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Abstract

Rapid visual censuses were conducted of fish on eight coral reefs in the Bazaruto Archipelago, Mozambique, in 2007. SCUBA and snorkelling were used for the censuses in depths between 1-20 m, yielding an inventory of 249 fish species belonging to 50 families. This is intended to serve as a baseline for more detailed studies and monitoring programmes in the future. Although fewer species were recorded relative to other studies conducted in the Western Indian Ocean, the trophic structure on Bazaruto's reefs proved typical for the region, indicating a relative measure of reef health. However, other regional studies were not directly comparable, differing in habitat, duration of sampling effort and methodology. This highlighted the need for a long-term monitoring programme specifically adapted for the Bazaruto reef types to provide a basis for their sound management and conservation.
SHORT COMMUNICATION
Rapid Visual Assessment of Fish Communities on
Selected Reefs in the Bazaruto Archipelago
Jade Q. Maggs1, Camilla Floros1, Marcos A.M. Pereira2
and Michael H. Schleyer1
1Oceanographic Research Institute, P.O. Box 10712, Marine Parade, 4056
South Africa; 2Associação para Investigação Costeira e Marinha (AICM),
P.O. Box 2046, Maputo, Mozambique.
Keywords: Bazaruto Archipelago, Mozambique, ichthyofauna, sh
surveys, underwater visual census, coral reefs.
Abstract— Rapid visual censuses were conducted of sh on eight
coral reefs in the Bazaruto Archipelago, Mozambique, in 2007.
SCUBA and snorkelling were used for the censuses in depths
between 1-20 m, yielding an inventory of 249 sh species belonging
to 50 families. This is intended to serve as a baseline for more
detailed studies and monitoring programmes in the future. Although
fewer species were recorded relative to other studies conducted in
the Western Indian Ocean, the trophic structure on Bazaruto’s reefs
proved typical for the region, indicating a relative measure of reef
health. However, other regional studies were not directly comparable,
differing in habitat, duration of sampling effort and methodology.
This highlighted the need for a long-term monitoring programme
specically adapted for the Bazaruto reef types to provide a basis for
their sound management and conservation.
Corresponding Author: JQM
E-mail: jmaggs@ori.org.za
Western Indian Ocean J. Mar. Sci. Vol. 9, No. 1, pp. 115 - 134, 2010
© 2010 WIOMSA
INTRODUCTION
The Bazaruto Archipelago consists
of ve islands and is located
approximately 20 km off the coast of
Mozambique in the Western Indian
Ocean (WIO). The seas around the
archipelago are rich in marine life
and provide an important source
of protein to the local community
116 J. Q. MAGGS ET AL.
(Everett et al., 2008; Reina, 1998).
The ecological importance of the
archipelago rst received attention
in 1971 with three of the islands,
Benguera, Magaruque and Bangue,
receiving national park status (area of
protection ~600 km2); Bazaruto and
Santa Carolina were only designated
as ‘special surveillance zones’ (Reina,
1998). After many years, the Bazaruto
Archipelago National Park (BANP)
was proclaimed in 2001, protecting all
ve islands. The BANP was extended
in 2003 to include the Cabo de São
Sebastião peninsula in the south and
now covers 1430 km2. Mozambique’s
Ministry of Tourism is responsible for
management of the BANP.
The coral and rocky reefs in the
archipelago provide habitat for a
wealth of biodiversity, making it a
popular tourist destination (Schleyer
& Celliers 2005). Visiting SCUBA
divers and recreational anglers bring
in valuable revenue to the area and,
although shing is allowed in the
BANP, it is regulated by means
of permits and no-take zones. All
recreational shing requires a permit
and is mostly boat-based, emanating
from a number of resorts scattered
through the islands. A number of
seasonal shing competitions are
hosted by the various resorts, bringing
in foreign anglers.
