation (POE) questionnaire is developed for evaluating the biophilic design for workplace health and wellbeing. A questionnaire and field observations of two green building offices in Singapore and Shenzhen, China, are performed. The main obtained results are: (i) the questionnaire results show that the workers have a moderately high evaluation of the biophilic attributes in the workplace for improving health and wellbeing; (ii) there are significant differences between the self-reported health and nature relatedness of various ages and genders. Furthermore, the present study provides designers with new weighted biophilic design guidelines, specifically for workplace design practices.
... The natural light, bright colors, rich borders, frames, moldings, ornaments, natural materials, balanced curves, water, plants, and non-threatening animals are important considerations for a biophilic design in the built environment [23][24][25]. In the heritage architecture dimension, natural fractal patterns may play an important role in visual feeling. ...
Full-text available
Heritage managers often reuse heritage sites to attract tourists and conserve the sites. Not all adaptive heritage reuses achieve sustainable development. Biophilia is an innate, biological tendency to be close to natural and cultural elements, which may be a critical motivation for achieving sustainable heritage management. Past studies used qualitative and quantitative methods to extract participants' pull and push motivations toward heritage tourism and captured the six motivations of the biophilia framework that should be confirmed: heritage architecture; art activity; wide nature; regional attraction; recreational benefits; and long-term values. The purpose of this study was to conduct a confirmatory factor analysis to test the biophilia framework for understanding biophilic heritage tourism. A questionnaire with 18 items of heritage tourism motivation was used to explore the purpose of this study. A total of 193 valid questionnaires were obtained. Confirmatory factor analysis was used to examine the six motivations of the biophilia framework. The results indicated that heritage tourism motivation consisted of a second-order six-factor structure with high validity and reliability. These six dimensions reflected the biophilic requirements and provided a biophilic planning principle to achieve sustainable heritage management to satisfy the needs of the participants.
Full-text available
This paper introduces a method to help designers and researchers effortlessly identify biophilic design elements using an AI-based computer vision tool that involves four steps: First, we introduce an open-source computer vision tool, the Google Vision API, that can be used for image feature detection; second, we review a fundamental instrument, the Biophilic Design Matrix (BDM), that can be used to filter out biophilic design elements; third, we conduct a case study using the Google Vision API to extract elements from the rooms of ten selected hotels; finally, the extracted elements are compared and verified with the BDM to determine the biophilic elements present in the hotel rooms. This method can be used not only to detect biophilic features, but also to analyze other environmental features in a room such as colors and furniture.
Full-text available
Human aesthetic experience: How does aesthetic evaluation work in terms of psychological and neurobiological evidence? How do we assign meaning to sensual percepts? Why do we find commonalities as well as differences between individual aesthetic perception, interpretation and evaluation? New models and categorization structures are suggested.
Full-text available
There is growing evidence to support the notion that plants can play an important role in providing a higher quality living environment. This study conducted a series of experiments to investigate the effects of characteristics, such as colour, odour and size of plants on human comfort, which was evaluated by a satisfaction survey and physiological measurements. Different kinds of plants with different levels of colour (green, tint and multicolour), odour (no odour, slight scent and strong scent) and size (small, medium and large) were chosen for the experiment design. A survey of participants' satisfaction degree as well as measurements from electroencephalogram (EEG), electrocardiogram (ECG), oxyhaemoglobin saturation, fingertip blood flow, skin resistance and respiration rate were utilized to illustrate the response of participants to the environments either with different plants or without plants. The results demonstrated that an interior office with plants was preferred over an office without plants. The environments with green, slightly scented and small plants were reported as the most favourite conditions. The EEG and oxyhaemoglobin saturation showed significant changes when plant conditions varied. These outcomes provided design strategies for incorporating the plants into the interior office spaces and also provided the physiological variables to evaluate human comfort in the outside environment.
