ArticlePDF Available

Abstract and Figures

Cellulose based polymers have shown tremendous potential as drug delivery carrier for oral drug delivery system (DDS). Hydroxyethyl cellulose (HEC) and hydroxypropyl cellulose (HPC) are widely explored as excipients to improve the solubility of poorly water soluble drugs and to improve self-life of dosage form. This work is an attempt to modulate the physicochemical properties of these cellulose derivatives using biofield treatment. The treated HEC and HPC polymer were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The XRD studies revealed a semi-crystalline nature of both the polymers. Crystallite size was computed using Scherrer’s formula, and treated HEC polymer showed a significant increase in percentage crystallite size (835%) as compared to the control polymer. This higher increase in crystallite size might be associated with greater crystallite indices causing a reduction in amorphous regions in the polymer. However treated HPC polymer showed decrease in crystallite size by -64.05% as compared to control HPC. DSC analysis on HEC polymer revealed the presence of glass transition temperature in control and treated HEC polymer. We observed an increase in glass transition temperature in treated HEC, which might be associated with restricted segmental motion induced by biofield. Nonetheless, HPC has not showed any glass transition. And no change in melting temperature peak was observed in treated HPC (T2) however melting temperature was decreased in T1 as compared to control HPC. TGA analysis established the higher thermal stability of treated HEC and HPC. CHNSO results showed significant increase in percentage oxygen and hydrogen in HEC and HPC polymers as compared to control samples. This confirmed that biofield had induced changes in chemical nature and elemental composition of the treated polymers (HEC and HPC).
Content may be subject to copyright.
Volume 3 • Issue 2 • 1000126
J Mol Pharm Org Process Res
ISSN: 2329-9053 JMPOPR, an open access journal
Research Article Open Access
Molecular Pharmaceutics &
Organic Process Research
Trivedi et al., J Mol Pharm Org Process Res 2015, 3:2
http://dx.doi.org/10.4172/2329-9053.1000126
*Corresponding author: Shrikant Patil, Trivedi Global Inc., 10624 S Eastern
Avenue Suite A-969, Henderson, NV 89052, USA, Tel: +1 602-531-5400;
E-mail: publication@trivedieffect.com
Received May 29, 2015; Accepted July 09, 2015; Published July 20, 2015
Citation: Trivedi MK, Nayak G, Patil S, Tallapragada RM, Mishra R (2015)
Inuence of Bioeld Treatment on Physicochemical Properties of Hydroxyethyl
Cellulose and Hydroxypropyl Cellulose. J Mol Pharm Org Process Res 3: 126.
doi:10.4172/2329-9053.1000126
Copyright: © 2015 Trivedi MK, et al. This is an open-access article distributed
under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits
unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the
original author and source are credited.
Influence of Biofield Treatment on Physicochemical Properties of
Hydroxyethyl Cellulose and Hydroxypropyl Cellulose
Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Gopal Nayak, Shrikant Patil*, Rama Mohan Tallapragada and Rakesh Mishra
Trivedi Global Inc., 10624 S Eastern Avenue Suite A-969, Henderson, NV 89052, USA
Abstract
Cellulose based polymers have shown tremendous potential as drug delivery carrier for oral drug delivery
system (DDS). Hydroxyethyl cellulose (HEC) and hydroxypropyl cellulose (HPC) are widely explored as excipients
to improve the solubility of poorly water soluble drugs and to improve self-life of dosage form. This work is an
attempt to modulate the physicochemical properties of these cellulose derivatives using bioeld treatment. The
treated HEC and HPC polymer were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), differential scanning calorimetry
(DSC) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The XRD studies revealed a semi-crystalline nature of both the
polymers. Crystallite size was computed using Scherrer’s formula, and treated HEC polymer showed a signicant
increase in percentage crystallite size (835%) as compared to the control polymer. This higher increase in crystallite
size might be associated with greater crystallite indices causing a reduction in amorphous regions in the polymer.
However treated HPC polymer showed decrease in crystallite size by -64.05% as compared to control HPC. DSC
analysis on HEC polymer revealed the presence of glass transition temperature in control and treated HEC polymer.
We observed an increase in glass transition temperature in treated HEC, which might be associated with restricted
segmental motion induced by bioeld. Nonetheless, HPC has not showed any glass transition. And no change in
melting temperature peak was observed in treated HPC (T2) however melting temperature was decreased in T1 as
compared to control HPC. TGA analysis established the higher thermal stability of treated HEC and HPC. CHNSO
results showed signicant increase in percentage oxygen and hydrogen in HEC and HPC polymers as compared to
control samples. This conrmed that bioeld had induced changes in chemical nature and elemental composition of
the treated polymers (HEC and HPC).
Keywords: Hydroxyethyl cellulose; Hydroxypropyl cellulose; XRD;
DSC; TGA; Bioeld treatment;
Abbreviation: HEC: Hydroxyethyl Cellulose; HPC: Hydroxypropyl
Cellulose; XRD: X-ray Diraction Study; DSC: Dierential Scanning
Calorimetry; TGA: ermogravimetric Analysis; DTA: Dierential
ermal Analysis; DDS: Drug Delivery System
Introduction
e oral route is by far the most preferred and convenient route for
delivery of many pharmaceutically active drugs. us, the oral mucosa
has many properties that make it a fascinating choice for drug delivery [1].
Oral drug delivery is an excellent non-invasive approach that provides
alternative to invasive routes such as intravenous, intramuscular,
subcutaneous administration of drugs. Nevertheless, it also provides
several challenges for pharmaceutical scientist investigating novel
delivery techniques to overcome. ere are dierent formulations
strategies including sprays, tablets, mouthwashes, gels, pastes and
patches are currently used for delivery into and across the oral mucosa.
DDS developed for local delivery to mucosal diseases require dierent
pharmacokinetic behavior compared to topical delivery for systemic
applications [1]. Presently, there are a small number of drugs which
are routinely delivered via the sublingual or buccal route e.g. systemic
delivery of glyceryl trinitrate for angina relief and topical corticosteroid
administration for inammatory diseases of the oral mucosa including
lichen planus [2]. Nevertheless, the formulations administered orally
face a daunting challenge by acidic pH and enzymes being produced
in the stomach. e formulation dosage form suers premature release
due to degradation of polymer in gastrointestinal pH [3] and it reduces
targeted action of the encapsulated drug. Hence, more time/pH
controlled DDS should be designed to overcome these obstacles.
Cellulose and cellulose based derivatives are accepted as natural
materials with good tolerance by the human body and are commonly
used in medical and pharmaceutical applications such as targeted
DDS [4,5]. e other important properties of cellulose polymers are
biocompatibility with tissue and blood, non-toxicity and low cost [5].