The artisanal shery is the main
economic activity for more than 70%
of the local population (Everett et al.,
2008). Artisanal shermen harvest
sh using dhows, pirogues, approved
beach seines, gamboa traps and
spearguns. Mozambican citizens living
outside the BANP are only allowed
to use handlines inside the park and
are allowed to use beach-seines in a
small area south of Magaruque. Gill-
netting is prohibited and no industrial
or semi-industrial shing operations
are allowed in the BANP. The no-take
zones are Two-mile Reef, Lighthouse
Reef, Santa Carolina and small rocky
outcrops on the inside and outside of
Bazaruto Island (Fig. 1). However,
only Two-mile Reef, Lighthouse
Reef and Santa Carolina enjoy strong
compliance. There are no seasonal
restrictions on shing in the BANP
and recreational SCUBA diving and
snorkelling is allowed in the no-take
zones. A new management plan is
being developed for the Park but, at
the time of writing, had not yet been
implemented.
The livelihoods of the local
communities depend, to a great extent,
on marine and coastal resources
(Everett et al., 2008). An increasing
population characterises many coastal
communities in the WIO, placing
pressure on such resources (Lindén
et al., 2002). Effective management
is thus required, the success of which
depends on monitoring programmes
(Obura et al., 2002). These have been
seen as a priority in the WIO region
since the 1998 mass coral bleaching
event (Lindén et al., 2002). Monitoring
of a resource depends on a thorough
knowledge of the biodiversity of an
area. Species inventories comprise
RAPID VISUAL ASSESSMENT OF FISH COMMUNITIES ON SELECTED BAZARUTO
REEFS 117
a fundamental baseline in this
regard, providing a foundation for an
understanding of ecological processes
and the effects of biodiversity loss
on ecosystem function (Bellwood &
Hughes 2001; Gillibrand et al., 2007).
Baseline sh community data are
sparse for the WIO region but those
published include sh inventories for
the Glorieuses Islands (Durville et
al., 2003), Mayotte (Chabanet, 2002),
Andavadoaka (Gillibrand et al., 2007),
Juan De Nova (Chabanet & Durville
2005), Tuléar (Harmelin-Vivien,
1979) Geyser and Zéléé (Chabanet et
al., 2002), Réunion (Chabanet, 1994),
Sodwana Bay (Chater et al., 1993;
1995) and Bassas da India (van der
Elst & Chater 2001).
Pereira (2000) prepared a general
checklist of reef-associated shes for
Mozambique, Benayahu & Schleyer
(1996) and Schleyer & Celliers (2005)
compiled coral inventories for the
Bazaruto reefs, Motta et al., (2002) and
Rodrigues et al., (2000) quantied sh
communities at two sites off Bazaruto
and van der Elst & Afonso (2008)
compiled a sh inventory based on
work undertaken at Bazaruto in the
late 1980s. However, there appears
to have been no further ichthyofaunal
research in the Bazaruto Archipelago.
This paper, therefore, presents a recent
and more comprehensive inventory
of the sh community as a precursor
to further ecological studies on the
Bazaruto reefs and highlights the need
for long-term monitoring.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
Study Area
The Bazaruto Archipelago is a chain
of four islands, Bazaruto, Benguera,
Magaruque and Bangue, with a fth
island, Santa Carolina, lying on the
inside of the island chain (Fig. 1).
The reefs around the archipelago are
diverse and include rocky patch reefs,
rocky massifs, fringing and barrier
coral reefs and deeply submerged
coral reefs (Schleyer & Maggs 2008).
The sh community assessment was
undertaken on all these reef types in
depths from 1-20 m. A range of reef
habitats within these reef types was
sampled with varying coral cover and
topographic complexity.
Twelve-mile Reef is a submerged
sandstone coral reef roughly twelve
nautical miles (18 km) north of
Bazaruto’s northern point in the
open sea. It is open to shing and
SCUBA diving but is relatively
inaccessible for artisanal sherman
using traditional pirogues and dhows.
