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A Web-Based Evaluation Tool to Predict Long Eye Glances


Abstract and Figures

A web-based evaluation tool that simulates drivers’ eye glances to interface designs of in-vehicle information systems (IVISs) is presented. This application computes saliency of each location of a candidate interface and simulates eye fixations based on the saliency, until it arrives at the region of interest. Designers can use this tool to estimate the duration of drivers’ eye glance needed to find regions of interest, such as particular icons on a touch screen. The overall goal of developing this application is to bridge the gap between guidelines and empirical evaluations. This evaluation tool acts as an interactive model-based design guideline to help designers craft less distracting IVIS interfaces.
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PROCEEDINGS of the Eighth International Driving Symposium on Human Factors in Driver Assessment, Training and Vehicle Design
Ja Young Lee
John D. Lee
University of Wisconsin-Madison
Madison, WI, USA
Summary: We present a web-based evaluation tool that simulates drivers’ eye
glances to interface designs of in-vehicle information systems (IVISs). This tool
computes saliency of each location of a candidate interface and simulates eye
fixations based on the saliency, until it arrives at the region of interest. Designers
can use this tool to estimate the duration of drivers’ eye glance needed to find
regions of interest, such as particular icons on a touch screen. The overall goal of
developing this application is to bridge the gap between guidelines and empirical
evaluations. This evaluation tool acts as an interactive model-based design
guideline to help designers craft less distracting IVIS interfaces.
Digital displays are now widely embedded into cars to provide drivers with information and
entertainment. For instance, Tesla Motors has installed a 17” touch display on the center stack to
serve as a master control interface for the car. Both Apple CarPlay and Android Auto have been
developed to provide seamless connection between smartphones and vehicles. Such systems
offer drivers information in a form that might be less distracting than accessing that information
on a smartphone. However, interacting with such In-Vehicle Information Systems (IVISs) might
shift drivers’ attention away from the roadway and increase crash risk.
Naturalistic driving data has shown that instances where drivers’ eyes were off the forward
roadway for more than 2.0 seconds accounted for 18% of crashes and near crashes, producing an
odds ratio of 2.19 (Klauer, Dingus, Neale, Sudweeks, & Ramsey, 2006). Similarly, NHTSA’s
driver distraction guidelines (2014) suggest that mean duration of glance away from the road
should not exceed 2.0 seconds. Long eye glances can occur when drivers search for an object of
interest on a cluttered display (Tsimhoni & Green, 2001). Saliency, or conspicuity, of objects is
one factor that guides visual attention and influences the time to locate objects (Wickens, Goh,
Helleberg, Horrey, & Talleur, 2003). If the object of interest is salient then search times can be
short. However, if the object of interest is not salient and is surrounded by highly salient then
search times can be long. Long search times associated with such misplaced salience can lead to
long off-road glances and heightened crash risk.
Empirical evaluation using eye tracking is an expensive and time-consuming method to assess
the distraction potential of candidate IVIS interfaces. Recruiting participants, collecting data, and
analyzing the eye tracking data can take weeks or months. On the other hand, modeling driver
glances represents a promising approach to reduce the cost and time to assess the distraction
potential of displays. N-SEEV is a computational model that was developed to predict a time to
detect visual changes on displays (Steelman-Allen, McCarley, & Wickens, 2009). The model is
PROCEEDINGS of the Eighth International Driving Symposium on Human Factors in Driver Assessment, Training and Vehicle Design
based on four attentional influences: salience of the signal, effort required to attend to the signal,
expectancy of the signal, and value of the signal. Although it considers multiple attentional
influences, N-SEEV does not fit perfectly with driving situations, as it focuses on detecting
changes while monitoring a display. Also, it requires experts to determine the perceived value of
design features, making the model less accessible to ordinary designers. The tool introduced in
this paper is simpler than N-SEEV, with focused functionality: it predicts search time associated
with salience of the visual objects. We used markedly advanced salience model compared to the
one implemented in N-SEEV model.
We launched a web-based tool that predicts the distraction potential of design alternatives based
on the saliency of the display elements by estimating search time. The purpose of this tool is to
support designers with a simple model of visual attention that can be used as an interactive
guideline to identify misplaced salience that might otherwise go unaddressed.