HEC is an excellent derivative of cellulose with superior water
retention and biocompatibility. It contains several –OH groups on its
structure that allows it to be chemically modied by various means
[6,7]. Recently, HEC-based swelling/oating gastroretentive DDS has
been tried for its clinical relevance in healthy volunteers [8]. e HPC
is another well-known polymer wherein few –OH group in repeating
sugar units are hydroxypropylated using propylene oxide [9]. e high
glass transition temperature of HPC confers great stability and restricts
drug diusion, recrystallization during storage. Moreover, the free –OH
group of HEC readily form the hydrogen bond with a carbonyl group
of pharmaceuticals, which provides stability in the solid state [10-12].
Nevertheless HEC and HPC matrices due to high hydrophilicity
on few instances leads to a premature release of drugs and that need
to be modulated in order to enhance its pharmaceutical applicability.
Bioeld is being generated by a human body that causes a paramount
eect on surroundings. Mr. Mahendra Trivedi is well known to change
Citation: Trivedi MK, Nayak G, Patil S, Tallapragada RM, Mishra R (2015) Inuence of Bioeld Treatment on Physicochemical Properties of
Hydroxyethyl Cellulose and Hydroxypropyl Cellulose. J Mol Pharm Org Process Res 3: 126. doi:10.4172/2329-9053.1000126
Page 2 of 7
Volume 3 • Issue 2 • 1000126
J Mol Pharm Org Process Res
ISSN: 2329-9053 JMPOPR, an open access journal
the characteristics of various living and non-living things in controlled
research experiments through his bioeld, referred herein as Bioeld
treatment. e said Bioeld has signicantly changed the atomic,
crystalline, and thermal characteristics of various materials such as
metals, ceramics and carbon allotropes [13-20]. Recently it was reported
that the use of bioeld has signicantly improved the yield and quality
of various agricultural products [21-23]. Furthermore bioeld has
signicantly optimized antibiotic sensitivity and produced biochemical
reactions which further changed the characteristics of pathogenic
microbes [24-26]. Additionally the eects of bioeld on growth and
anatomical characteristics of the herb Pogostemon cablin used in
perfumes, in incense/insect repellents, were recently investigated [27].
In the present work, HEC and HPC polymers were treated with
Bioeld. e treated polymers were characterized by XRD, DSC, TGA
and CHNSO analysis.
Materials and Methods
e Hydroxyethyl cellulose (HEC) and hydroxypropyl
cellulose (HPC) were procured from Sigma Aldrich, USA. e HEC
and HPC powders were treated with Mr. Trivedi’s bioeld at dierent
times, and samples were subjected to polymer characterization.
Polymer samples (HEC and HPC) from one batch was divided
into three dierent parts. One was considered as a control while the
remaining two were exposed to dierent amount of Mr. Trivedi’s
bioeld at dierent time intervals and named as T1 and T2 (treated
samples). In order to avoid errors, only standardized parameters were
used for comparison.
Characterization
CHNSO analysis: e control and treated polymers (HEC and
HPC) were analyzed using CHNSO Analyzer Model Flash EA 1112
series, ermo Finnigan, Italy.
X-ray diraction (XRD) study: X-ray diraction analysis of the
polymer samples (HEC and HPC) were carried out using a power
Phillips Holland PW 1710 X-ray diractometer system. A copper
anode with nickel lter was used. e wavelength of the radiation was
1.54056 Ǻ. e data were obtained in the form of 2θ versus intensity
(a.u) chart. e crystallite size was calculated from XRD data using
following formula.
Crystallite size=kλ/b Cos θ (1)
Where λ is the wavelength and k is the equipment constant with a
value of 0.94.
Dierential scanning calorimetry (DSC): DSC (HEC and HPC)
were recorded with Pyris-6 DSC Perkin Elmer, at a heating rate of 10°C/
min with a nitrogen ow of 5 mL/min.
ermogravimetric analysis (TGA): e thermal stability of the
(HEC and HPC) was measured on a Mettler Toledo simultaneous TGA
thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA) and dierential thermal analysis
(DTA). e samples were heated from room temperature to 400°C with
a heating rate of 5°C/min under oxygen atmosphere.
Results and Discussion
CHNSO analysis
CHNSO analysis was carried out to investigate the elemental
composition in the treated HEC and HPC polymers. e CHNSO
results are presented in Table 1. e control HEC polymer showed
43.62% carbon, 7.33% hydrogen, and 28.93% oxygen. e treated HEC
showed 15.20% and 9.20% increased content of oxygen and hydrogen,
respectively as compared to control. Similarly, the treated HPC polymer
showed marked increase in percentage oxygen (7.09%) and hydrogen
and (22.40%) as compared to control. Additionally the HEC showed a
decrease in percentage nitrogen by -11.03 % but HPC did not show any
change because it does not have nitrogen on its structure. Similarly the
treated HEC polymer showed -0.19% decrease in percentage carbon as
compared to control and HPC showed 0.05% increase in percentage
carbon as compared with control polymer. is conrms that bioeld
treatment changed the elemental composition of HEC and HPC.
X-ray diraction
XRD diractogram of control and bioeld treated polymer HEC is
illustrated in Figures 1a and 1b, respectively. e X-ray diractogram
of control HEC showed typical semi-crystalline nature of the polymer
(Figure 1a). e XRD showed a peak at 2θ=24.01°. Another broad and
diused peak was observed at 2θ=44.4°. e treated HEC polymer
(Figure 1b) showed similar semi-crystalline nature with a prominent
peak at 2θ=24.56°. e XRD of HEC showed another peaks at 2θ=10.62°
and 41.71°. e crystallite size was calculated from XRD diractogram
of HEC polymer using Scherrer’s formula (kλ/b Cos θ). e crystallite
size of the control HEC polymer was 9.51 nm; however aer treatment
it was increased to 88.99 nm. It was observed that treated HEC showed
835% increase in crystallite size. is signicant improvement in
crystallite size might be due to the reason that bioeld is directly acting
on HEC molecules leading to expansion of crystals. Kim et al observed
similar results during their studies on thermal decomposition of native
cellulose; they suggested that crystallite size increases due to increase in
crystalline indices [28]. e corresponding increase in crystallite size
was due to disappearance of amorphous regions in cellulose (HEC)
reecting improvement in crystallinity. e XRD diractogram of
HPC (control and treated) polymer is showed in Figures 1c and 1d,
respectively, which conrmed coexistence of both amorphous and
crystalline regions in the HPC polymer. e XRD diractogram showed
(Figure 1c) a broad peak at 2θ=18.70° and few crystalline peaks were
observed at 2θ=29.16°, 35.77°, 39.19°, 42.99°, 47.35°. Nevertheless, the
bioeld treated HPC polymer showed (Figure 1d) a peak at 2θ=23.57°,
which showed amorphous nature of the treated polymer.