However, recreational shers and
SCUBA divers, using large boats with
outboard engines, are able to access
this reef. Relative to the other reefs
sampled in this study, Twelve-mile
Reef lies furthest from the waters
enclosed between the islands and the
mainland. The reef was sampled at
depths between 15-20 m.
Tubarão, Garoupa and Kingsh
Reefs are sedimented rocky patch
reefs which are open to shing and
Fig. 1. Map of the Bazaruto Archipelago, Mozambique. Study sites are indicated by (♦).
118 J. Q. MAGGS ET AL.
RAPID VISUAL ASSESSMENT OF FISH COMMUNITIES ON SELECTED BAZARUTO
REEFS 119
SCUBA diving. Garoupa lies nine km
north of Bazaruto and was sampled at
16-20 m. Tubarão lies 19 km north-
east of Inhassoro and was sampled
at 13-18 m. Kingsh Reef is 13.5 km
east of Inhassoro and was sampled at
6-11 m. High turbidity is common on
these reefs.
Lighthouse Reef is a fringing coral
reef located on the north-eastern tip of
Bazaruto. It is a no-take zone and is
closed to shing (including artisanal
shing) but open to SCUBA diving
and snorkelling. Only the inner lagoon
was sampled and the depth ranged
between 1-3 m.
Two-mile Reef is a barrier coral
reef which lies four kilometres
out to sea between Bazaruto and
Benguera Islands. This reef is also a
no-take zone being closed to shing
(including artisanal shing). Although
shing is prohibited, Two-mile Reef
is subjected to diver pressure and
anchor damage from visiting small
craft, recreational dive operators and
tourists. All reef habitats at Two-mile
Reef were sampled at depths between
1-18 m.
Amphitheatre and Camel’s Hump
are submerged rocky massifs located
two kilometres seaward of Cabo de
São Sebastião. They are open to shing
and SCUBA diving but turbidity
is high on these reefs. Sampling at
Camel’s Hump ranged between 13-
16 m in depth and at Amphitheatre,
between 14-19 m.
Data Collection
Two sh surveys were conducted, one
in February 2007 and one in November
2007. Surveys were undertaken in the
late morning on a low to outgoing
spring tide. Fish communities
were sampled on the reefs using an
underwater visual census technique
adapted from Samoilys (1997) in
which three divers recorded the
presence of sh species on slates.
A combination of diving methods
was used with SCUBA being used
for deeper locations and snorkelling
for shallow inner lagoons. Divers
conducted a 45 minute timed swim
following a random path. Although
the underwater visual census method
is known to underestimate small and
cryptic species, it was employed
because it provides a means of
sampling the sh community with little
disturbance (Fowler, 1987; Harmelin-
Vivien et al., 1985). Identication of
species was conrmed after sampling
using appropriate reference books
(King, 1996; King & Fraser 2001;
Lieske & Myers 1999; Smith &
Heemstra 1986).
Trophic Categorisation
Fish species were assigned to one
of ten trophic categories based on
classications by Harmelin-Vivien
(1979); Hiatt & Strasberg (1960);
Hobson (1974) and Myers (1999)
as cited by Chabanet & Durville
(2005); Durville et al., (2003) and
Gillibrand et al., (2007). These studies
used eight categories: herbivores,
omnivores, browsers of sessile
invertebrates, diurnal carnivores,
nocturnal carnivores, piscivores,
diurnal planktivores and nocturnal
planktivores. In the present study, some
of these categories were consolidated,
viz. general carnivores and general
planktivores, as the diel preference of
some species was unknown (Froese
& Pauly 2009; Heemstra & Heemstra
2004; King, 1996; King & Fraser 2001
and Smith & Heemstra 1986).