User Interface
Rather than empirical results, we present a prototype web tool that can serve as an interactive
design guide. The program is written in Python and Django and deployed on web
( Figure 1(a) shows how designers can upload two image files
representing different design options. On the first page, designers set five input parameters:
screen resolutions (width and height, in pixels), screen dimensions (width and height, in
millimeters), and the distance from the driver to the image (in millimeters). These parameters are
used to determine the size of foveal area of the display and region of interest (e.g., an icon). On
the next page, the original image and the image after saliency calculation are displayed.
Designers can select region of interest (ROI) for each of two images (Figure 1(b)). The ROI
identifies the object that the driver would be searching for. The selected ROI is immediately
shown on the corresponding saliency map. On pressing the ‘Simulate’ button, the simulation
executes 1000 search trials where a series of eye movements are produced to estimate the
number of fixations and associated glance time required to locate the ROI. The trials can be
thought of as instances where drivers look to the display trying to find a particular icon. The right
side of Figure 1(b) shows the results as Pareto graphs, showing the distribution of glances and
highlighting the proportion of glances longer than two seconds.
Simulating Eye Fixations
We used Boolean Map based Saliency model (BMS) (Zhang and Sclaroff 2013), which is
currently the most accurate saliency algorithm according to the MIT Saliency Benchmark
( BMS uses surroundedness, which is a geometric cue that Gestalt
psychology has identified as guiding figure and ground assignment. Regions that are surrounded
are seen as the figure. BMS identifies regions separated from the surrounding background to
create a Boolean map (Huang & Pashler, 2007) and uses that to compute saliency. A saliency
map calculated from BMS is a normalized black-and-white image where the most salient areas
are white and least salient are black.
PROCEEDINGS of the Eighth International Driving Symposium on Human Factors in Driver Assessment, Training and Vehicle Design
(a) (b)
Figure 1. User interface of the glance calculation web application. Designers can upload designs and set
parameters on the front page (a). On the next page (b), designers can see original images and corresponding
saliency maps. The results appear once ROI is selected for each image and the ‘simulate’ button is clicked
Considering visual attention as a spotlight, when ones’ eyes focus on a certain location, only
about 2.0 degrees around the fixation point is seen clearly (Henderson, 2003). To locate a target
outside the focal area, eyes saccade rapidly over roughly 2.5 ~ 20 degrees (Land, Mennie, &
Rusted, 1999). The present application assumed that eyes fixate on points across the image until
they arrives within 2.0 degrees of the ROI. The probability of a saccade landing on a particular
location is proportional to its saliency. In the current model, the saliency map was divided into
rectangular cells, where each cell corresponds to the 2.0 degrees span of focal vision. The pixel
size of the area was calculated based on display size and resolution as well as the distance from
display to the viewer. The formula below was used to calculate how many image pixels (p) are
within k degrees of visual field. The variable d is the distance from the observer and the image, r
is the image resolution in pixel, and l is the image length or width. This implementation used 2
for k. This formula was used to calculate the number of pixels for width and height.
Average saliency within each cell was then calculated, and this value represented saliency of the
cell. Figure 2 (c) shows how the saliency map was divided into cells and was assigned with a
saliency value. From this value, the possibility of eye fixation was calculated as the formula (2)
below. An assumption here was that the probability of eye fixation is proportional to the saliency
of a cell. When there are n total cells, the possibility of eye fixation moving from cell i to cell j
) was calculated based on the saliency of cell i (s
) and cell j (s
It was assumed that the fixation starts in the center of the image because people tend to fixate in
the center of images (Tatler, 2007). After this initial fixation, the location of the next fixation
tan k
PROCEEDINGS of the Eighth International Driving Symposium on Human Factors in Driver Assessment, Training and Vehicle Design
was calculated according to the probability associated with the cell saliency, as in formula (2).
With each fixation the program added 230ms to the total time elapsed, assuming 230ms between
saccades (Henderson & Hollingworth, 1999). A cell that has been visited was not visited again,
reflecting the inhibition of return. With each fixation, the system also checked if its destination
cell included an ROI. The search terminated once a fixation arrived at the ROI and then the total
time elapsed was recorded. The process was repeated 1000 times, and the result was represented
as a Pareto chart. Figure 2 summarizes this process.