Dierential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC)
Dierential scanning calorimetry was used as an excellent technique
to measure the glass transition and melting nature of the polymer. DSC
Parameter Hydroxyethyl
cellulose
Hydroxypropyl
cellulose
Nitrogen control 0.39 0.00
Nitrogen treated 0.35 0.00
% Change in nitrogen -11.03 -
Carbon control 43.62 52.67
Carbon treated 43.53 52.70
% Change in carbon -0.19 0.05
Hydrogen control 7.33 9.02
Hydrogen treated 8.00 9.66
% Change in hydrogen 9.20 7.09
Oxygen control 28.93 23.92
Oxygen treated 33.33 29.28
% Change in oxygen 15.20 22.40
Table 1. CHNSO analysis of hydroxyethyl cellulose and hydroxypropyl cellulose.
Citation: Trivedi MK, Nayak G, Patil S, Tallapragada RM, Mishra R (2015) Inuence of Bioeld Treatment on Physicochemical Properties of
Hydroxyethyl Cellulose and Hydroxypropyl Cellulose. J Mol Pharm Org Process Res 3: 126. doi:10.4172/2329-9053.1000126
Page 3 of 7
Volume 3 • Issue 2 • 1000126
J Mol Pharm Org Process Res
ISSN: 2329-9053 JMPOPR, an open access journal
thermogram of HEC control and treated polymer is presented in Figure
2. e control HEC polymer showed an endothermic inexion at 189°C
due to a segmental motion of the polymer molecules reecting the glass
transition temperature of HEC (Figure 2a). In general the amorphous
region present in a polymer shows the glass transition temperature. e
DSC of HEC displayed a broad endothermic peak at 278°C conrming
the melting temperature of the polymer. Aer bioeld treatment, the
DSC thermogram of HEC (T1 and T2) showed an elevation in both
glass transition and melting temperature. e glass transition was
increased to 192°C (T1) (Figure 2b) and 210°C (T2) (Figure 2c) in both
the treated HEC samples as compared to control samples.
Based on this result, we hypothesize that the bioeld is directly
acting upon the molecules and restricting the segmental motion in the
amorphous region thereby elevation in glass transition was observed.
Paradkar et al. showed that high glass transition of polymer, promotes
stability and restricts drug diusion and recrystallization during
storage; further the melt viscosity of the polymer make it suitable for
hot melt extrusion processing [9]. is conrms that treated HEC (T1
and T2) polymer might be suitable for the DDS. e HEC polymer (T1
and T2) showed an increase in melting temperature (279°C and 280°C)
reecting improved thermal stability of HEC aer bioeld treatment.
Contrarily no glass transition property was observed in DSC
thermograms of control and treated HPC polymer. e DSC
thermogram of control HPC showed (Figure 2d) an endothermic peak
at 343°C that was responsible for its melting temperature. Aer bioeld
treatment, the thermograms of HPC (T1 and T2) showed (Figure 2e)
decrease in melting temperature of T1 sample (225°C); however T2
showed (Figure 2f) similar melting peak (343°C) as showed by the
Figure 1a. X-ray diffractogram of HEC (Control).
Figure 1b. X-ray diffractogram of HEC (Treated).
Figure 1c. X-ray diffractogram of HPC (Control).
Figure 1d. X-ray diffractogram of HPC (Treated).
Citation: Trivedi MK, Nayak G, Patil S, Tallapragada RM, Mishra R (2015) Inuence of Bioeld Treatment on Physicochemical Properties of
Hydroxyethyl Cellulose and Hydroxypropyl Cellulose. J Mol Pharm Org Process Res 3: 126. doi:10.4172/2329-9053.1000126
Page 4 of 7
Volume 3 • Issue 2 • 1000126
J Mol Pharm Org Process Res
ISSN: 2329-9053 JMPOPR, an open access journal
Figure 2a. DSC thermogram of HEC (Control).
Figure 2b. DSC thermogram of HEC (T1).
control HPC. e high melting temperature of HPC (T2) indicated that
a high amount of thermal energy was needed in order to disturb the
long-range order of the crystals.
ermogravimetric analysis (TGA)
e thermogravimetric analysis is a technique to investigate
the thermal stability of the polymers. TGA thermograms of HEC
control polymer and treated sample are shown in Figures 3a-d. TGA
thermogram of control HEC polymer exhibited one step thermal
degradation pattern (Figure 3a). Control HEC started to decompose
at 240°C (initial decomposition temperature), and it stopped at 330°C.
Figure 2c. DSC thermogram of HEC (T2).
Figure 2d. DSC thermogram of HPC (Control).
e HEC control polymer lost 43.61% of its original weight during
this process. e treated HEC polymer (T1 and T2) displayed identical
single step thermal degradation process. e polymer (T1) started to
lose its weight at 252°C and ended at 305oC. e initial decomposition
temperature (IDT) was increased in the treated HEC (T1) polymer
(252°C) (Figure 3b) which showed its higher thermal stability. However
the initial decomposition temperature was decreased in HEC (T2)
sample (232°C) (Figure 3c).
Citation: Trivedi MK, Nayak G, Patil S, Tallapragada RM, Mishra R (2015) Inuence of Bioeld Treatment on Physicochemical Properties of
Hydroxyethyl Cellulose and Hydroxypropyl Cellulose. J Mol Pharm Org Process Res 3: 126. doi:10.4172/2329-9053.1000126
Page 5 of 7
Volume 3 • Issue 2 • 1000126
J Mol Pharm Org Process Res
ISSN: 2329-9053 JMPOPR, an open access journal
Figure 2e. DSC thermogram of HPC (T1).
Figure 2f. DSC thermogram of HPC (T2).
e TGA thermograms of HPC polymer (control) and treated
HPC are illustrated in Figures 3d-f. e control HPC polymer
showed (Figure 3d) much higher initial decomposition temperature
at 320°C and degradation terminated at 384°C. e polymer lost
56.97% of its original weight during this thermal process. e bioeld
treated HPC (T1) (Figure 3e) showed an improvement in initial
decomposition temperature (322°C) which correlates well with its
superior thermal stability. ough we observed a minimal decrease in
initial decomposition temperature of T2 sample (315°C) as compared
to control (Figure 3f). is result was well supported by our DSC
observation of the HEC and HPC.
e CHNSO results conrmed signicant increase in percentage
oxygen and hydrogen of treated HEC and HPC polymers as compared
to control samples. We presume that substantial increase in hydrogen
and oxygen elements in the polymers (HEC and HPC) might have
Figure 3a. TGA thermogram of HEC (Control).
Figure 3b. TGA thermogram of HEC (T1).
improved the hydrogen bonding. e strong hydrogen bonding may
increase the crystallinity and thermal stability of the polymers which
we have observed in treated HEC. Moreover the treated HEC had
shown increased glass transition temperature as compared to control
that might improve the drug stability in gastro retentive drug delivery
and eectively reduce the premature drug diusion from the matrix.
Hence these results conrmed that treated polymers (HEC and HPC)
could be an interesting candidate for oral targeted DDS. Furthermore,
Citation: Trivedi MK, Nayak G, Patil S, Tallapragada RM, Mishra R (2015) Inuence of Bioeld Treatment on Physicochemical Properties of
Hydroxyethyl Cellulose and Hydroxypropyl Cellulose. J Mol Pharm Org Process Res 3: 126. doi:10.4172/2329-9053.1000126
Page 6 of 7
Volume 3 • Issue 2 • 1000126
J Mol Pharm Org Process Res
ISSN: 2329-9053 JMPOPR, an open access journal
Figure 3c. TGA thermogram of HEC (T2).