RESULTS
Species Richness
A total of 249 species belonging to
50 families were recorded (Table
1), of which six were cartilaginous
shes in four families and the
remaining 243 species were bony sh
in 46 families. The top ve families
according to species count were the
Labridae (37 species), Acanthuridae
(22 species), Chaetodontidae (22
species), Pomacentridae (17 species)
and Serranidae (13 species). These
ve families contributed 45% to the
species diversity (Table 2). Overall,
19 families were represented by only
one species.
Fish families and species were not
evenly distributed among all the reefs
(Table 2). The top three reefs according
to species richness were Two-mile
Reef with 197 species, Lighthouse
Reef with 103 species, and Garoupa
with 101 species. Two-mile Reef also
had the highest number of sh families
(43) but Lighthouse Reef, despite
having the second highest number of
species, had relatively few families
(25). Conversely, Garoupa had a
relatively high number of sh families
(31). All the other reefs had relatively
few sh families and species; only
Kingsh was better represented by 84
species in 31 families.
Trophic Structure
When all the carnivorous categories
were grouped (i.e. all groups except
herbivores and omnivores), they
constituted 76% of the species
composition (Fig. 2). Herbivores,
(mostly acanthurids) and omnivores
(mostly pomacentrids) each accounted
for 12% of the species composition.
The largest group, diurnal carnivores
(27%), was dominated by labrids
Table 2. Summary of the number of
species and families recorded on the
Bazaruto reefs. Shaded reefs are no-take
zones where shing (including artisanal
shing) is prohibited, but SCUBA diving
and snorkelling are allowed. Reefs are
ordered according to increasing latitude.
Reef No. of No. of
Species Families
Twelve-mile Reef 59 21
Tubarão 44 20
Garoupa 101 31
Kingsh 84 31
Lighthouse Reef 103 25
Two-mile Reef 197 43
Camel’s Hump 45 21
Amphitheatre 50 22
120 J. Q. MAGGS ET AL.
Nocturnal
carnivore
17%
Diurnal carnivore
27%
General carnivore
6%
Piscivore
5%
Diurnal
planktivore
8%
Nocturnal
planktivore
2%
Herbivore
12%
General
planktivore
0%
Omnivore
12%
Browser of
sessile
invertebrates
11%
Figure 2. Overall trophic structure of Bazaruto reef sh communities.
and the nocturnal carnivores (17%)
were dominated by larger lutjanids,
lethrinids and serranids. Chaetodons
accounted for the majority of browsers
of sessile invertebrates. None of the
other categories was dominated by
any specic family. The piscivores,
contributing 5% to the species
composition, comprised mostly larger
predators such as Carcharhinus
amblyrhynchos, Aprion virescens and
Scomberomorus commerson.