Full-text available
This paper discusses the first phase of a longitudinal study underway in Australia to ascertain the broad health benefits of specific types of biophilic design for workers in a building site office. A bespoke site design was formulated to include open plan workspace, natural lighting, ventilation, significant plants, prospect and views, recycled materials and use of non-synthetic materials. Initial data in the first three months was gathered from a series of demographic questions and from interviews and observations of site workers. Preliminary data indicates a strong positive effect from incorporating aspects of biophilic design to boost productivity, ameliorate stress, enhance well-being, foster a collaborative work environment and promote workplace satisfaction, thus contributing towards a high performance workspace. The longitudinal study spanning over two years will track human-plant interactions in a biophilic influenced space, whilst also assessing the concomitant cognitive, social, psychological and physical health benefits for workers.
This chapter provides an overview of theories on restorative effects of natural environments, along with a discussion of empirical findings and practical implications. Research into restorative environments has primarily been guided by two theoretical explanations: stress recovery theory and attention restoration theory. The chapter discusses three recent theoretical and empirical approaches that have focused on further unravelling the conditions and mechanisms underlying restorative environment experience. The approaches are perceptual fluency account, connectedness to nature, and micro‐restorative experiences. Findings from restorative environments research are increasingly being used to guide the design and management of natural and built environments. This is one of the reasons why restorative elements have become an essential part of so‐called evidence‐based design (EBD) of healthcare settings. The empirical evidence for restorative effects of nature is increasingly applied in healthcare and in urban and landscape planning.
This paper carries forth the conceptual framework for biophilic design that was first laid out by Cramer and Browning in Biophilic Design (2008), which established three categories meant to help define biophilic buildings - Nature in the Space, Natural Analogues and Nature of the Space - and a preliminary list of "biophilic conditions". New research and insights from the neurosciences, endocrinology and other fields have since helped evolve the scientific basis for biophilic design. This paper begins to articulate this growing body of research and emerging design parameters in architectural terms, so that we may draw connections between fields of study, highlight potential avenues for future research, evolve our understanding of biophilic design patterns, and capture the positive psychophysiological and cognitive benefits afforded by biophilia in our design interventions. © 2014 Archnet-IJAR, International Journal of Architectural Research.
The relationships between fear expectancy, disgust sensitivity, desire for modern comforts, and preference for wildland and built environments and related activities were examined. Using a population of predominantly suburban and rural eighth-grade students (n=450), all three variables were found to be significantly related to preferences for wildland environments, recreational activities, and vocational preferences. Those with high fear expectancy, disgust sensitivity, and desire for modern comforts were more likely to prefer manicured park settings and urban environments and to dislike wildland environments. They were also more likely to prefer indoor social recreation activities and express significantly less interest in future careers working in outdoor environments. Finally, they were less likely to prefer appropriate water bodies for conducting an aquatic entomology lab. Studying negative perceptions may complement existing environmental preference research, which has tended to focus on why people prefer certain environments.
Based on attention restoration theory we proposed that micro-breaks spent viewing a city scene with a flowering meadow green roof would boost sustained attention. Sustained attention is crucial in daily life and underlies successful cognitive functioning. We compared the effects of 40-second views of two different city scenes on 150 university students’ sustained attention. Participants completed the task at baseline, were randomly assigned to view a flowering meadow green roof or a bare concrete roof, and completed the task again at post-treatment. Participants who briefly viewed the green roof made significantly lower omission errors, and showed more consistent responding to the task compared to participants who viewed the concrete roof. We argue that this reflects boosts to sub-cortical arousal and cortical attention control. Our results extend attention restoration theory by providing direct experimental evidence for the benefits of micro-breaks and for city green roofs.
Empirical evidences in the last three decades confirmed that designs that connect humans to natural contents and landscape configurations, help to enhance humans’ overall sense of wellbeing, with positive and therapeutic consequences on physiology. Findings in the field of environmental psychology showed also that these features have positive effects on human productivity and can reduce stress. Opportunities for contact with these elements are, however, increasingly reduced in modern urban life. Therefore, more attention has been recently paid by architectural theorists to find ways to reconnect the built environment to these elements. Biophilia is one of the most recent and viable reconnection theories in this field. This paper highlights the underpinnings of this design theory and addresses the assumption that one of the reasons behind the great admiration that most of the people have for historical buildings attributes to the biophilic qualities found in these buildings. By drawing inspiration from historical architecture, and by use of a qualitative analytical methodology that typify certain characteristics in then, this paper brings in conclusion specific biophilic strategies and settings that might help ‘bringing life to buildings’, as seen in these buildings.