Figure 3d. TGA thermogram of HPC (Control).
a few experiments are required to investigate the potential of bioeld
treated polymers (HEC and HPC) in DDS.
Conclusion
Mr. Trivedis bioeld treatment had substantially improved the
physicochemical properties of HEC and HPC polymers. XRD showed
Figure 3e. TGA thermogram of HPC (T1).
Figure 3f. TGA thermogram of HPC (T2).
that treatment with bioeld had signicantly enhanced the crystallite
size by 835% in treated HEC as compared to control and possibly this
increased the crystallinity. It was presumed that enhanced crystalline
indices in treated HEC caused increase in crystalline size. DSC showed
the increase in melting temperature of treated HEC and HPC as
compared to control polymers. It was postulated that bioeld treatment
Citation: Trivedi MK, Nayak G, Patil S, Tallapragada RM, Mishra R (2015) Inuence of Bioeld Treatment on Physicochemical Properties of
Hydroxyethyl Cellulose and Hydroxypropyl Cellulose. J Mol Pharm Org Process Res 3: 126. doi:10.4172/2329-9053.1000126
Page 7 of 7
Volume 3 • Issue 2 • 1000126
J Mol Pharm Org Process Res
ISSN: 2329-9053 JMPOPR, an open access journal
probably assisted the formation of long range order in crystal of
polymers (HEC and HPC) which increased the melting temperature
and thermal stability. CHNSO results showed substantial increase in
percentage hydrogen and oxygen which conrmed that bioeld had
possibly induced structural changes in the treated polymers (HEC
and HPC). ermal analysis by TGA showed signicant improvement
in thermal stability of treated HEC (T1) and HPC (T1) as compared
to control. ‘We hypothesize that bioeld treatment probably caused
changes at structural and atomic level due to weak interactions in the
polymers. Based on the results the treated polymers could be used as a
matrix for oral targeted DDS.
Acknowledgements
The authors would like to thank all the laboratory staff for their assistance
during the various instrument characterization. We thank Dr. Cheng Dong of NLSC,
Institute of Physics, and Chinese Academy of Sciences for permitting us to use
Powder X software for analyzing XRD results.
References
1. Hearnden V, Sankar V, Hull K, Juras DV, Greenberg M, et al. (2012) New
developments and opportunities in oral mucosal drug delivery for local and
systemic disease. Adv Drug Deliv Rev 64: 16-28.
2. Nicolazzo JA, Reed BL, Finnin BC (2005) Enhancing the buccal mucosal
uptake and retention of triamcinolone acetonide. J Control Release 105: 240-
248.
3. Al-Hilal TA, Alam F, Byun Y (2013) Oral drug delivery systems using chemical
conjugates or physical complexes. Adv Drug Deliv Rev 65: 845-864.
4. Agarwal T, Narayana SN, Pal K, Pramanik K, Giri S, et al. (2015) Calcium
alginate-carboxymethyl cellulose beads for colon-targeted drug delivery. Int J
Biol Macromol 75: 409-417.
5. Liesiene J, Matulioniene J (2004) Application of water-soluble
diethylaminoethylcellulose in oral drug delivery systems. Reactive Functional
Polymers 59(2): 185-191.
6. Wang W, Wang J, Kang Y, Wang A (2011) Synthesis, swelling and responsive
properties of a new composite hydrogel based on hydroxyethyl cellulose and
medicinal stone. Composites: Part B : Engineering 42(4): 809-818.
7. Lin SB, Wu JH, Yao KD, Cai KY, Xiao CM, Jiang CJ (2004) Study of
microstructure and properties of HEC-g-AA/SiO2 organic–inorganic hybrid
materials. Composite Interface 11(3): 271-276.
8. Chen RN, Ho HO, Yu CY, Sheu MT (2010) Development of swelling/oating
gastroretentive drug delivery system based on a combination of hydroxyethyl
cellulose and sodium carboxymethyl cellulose for Losartan and its clinical
relevance in healthy volunteers with CYP2C9 polymorphism. Euro J Pharma
Sciences 39(1-3): 82-89.
9. Paradkar A, Kelly A, Coates P, York P (2009) Shear and extensional rheology of
hydroxypropyl cellulose melt using capillary rheometry. J Pharm Biomed Anal
49: 304-310.
10. Sarode AL, Sandhu H, Shah N, Malick W, Zia H (2013) Hot melt extrusion
for amorphous solid dispersions: temperature and moisture activated drug-
polymer interactions for enhanced stability. Mol Pharm 10: 3665-3675.
11. Sarode AL, Malekar SA, Cote C, Worthen DR (2014) Hydroxypropyl cellulose
stabilizes amorphous solid dispersions of the poorly water soluble drug
felodipine. Carbohydrate Polymers 112: 512-519.
12. Warren DB, Benameur H, Porter CJ, Pouton CW (2010) Using polymeric
precipitation inhibitors to improve the absorption of poorly water-soluble drugs:
A mechanistic basis for utility. J Drug Target 18: 704-731.
13. Trivedi MK, Tallapragada RR (2008) A transcendental to changing metal
powder characteristics. Metal Powder Report 63(9): 22-28, 31.
14. Dabhade VV, Tallapragada RR, Trivedi MK (2009) Effect of external energy
on atomic, crystalline and powder characteristics of antimony and bismuth
powders. Bull Mater Sci 32: 471-479.
15. Trivedi MK, Tallapragada RR (2009) Effect of superconsciousness external
energy on atomic, crystalline and powder characteristics of carbon allotrope
powders. Mater. Res. Innovations 13(4): 473-480.
16. Trivedi MK, Patil S, Tallapragada RM (2012) Thought Intervention through
Bioeld Changing Metal Powder Characteristics Experiments on Powder
Characterisation at a PM Plant, Springer Berlin Heidelberg, Editor : Wei Deng,
Lecture Notes in Electrical Engineering-Future Control and Automation 173:
247-252.
17. Trivedi MK, Patil S, Tallapragada RM (2013) Effect of Bioeld Treatment on
the Physical and Thermal Characteristics of Vanadium Pentoxide Powders. J
Material Sci Eng S11: 001.
18. Trivedi MK, Patil S, and Tallapragada RM (2013) Effect of bio eld treatment
on the physical and thermal characteristics of Silicon, Tin and Lead powders. J
Material Sci Eng 2: 125.
19. Trivedi MK, Patil S, Tallapragada RM (2014) Atomic, Crystalline and Powder
Characteristics of Treated Zirconia and Silica Powders. J Material Sci Eng 3:
144.