DISCUSSION
Species Richness
This study yielded 249 sh species in
50 families, a lower tally than other
studies in the region. Durville et al.,
(2003) recorded 332 sh species in 57
families at the Glorieuses Islands, while
Chabanet & Durville (2005) listed
299 species in 55 families for Juan De
Nova. Further south, Gillibrand et al.,
(2007) counted 334 species of sh in
RAPID VISUAL ASSESSMENT OF FISH COMMUNITIES ON SELECTED BAZARUTO
REEFS 121
122 J. Q. MAGGS ET AL.
Acanthuridae
Acanthurus dussumieri Valenciennnes, 1835 H
Acanthurus leucocheilus Herre, 1927 H
Acanthurus leucosternon Bennet, 1833 H
Acanthurus lineatus (Linnaeus, 1758) H
Acanthurus mata Russel in Cuvier, 1829 DP
Acanthurus nigrofuscus (Forsskål, 1775) H
Acanthurus tennenti Günther, 1861 H
Acanthurus thompsoni Fowler, 1923 H
Acanthurus triostegus triostegus (Linnaeus, 1758) H
Ctenochaetus binotatus Randall, 1955 H
Ctenochaetus strigosus (Bennet, 1828) H
Naso annulatus (Quoy & Gaimard, 1825) H
Naso brachycentron H
(Valenciennes in Cuvier and Valenciennes, 1835)
Naso brevirostris (Cuvier, 1829) H
Naso hexacanthus (Bleeker, 1855) H
Naso lituratus (Forster in Bloch & Schneider, 1801) H
Naso unicornis (Forsskål, 1775) H
Naso vlamingii (Valenciennnes, 1835) DP
Paracanthurus hepatus (Linnaeus, 1766) DP
Zebrasoma gemmatum (Valenciennnes, 1835) H
Zebrasoma scopas (Cuvier, 1829) H
Zebrasoma desjardinii (Bennet, 1836) H
APOGONIDAE
Apogon aureus (Lacepède, 1802) DC
AULOSTOMIDAE
Aulostomus chinensis (Linnaeus, 1766) PI
BALISTIDAE
Balistapus undulatus (Mungo Park, 1797) DC
Balistoides conspicillum (Bloch & Schneider, 1801) DC
Balistoides viridescens (Bloch & Schneider, 1801) DC
Odonus niger (Rüppel, 1836) DC
Pseudobalistes fuscus (Bloch & Schneider, 1801) C
Rhinecanthus rectangulus (Bloch & Schneider, 1801) O
Sufamen chrysopterus (Bloch & Schneider, 1801) DC
Sufamen fraenatum (Latreille, 1804) DC
BLENNIIDAE
Ecsenius midas Stark, 1969 H
Plagiotremus rhinorhynchos (Bleeker, 1852) NP
Plagiotremus tapeinosoma (Bleeker, 1857) O
Twelve-mile
Reef
Tubarão
Garoupa
Kingsh
Lighthouse
Reef
Two-mile
Reef
Camel’s
Hump
Amphitheatre
Table 1. Species list of the Bazaruto Archipelago on a per reef basis (depth 1-20 m).
Presence is indicated by (●). H, herbivores; O, omnivores; BSI, browsers of sessile
invertebrates; DC, Diurnal carnivores; NC, Nocturnal carnivores; PI, Piscivores;
DP, Diurnal planktivores; NP, Nocturnal planktivores; C, General carnivores;
PL, General planktivores. Shaded reefs are no-take zones where shing (including
artisanal shing) is prohibited, but SCUBA diving and snorkelling are allowed.
Trophic
FAMILY species Category
RAPID VISUAL ASSESSMENT OF FISH COMMUNITIES ON SELECTED BAZARUTO
REEFS 123
CAESIONIDAE
Caesio caerulaurea (Lacepède, 1801) DP
Caesio lunaris Cuvier, 1830 DP
Caesio sp. Lacepède, 1801 DP
Caesio xanthonota Bleeker, 1853 DP
Pterocaesio sp. Bleeker, 1876 DP
Pterocaesio tile (Cuvier, 1830) DP
CARANGIDAE
Carangoides fulvoguttatus (Forsskål, 1775) DC
Caranx ignobilis (Forsskål, 1775) DC
Caranx melampygus Cuvier & Valenciennes, 1833 DC