(a) Original image
(b) Saliency map
(c) Average saliency of cells
(d) Eye fixation prediction
Figure 2. Example of an eye fixation simulation. Image (d) is an example of one run with four saccades and
fixations after initial central fixation. This run of simulation is recorded as 230 x 4 = 920ms
The application allows designers to compare expected percentage of long glances (over 2.0
seconds) for multiple ROIs and multiple design concepts. For example, a designer can test
distraction potential of two different icons in one screen. The first two results from Figure 3
shows the eye glance predictions for two different icons: ‘Maps’ and ‘Settings’. Pareto plots
show that ‘Maps’ is easier to locate than ‘Settings’. The software estimates that 4% of trials will
fail to locate ‘Maps’ within 2.0 seconds, but 39% will fail to locate ‘Settings’. A designer can
also predict eye glance durations for the same function ‘Settings’ in two different design
alternatives. It would more likely to take longer to find ‘Settings’ icon in the second design
(P(time>2s) = 0.55) than in the first design (P(time>2s) = 0.39). Such comparison can help
explore trade-offs between design parameters.
Formula 2
PROCEEDINGS of the Eighth International Driving Symposium on Human Factors in Driver Assessment, Training and Vehicle Design
(a) Original image and saliency map (b) Distribution of eye glance durations for each
Figure 3. Sample runs of the application with different designs
A fundamental challenge in evaluating the distraction potential of vehicle displays is the costly
and time-consuming data collection with human participants. Written design guidelines help
address this issue, but they rarely provide quantitative results to guide design. They often fail to
support tradeoff analysis in comparing alternate designs. Computational models, such as the one
described in this paper can help bridge this gap. Such models can improve the design workflow
by providing designers with immediate and measurable feedback regarding their design
alternatives. This standalone web-based application makes it easy for designers to reflect on
human factors considerations at the start of the design process and thus reduce the cost of
redesigning interfaces at later stages. In addition, hundreds of design alternatives can be quickly
iteratively assessed, helping to producing less distracting interface designs.
This software also has a potential to be integrated into more comprehensive driver distraction
models. Many driver models have been developed to predict drivers’ behaviors in using IVIS,
but none of them simulate dynamic eye glances guided by saliency of visual objects. For
example, the Keystroke Level Model puts multiple perceptual processes together into ‘mentally
prepare for 1.35 seconds’ (Pettitt, Burnett, & Stevens, 2007), and Distract-R allocates 150ms for
finding and processing visual objects (Salvucci, Zuber, Beregovaia, & Markley, 2005). Likewise,
PROCEEDINGS of the Eighth International Driving Symposium on Human Factors in Driver Assessment, Training and Vehicle Design
the Queuing Network Model uses a strategy in which eyes fixate on the closest unattended visual
field with a target feature (Lim & Liu, 2004. These static values can be replaced with dynamic
values that reflect specific display characteristics. For instance, the Itti & Koch salience model
has been combined with Distract-R driver model to predict driver distraction (Lee, 2014), where
salience model captures bottom-up (e.g., visual attention) influences and driver model captures
top-down (e.g., goal) influences on driving behaviors. Integrating the present application into
these driver models will allow better simulation of driving with secondary tasks. Specifically,
such integration makes it possible to account for value- or expectation-driven attention (top-
down) that might dominate the search of objects of interest with familiar displays in addition to
the saliency of visual objects (bottom-up). It will help address the important fact that saliency is
not the only force governing glance duration and visual search.
The current model captures important features of salience-driven attention, and so is an example
of a simple model that represents a specific human function and can address a limited set of
design issues (Rasmussen, 1983). It addresses the issue on misplaced salience based on well-
established theory of visual perception and attention and has been validated on several test
datasets from other domains. As such, this tool represents an interactive design guideline
conveniently available on the web that can help designers address one contributor to visual
distraction. Nevertheless, further validation with vehicle display designs is required to fully
demonstrate the utility of this tool. Input from potential end-users (i.e., designers) will also help
refine the tool to better support the design process.
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To assess the potential distraction of In-Vehicle Information Systems (IVIS), simple, low cost evaluation methods are required for use in early design stages. The occlusion technique evaluates IVIS tasks in interrupted vision conditions, aiming to predict likely visual demand. However, the technique necessitates performance-focused user trials utilising robust prototypes, and consequently has limitations as an economic evaluation method. HCI practitioners view the Keystroke Level Model (KLM) as a reliable and valid means of modelling human performance, not requiring empirical trials or working prototypes. This paper proposes an extended KLM, which aims to predict measures based on the occlusion protocol. To validate the new method, we compared results of an occlusion study with predictions based on the assumptions of the extended KLM. Analysis revealed significant correlations between observed and predicted results (R=0.93-0.98) and low error rates (7-13%). In conclusion, the extended KLM shows considerable merit as a first-pass design tool.
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