20. Trivedi MK, Patil S, Tallapragada RMR (2015) Effect of Bioeld Treatment
on the Physical and Thermal Characteristics of Aluminium Powders. Ind Eng
Manage 4: 151.
21. Shinde V, Sances F, Patil S, Spence A (2012) Impact of Bioeld Treatment
on Growth and Yield of Lettuce and Tomato. Australian Journal of Basic and
Applied Sciences 6(10): 100-105.
22. Sances F, Flora E, Patil S, Spence A, Shinde V (2013) Impact Of Bioeld
Treatment On Ginseng And Organic Blueberry Yield. Journal of Agricultural
Science 35(1): 1991-8178.
23. Lenssen AW (2013) Bioeld and Fungicide Seed Treatment Inuences on
Soybean Productivity, Seed Quality and Weed Community. Agricultural Journal
8(3): 138-143.
24. Trivedi M, Patil S (2008) Impact of an external energy on Staphylococcus
epidermis [ATCC –13518] in relation to antibiotic susceptibility and biochemical
reactions – An experimental study. Journal of Accord Integrative Medicine 4(4):
230-235.
25. Trivedi M, Patil S (2008) Impact of an external energy on Yersinia enterocolitica
[ATCC –23715] in relation to antibiotic susceptibility and biochemical reactions:
An experimental study. The Internet Journal of Alternative Medicine 6: 2.
26. Trivedi M, Bhardwaj Y, Patil S, Shettigar H, Bulbule A (2009) Impact of an
external energy on Enterococcus faecalis [ATCC – 51299] in relation to
antibiotic susceptibility and biochemical reactions – An experimental study.
Journal of Accord Integrative Medicine 5(2): 119-130.
27. Patil SA, Nayak GB, Barve SS, Tembe RP, Khan RR (2012) Impact of Bioeld
Treatment on Growth and Anatomical Characteristics of Pogostemon cablin
(Benth). Biotechnology 11: 154-162.
28. Kim UJ, Eom SH, Wada M (2010) Thermal decomposition of native cellulose:
Inuence on crystallite size. Polymer Degradation Stability 95(5): 778-781.
Citation: Trivedi MK, Nayak G, Patil S, Tallapragada RM, Mishra R (2015)
Inuence of Bioeld Treatment on Physicochemical Properties of Hydroxyethyl
Cellulose and Hydroxypropyl Cellulose. J Mol Pharm Org Process Res 3: 126.
doi:10.4172/2329-9053.1000126
... An initial mass reduction of about 1.75% corresponded to water loss before 100°C, which was attributed to the high moisture content of HPC, likewise Avicel [115], [163], [180], [181]. As the temperature increased, the material slowly reduced mass up to 250°C, above which the main decomposition was observed to initiate [180], [182]. TGA curves of HPC were more stable compared to Avicel, showing that the material presented improved thermal stability, thus it would be safer to be processed in the P100 [180], [182]. ...
... As the temperature increased, the material slowly reduced mass up to 250°C, above which the main decomposition was observed to initiate [180], [182]. TGA curves of HPC were more stable compared to Avicel, showing that the material presented improved thermal stability, thus it would be safer to be processed in the P100 [180], [182]. Figure 4.9, DSC curves for Foremost 316 revealed two sharp endotherm peaks. ...
Article
Additive Manufacturing (AM) of medication has offered great potential to the pharmaceutical industry in recent years, specifically for its revolutionary potential for personalised medicine. The replacement of conventional drug manufacture and distribution could provide patients with customised drug dosages fabricated at the point of care to reduce cost and enhance therapy adherence. Laser Sintering is a powder-based AM technique with potential for use in pharmaceutical applications. It is a solvent-free process that does not require support structures compared to other AM processes, providing increased stability and productivity in comparison to other AM techniques such as extrusion. Laser Sintering relies on consolidation mechanisms achieving high mechanical properties, and further it offers unlimited design freedom and industrial scale opportunities. However, there are limitations that prevent rapid deployment of Laser Sintering in pharmaceutics mainly due to the narrow variety of applicable polymer based excipient materials, which results from the complex thermal processing conditions. Most materials do not make it through the development stages in Laser Sintering, which makes it necessary to understand the most important factors that influence processing and part properties to enable design and development of drug dosage forms by this technology. This PhD studied the potential of using Laser Sintering for the fabrication of oral solid dosage forms (tablets) using placebo formulations. To achieve this, characterisation and processing of several pharmaceutical grade polymers was performed to identify candidate materials. Primarily, Laser Sintering showed potential for processing pharmaceuticals, however all the investigated materials presented important incompatibilities that impacted their processability. Materials with high moisture content experienced dehydration, which led to degradation upon the application of the laser beam. Furthermore, increased moisture levels induced cohesiveness and prevented the deposition of uniform layers of powder. Processing materials consisting of large and irregular particles introduced porosity and shrinkage, while processing of fine particle grades generated high electrostatic forces causing agglomeration and limiting powder flow. However, among the tested materials, Eudragit L100-55, a methacrylic acid ethyl acrylate copolymer known for its use as a coating agent in drug dosage forms, although an amorphous polymer it exhibited acceptable sinter-ability due to its ideal particle morphology and distribution that resulted in high packing efficiency and part density. Eudragit L100-55 and Avicel 101, a microcrystalline cellulose grade pharmaceutical popularly used as a diluent, were used for the development of preliminary formulations for the preliminary assessment on Laser Sintering of oral solid dosage forms. Avicel 101 demonstrated poor sinter-ability due to its unfavourable thermal characteristics, which resisted particle fusion and experienced degradation. Processing of the two materials together was proved viable by direct sintering of Eudragit L100-55 as a matrix to bind together the solid particles of Avicel 101. However, the presence of unmolten Avicel 101 particles increased the number of voids and promoted structural porosity. The increased porosity enhanced fragility of the parts, which impacted the mechanical properties resulting in poor strength, friability and stiffness. The poor mechanical performance significantly reduced the tablet integrity, which was translated in poor pharmaceutical functionality, demonstrating rapid disintegration. To enhance the processability of the powders and enable the production of oral solid dosage forms with increased functionality, an alternative approach was taken to produce an optimal pharmaceutical material for Laser Sintering. Exploiting the pH-dependent solubility of Eudragit L100-55, polymer precipitation and evaporation methods were used in a simple cost-effective system to create a film coating on Avicel 101 particles. The methods proved suitable to produce a film on the surface of Avicel 101 particles and they were simple and easy to reproduce. The development of a coated cellulose-base material aimed at the production of parts with increased density and mechanical strength, compared to the powder blends. This coating approach could have wide implications for Laser Sintering providing a new route for materials development for Laser Sintering that can open the way for innovative opportunities in pharmaceutics and broader, enabling the selection of a greater list of materials for further adoption of Laser Sintering in a wider range of applications.
... Fig. 4 demonstrates the DSC curves of HEC/Gly composite before and after inclusion of RuO 2 . The DSC curves show different stages, starting from below 100 • C, due to the dehydration process [46]. Then, a broad endothermic peak at 217 • C belongs to glass transition [37]. ...
Article
Fabrication of scaffolds for nerve regeneration is one of the most challenging topics in regenerative medicine at the moment, which is also interlinked with the development of biocompatible substrates for cells growth. This work is targeted towards the development of green biomaterial composite scaffolds for nerve cell culture applications. Hybrid scaffolds of hydroxyethyl cellulose/glycine (HEC/Gly) composite doped with different concentrations of green ruthenium oxide (RuO2) were synthesized and characterized via a combination of different techniques. X-rays diffraction (XRD) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) analyses showed a crystalline nature for all the samples with noticeable decrease in the peak intensity of the fabricated scaffolds as compared to that for pure glycine. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) tests revealed an increase in the vibrational bands of the synthesized RuO2 containing scaffolds which are related to the functional groups of the natural plant extract (Aspalathuslinearis) used for RuO2 nanoparticles (NPs) synthesis. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) results revealed a 3D porous structure of the scaffolds with variant features attributed to the concentration of RuO2 NPs in the scaffold. The compressive test results recorded an enhancement in mechanical properties of the fabricated scaffolds (up to 8.55 MPa), proportionally correlated to increasing the RuO2 NPs concentration in HEC/Gly composite scaffold. Our biocompatibility tests revealed that the composite scaffolds doped with 1 and 2 ml of RuO2 demonstrated the highest proliferation percentages (152.2 and 135.6%) compared to control. Finally, the SEM analyses confirmed the impressive cells attachments and differentiation onto the scaffold surfaces as evidenced by the presence of many neuron-like cells with apparent cell bodies and possessing few short neurite-like processes. The presence of RuO2 and glycine was due to their extraordinary biocompatibility due to their cytoprotective and regenerative effects. Therefore, we conclude that these scaffolds are promising for accommodation and growth of neural-like cells.
... Furthermore, a hydrogen bond with a carbonyl group in pharmaceuticals is readily formed with the HEC free -OH group, which offers stabilization in solid-state. However, because of the high hydrophilicity, HEC matrices result in an early release of drugs and thus need to be altered to improve their applications in pharmaceuticals (Mahendra et al. 2015). Several methods for the quantification of MTG in biological fluids Lushan and Su 2006;Cai et al. 2008) and determining the pharmacokinetic properties of MTG Zhang et al. 2008) have previously been reported using HPLC equipped with mass spectrometry (MS) (Zhang et al. 2008; or ultraviolet (UV) (Lushan and Su 2006) detections and UPLC coupled with MS detection (Cai et al. 2008). ...
Article
Full-text available
A capillary electrophoretic method for the chiral separation and quantification of mitiglinide (MTG) enantiomers is described (less than 9.5 min) with resolution value Rs = 5.25 and with excellent peak shapes after performing the dynamically coating for the bare fused capillary. The study aims to develop and validate a novel and simple method for the separation and quantification of MTG enantiomers using CE after dynamic coating the capillary wall using the hydroxyethyl cellulose (HEC) coating agent. Dynamic coating procedure of the capillary inner surface is conducted via rapid flushes using 0.1 M sodium hydroxide, water, and aqueous solution containing HEC, and hydroxypropyl-γ-cyclodextrin (HP-γ-CD). Besides buffer was used for the dynamic coating process in addition to its use as the separation medium. When the dynamic coating was used, peak symmetry was improved. A bare fused-silica capillary was used throughout the separation after being coated using HEC dissolved in the background electrolyte (BGE) of 50 mM Na₂HPO₄ - 1 M H₃PO₄ solution; pH 8.5; containing 25 25 mg mL-1 of each HP-γ-CD and HEC. The dynamic coating procedure achieved an improvement in migration time as well as peak area precision. The adsorbed coating agent showed slight interactions with MTG, providing efficient separation with outstanding durability and reproducibility at slightly alkaline conditions (pH 8.5). Acceptable validation criteria for selectivity, linearity, precision, and accuracy were also studied. The newly developed method was effectively applied to the assay of enantiomers of MTG in pharmaceutical formulations. Additionally, it was proven to have the advantages of being simple, rapid, and accurate.
... These therapies have been adopted by most of the U.S.A. population with several advantages [21]. The Trivedi Effect ® -Consciousness Energy Healing Treatment also been reported with significant revolution in the physicochemical properties of metals, chemicals, ceramics and polymers [22][23][24][25], transformed antimicrobial characteristics of microbes [26,27], improved skin health [28,29], cancer cell line [30], bone health [31,32], improved agricultural crop yield, productivity, and quality [11,12,33], and altered the isotopic abundance ratio [34,35], improved bioavailability of pharmaceutical and nutraceutical compounds [36,37]. ...
... Such therapies have been well accepted by most of the U.S.A. population with advantages [20]. The Trivedi Effect ® -Consciousness Energy Treatment also reported with significant results altering the intrinsic properties of metals, organic compounds, ceramics, polymers, microbes, and cancer cell line; improved yield, productivity, and quality of crops, improved bioavailability of pharmaceutical and nutraceutical compounds, and altered the isotopic abundance ratio ISSN: 2469-4185 [21][22][23][24][25][26][27][28][29][30][31]. ...
... The X-ray diffraction patterns of HEC and HECD are shown in Fig. 6.The diffraction peak of the original HEC appears at 2θ = 21,47°, which is as assimilated to a cellulose backbone with amorphous characteristic [46,47]. ...
Article
Full-text available
The present investigation deals with the elaboration in homogenous conditions of new cross-linked, hydroxyl cellulose (HEC) based material. Further, its application as a new eco-friendly low-cost efficient adsorbent of hazardous metal ions from an aquatic environment is treated. In this respect, the functionalization of HEC has been carried out using EDTA as a cross-linking agent exploiting its high capacity to chelate heavy metal ions in aqueous solutions. The proposed structure of the new crosslinked material (HECD) was investigated using structural analyses (FTIR-ATR vibrational spectroscopy and CP/MAS 13C NMR Spectroscopy). Also, the thermal and crystalline behaviours of unmodified and modified HEC were studied using thermogravimetric (TG and DTG) and DRX patterns. In addition, SEM images were recorded to demonstrate the changes expected at the morphological and textural level. Furthermore, the adsorption capacity of Pb (II), Cu (II), Cd (II) and Zn (II) ions from aqueous solutions by HECD was investigated using batch technique and optimized according to metal concentration, pH, contact time, ionic selectivity and regenerability. Thus, to examine the mechanism of adsorption, the experimental data is fitted to kinetic, isothermal, and thermodynamic modelling.
... Most of the USA population has accepted these therapies [22]. Similarly, The Trivedi Effect ® -Consciousness Energy Healing Treatment also well recognized and reported with powerful scientific data showing astonishing capability to alter the characteristic properties of the several non-living materials and living object(s), i.e., organic compounds, metals, polymers, and ceramic [23][24][25][26], crops [27,28], microbes [29], cancer cells [30], etc. The Trivedi Effect ® Treatment has also enhanced the bioavailability of pharmaceutical compounds [31,32] and the isotopic abundance ratio of organic compounds [13,14]. ...
Chapter
Naturally obtained materials have a long history of use in the pharmaceutical area as a carrier for the administration of drug substances. Similarly, natural polysaccharides and their derivatives have become a keystone and their application is rising as a polymeric drug carrier for the fabrication of controlled release dosage form at an accelerating pace. They are essentially economical and richly available in nature. They are moreover considered safe, biodegradable, biocompatible and non-toxic. This chapter covers the historical evidence of using this naturally available polymer for different pharmaceutical applications. There is an extensive discussion on different naturally occurring poly-saccharides and their chemically modified derivatives as a controlled release polymeric drug carrier. In addition, the design of different controlled release drug formulations using these natural polysac-charides and their derivatives has also been discussed.
Article
Blindness and impaired vision are considered as the most troublesome health conditions leading to significant socioeconomic strains. The current study focuses on development of nanoparticulate systems (i.e., niosomes) as drug vehicles to enhance the ocular availability of betaxolol hydrochloride for management of glaucoma. Betaxolol-loaded niosomes were further laden into pH-responsive in situ forming gels to further extend precorneal retention of the drug. The niosomes were evaluated in terms of vesicle size, morphology, size distribution, surface charge and encapsulation efficiency. The optimized niosomes, comprised of Span® 40 and cholesterol at a molar ratio of 4:1, displayed particle size of 332 ± 7 nm, zeta potential of -46 ± 1 mV, and encapsulation efficiency of 69 ± 5%. The optimal nanodispersion was then incorporated into a pH-triggered in situ forming gel comprised of Carbopol® 934P and hydroxyethyl cellulose. The formed gels were translucent, pseudoplastic, mucoadhesive, and displayed a sustained in vitro drug release pattern. Upon instillation of the betaxolol‐loaded niosomal gel into rabbits’ eyes, a prolonged intraocular pressure reduction and significant enhancement in the relative bioavailability of betaxolol (280 and 254.7%) in normal and glaucomatous rabbits, were attained compared to the marketed eye drops, respectively. Hence, the developed pH-triggered nanoparticulate gelling system might provide a promising carrier for ophthalmic drug delivery and for improved augmentation of glaucoma.
Article
The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of the molecular weight (Mw) of hydroxypropyl cellulose (HPC) and grinding duration on solid dispersions (SDs) formation and their characteristics. In this study, ternary amorphous SD systems containing curcumin (CUR), HPC, and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) were developed using the milling method and characterized their physicochemical and mechanochemical properties. After 120-min grinding, the particle size reduced to under 1 μm and the GMs totally transformed into amorphous phase. The release behavior of CUR depended on the grade of HPCs due to their Mw and corresponding viscosity. During the SD formation process, the grinding time and Mw of HPC could be monitored by analyzing data obtained from MIR and NIR spectra based on chemometrics. There were two steps in SD formation: (1) simple dispersion with grinding time under 30 min and (2) random dispersion of mixtures with grinding time from 30 to 120 min. The HPC-M (700,000 Da) resulted in more effectively forming SD systems.
Article
Full-text available
In earlier papers the effect of Mr. Trivedi's thought intervention through biofield in his physical presence on the atomic, crystalline and particle characteristics of first series of transition metal powders, group four metals and carbon allotropes are discussed. In the present paper we demonstrate this unusual effect on sieve size distribution, apparent density and flow of several metal powders under PM plant conditions.
Article
Full-text available
Pogostemon cablin is a known aromatic plant which is cultivated for its essential oil widely applicated in perfumery and cosmetic industries. In the present study, the effect of biofield treatment was studied on the growth of P. cablin. For this study an in vitro culture system was set up in two groups, viz., control and treatment, each of which was derived from three different explant sources, namely leaf, node and petiole. Further these in vitro plantlets were hardened and transferred to external environment. The stomatal cells and epidermal hair growth were also studied at various morphogenetic stages. The study revealed that a single spell of biofield energy treatment produced significant increase in growth in treated group throughout all the morphogenetic phases from in vitro to in vivo level. A remarkable increase in stomatal cells and epidermal hair was also seen in treated group.
Article
Full-text available
This study tested the Null Hypothesis for the effect of BioField Energy applied to two separate crops under typical growing conditions, namely ginseng and organic blueberry in commercial plantings in Wisconsin and California, respectively. Following treatment to replicated plots in standard experimental design, data were collected at harvest for yield quantity and quality. Ginseng plants treated both pre-harvest and a combination of pre- and post-harvest showed market grade increases of 33.3% and 40.0%, respectively. Point of sale gross return for this crop is dependent upon tuber quality, and from these data the economics of these treatments were calculated. Based on stand adjusted yields and quality values, a combination of pre- and post-harvest treatment increased gross income by 57.4%. The second crop showed similar trends in positive responses. In the two blueberry varieties studied, Emerald treated plants showed 96% statistical increase in yield, while Jewel showed 31% increase. At the time of treatment, each variety was in a different stage of flowering. The Emerald variety was in the flowering stage, and Jewel was predominately in the fruiting stage. Both treated cultivars however demons-trated increased yield quantity and quality. The specific mechanisms that lead to these pre-liminary results need further investigation.
Article
Full-text available
Purpose While spiritual and mental energies are known to man, their impact has never been scientifically measurable in the material world and they remain outside the domain of science. The present experiment on Staphylococcus epidermis [ATCC –13518], validate the effects of such energy transmitted through a person, Mr. Mahendrakumar Trivedi, which has produced an impact measurable in scientifically rigorous manner. Methods Staphylococcus epidermis strains in revived and lyophilized state were subjected to spiritual energy transmitted through thought intervention and/or physical touch of Mr. Trivedi to the sealed tubes containing strain, the process taking about 3 minutes and were analyzed within 10 days after incubation. All tests were performed with the help of automation on the Microscan Walkaway System in Microbiology Laboratory - accredited by The College of American Pathologists. Results The results indicated that Mr.Trivedi’s energy has changed 7 of 27 biochemical characteristics of Staphylococcus epidermis along with significant changes in susceptibility pattern in 8 of 29 antibiotics. The Biotype number has changed from the original control strain giving rise to 2 different biotypes in treated samples while the external energy /treatment given was the same for all treated samples suggestive of random polymorphism as analyzed through the automated machine. Conclusions These results cannot be explained by current theories of science, and indicate a potency in Mr.Trivedi’s energy, providing a model for science to be able to investigate the impact of spiritual energy in a rigorous manner. In lyophilized state, biochemical and enzymatic characteristics could be altered.
Article
Full-text available
Soybean production in Iowa USA is among the most productive for rainfed regions in the world. Despite generally having excellent soils, growing season temperatures and rainfall, soybean yields are decreased by weed interference and inadequate available soil water at key stages of crop development. A field study was conducted at two locations in Iowa in 2012 to determine if seed-applied fungicide or biofield treatments influenced weed community, soil volumetric water concentration and soybean yield and quality. Application of biofield treatment resulted in lower density of tall waterhemp density, greater soybean stand density at R8 stage and greater seed pod–1 compared to the absence of seed fungicide and biofield. Soil volumetric water content varied by seed fungicide x biofield x date interaction but differences were not consistent among treatment combinations. Overall, seed fungicide and biofield treatments had similar effects on soybean productivity, however additional research is necessary to determine if biofield treatment is a suitable replacement for seed fungicide application.
Article
Cellulose based polymers have shown tremendous potential as drug delivery carrier for oral drug delivery system (DDS). Hydroxyethyl cellulose (HEC) and hydroxypropyl cellulose (HPC) are widely explored as excipients to improve the solubility of poorly water soluble drugs and to improve self-life of dosage form. This work is an attempt to modulate the physicochemical properties of these cellulose derivatives using biofield treatment. The treated HEC and HPC polymer were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The XRD studies revealed a semi-crystalline nature of both the polymers. Crystallite size was computed using Scherrer’s formula, and treated HEC polymer showed a significant increase in percentage crystallite size (835%) as compared to the control polymer. This higher increase in crystallite size might be associated with greater crystallite indices causing a reduction in amorphous regions in the polymer. However treated HPC polymer showed decrease in crystallite size by -64.05% as compared to control HPC. DSC analysis on HEC polymer revealed the presence of glass transition temperature in control and treated HEC polymer. We observed an increase in glass transition temperature in treated HEC, which might be associated with restricted segmental motion induced by biofield. Nonetheless, HPC has not showed any glass transition. And no change in melting temperature peak was observed in treated HPC (T2) however melting temperature was decreased in T1 as compared to control HPC. TGA analysis established the higher thermal stability of treated HEC and HPC. CHNSO results showed significant increase in percentage oxygen and hydrogen in HEC and HPC polymers as compared to control samples. This confirmed that biofield had induced changes in chemical nature and elemental composition of the treated polymers (HEC and HPC).
Article
Zirconium oxide and silicon dioxide powders are selected and subjected to a non-contact Biofield energy known to be transmitted by Mahendra Kumar Trivedi. Particle sizes d50 and d99 showed up to 71.5 percent decrease indicating that the energy had caused deformation and fracture as if the powders have been subjected to high energy milling. This is also supported by increase in specific surface area up to 19.48 percent. In the present investigation Zirconium oxide and silicon dioxide powders are exposed to Bio-field. Both the exposed and unexposed powders are later characterized by various techniques. The treated powders when characterized by X-ray diffraction are found to exhibit significant increase and decrease in the lattice parameters of the unit cell, crystallite size and density. The lattice parameters are then used to compute the molecular weight and total number of protons and neutrons in the molecule, which showed an increase up to 0.24 and decrease up to 0.31 percent. It is speculated that the Biofield energy transmitted by Mr. Trivedi is acting on the nucleus in the atoms through some reversible weak interaction of larger cross section causing changes in the proton to neutron ratios and thus energy to mass and mass to energy. Thus the effect is felt by all the atoms, and hence the unit cell, single crystal grain and grain boundaries. The stresses generated in turn may have caused deformation and fracture of the weak interfaces in the polycrystalline powders such as the crystallite and grain boundaries.
Article
Vanadium pentoxide powders are very useful in producing ferrous as well as aluminium alloys, in removing carbon and sulphur and as catalysts in synthesizing ammonia and sulphuric acid. It is also used as corrosion inhibitor petroleum and chemical processing. In the present investigation V2O5 powders are exposed to biofield. Both the exposed and unexposed powders are later characterized by various techniques. The average particle size is found to decrease with increase in number of days after treatment up to a maximum of 15.9% in 110 days indicating severe fracture at agglomerate/ crystallite boundaries. The BET surface area showed a surprising decrease (it should increase as particle size is decreased) of 7.22% in 109 days indicating the surface densification/ removal of sharp surface corners/ formation of large particles. SEM photographs indeed showed that samples exposed to biofield after 20 days showed increase in size as well as rounded corners. Thermal analysis indicated an increase in melting temperature by 9.9% in samples treated after 57 days along with a much reduced change in weight. X-ray diffraction of the powder samples indicated both increase and decrease in crystallite size, unit cell volume and molecular weight of samples exposed to biofield after 28, 104, 124 and 139 days. These results indicate that the catalytic nature of vanadium pentoxide can be controlled by exposing to bio field and using after a specific number of days after exposure.
Article
Recent studies report the effect of biofield treatment on changes in structural characteristics of organic and inorganic matter, on cancer cells in vitro and on overall plant development. This study tested the impact of the same treatment applied to lettuce and tomato seeds and transplants (Lactuca sativa var. capitata and Lycopersiconesculentum var. Roma) in commercial plantings with and without fertilizers and pesticides, in relation to yield, quality, and pest inhibition. Treated lettuce plants with fertilizer and pesticide applications were more vigorous, exhibited less incidence of soil-borne fungal wilt, and subsequent yield was statistically greater 43% compared to untreated plants. Treated plants with no fertilizer or pesticide applications in the field behaved similarly to untreated plants that received routine fertilizer and pest control inputs. Similarly, fertilizer applied and fertilizer non-applied treated tomato plants exhibited a 25% and 31% increase in total observable yields respectively. Treated tomato and lettuce plants also measured higher in total leaf tissue chlorophyll content. The combination of biofield treatment along with administration of chemical additives demonstrated the best results with statistically increased yields and higher pest resistance in both test cropping systems. The specific mechanisms that lead to these preliminary results have yet to be determined.
Article
The present study delineates preparation, characterization and application of calcium alginate (CA)-carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) beads for colon-specific oral drug delivery. Here, we exploited pH responsive swelling, mucoadhesivity and colonic microflora-catered biodegradability of the formulations for colon-specific drug delivery. The CA-CMC beads were prepared by ionic gelation method and its physicochemical characterization was done by SEM, XRD, EDAX, DSC and texture analyzer. The swelling and mucoadhesivity of the beads was found higher at the simulated colonic environment. Variation was more prominent in compositions with lower CMC concentrations. CA-CMC formulations degraded slowly in simulated colonic fluid, however the degradation rate increased drastically in the presence of colonic microflora. In vitro release study of anticancer drug 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) showed a release (>90%) in the presence of colonic enzymes. A critical analysis of drug release profile along with FRAP (fluorescence recovery after photobleaching) study revealed that the presence of CMC in the formulation retarded the release rate of 5-FU. 5-FU-loaded formulations were tested against colon adenocarcinoma cells (HT-29). Cytotoxicity data, nuclear condensation-fragmentation and apoptosis analysis (by flow cytometry) together confirmed the therapeutic potential of the CA-CMC formulations. In conclusion, CA-CMC beads can be used for colon-specific drug delivery.