Caranx papuensis Alleyne & MacLeay, 1877 C
Elagatis bipinnulata (Quoy & Gaimard, 1825) DC
Gnathanodon speciosus (Forsskål, 1775) DC
Scomberoides lysan (Forsskål, 1775) PI
CARCHARHINIDAE
Carcharhinus amblyrhynchos (Bleeker, 1856) PI
Triaenodon obesus (Rüppel, 1837) DC
CHAETODONTIDAE
Chaetodon auriga Forsskål, 1775 BSI
Chaetodon blackburnii Desjardins, 1836 BSI
Chaetodon dolosus Ahl, 1923 O
Chaetodon falcula Bloch, 1793 BSI
Chaetodon guttatissimus Bennet, 1832 BSI
Chaetodon interruptus Ahl, 1923 BSI
Chaetodon kleinii Bloch, 1790 BSI
Chaetodon lineolatus BSI
(Quoy & Gaimard, 1831 in Cuvier & Valenciennes)
Chaetodon lunula (Lacepède, 1802) BSI
Chaetodon madagaskariensis Ahl, 1923 BSI
Chaetodon melannotus (Bloch & Schneider, 1801) BSI
Chaetodon meyeri (Bloch & Schneider, 1801) BSI
Chaetodon trifascialis Quoy & Gaimard, 1825 BSI
Chaetodon trifasciatus (Mungo Park, 1797) BSI
Chaetodon vagabundus Linnaeus, 1758 BSI
Chaetodon xanthocephalus Bennet, 1832 BSI
Chaetodon zanzibarensis BSI
Playfair, in Playfair & Günther, 1867
Forcipiger avissimus Jordan & McGregor, 1898 BSI
Hemitaurichthys zoster (Bennet, 1831) DP
Heniochus acuminatus (Linnaeus, 1758) BSI
Heniochus diphreutes Jordan, 1903 PL
Heniochus monoceros BSI
Cuvier in Cuvier and Valenciennes, 1831
CIRRHITIDAE
Cirrhitichthys oxycephalus (Bleeker, 1855) DC
Paracirrhites arcatus DC
Cuvier in Cuvier and Valenciennes, 1829
Paracirrhites forsteri (Bloch & Schneider, 1801) DC
Twelve-mile
Reef
Tubarão
Garoupa
Kingsh
Lighthouse
Reef
Two-mile
Reef
Camel’s
Hump
Amphitheatre
Trophic
FAMILY species Category
DASYATIDAE
Himantura gerrardi (Gray, 1851) C
Taeniura lymma (Forsskål, 1775) NC
DIODONTIDAE
Diodon liturosus Shaw, 1804 NC
ECHENEIDAE
Echeneis naucrates Linnaeus, 1758 NC
EPHIPPIDAE
Platax orbicularis (Forsskål, 1775) O
Platax teira (Forsskål, 1775) O
Tripterodon orbis Playfair, 1867 C
FISTULARIIDAE
Fistularia commersonii Rüppel, 1838 DC
GOBIIDAE
Valenciennea strigata (Broussonet, 1782) DC
HAEMULIDAE
Plectorhinchus chubbi (Thunberg, 1792) DC
Plectorhinchus plagiodesmus Fowler, 1935 NC
Plectorhinchus avomaculatus (Cuvier, 1830) NC
Plectorhinchus gaterinus (Forsskål, 1775) NC
Plectorhinchus gibbosus (Lacepède, 1802) C
Plectorhinchus playfairi (Pellegrin, 1914) DC
Plectorhinchus schotaf (Forsskål, 1775) C
HEMIRAMPHIDAE
Hyporhamphus afnis (Günther, 1866) O
HOLOCENTRIDAE
Myripristis botche Cuvier, 1829 NC
Myripristis murdjan Forsskål, 1775 NP
Neoniphon argenteus (Valenciennes, 1831) C
Neoniphon sammara Forsskål, 1775 NC
Sargocentron caudimaculatum Rüppel, 1838 NC
Sargocentron diadema Lacepède, 1802 NC
Sargocentron spiniferum Forsskål, 1775 NC
KYPHOSIDAE
Kyphosus cinerascens Forsskål, 1775 H
Kyphosus sp. Lacepède, 1801 H
Kyphosus vaigiensis (Quoy & Gaimard, 1825) O
LABRIDAE
Anampses caeruleopunctatus Rüppel, 1829 DC
Anampses lineatus Randall, 1972 DC
Anampses meleagrides Valenciennes, 1840 DC
Anampses twistii Bleeker, 1856 DC
Bodianus anthioides Bennet, 1832 DC
Bodianus axillaris Bennet, 1832 DC
Bodianus bilunulatus (Lacepède, 1801) DC
Twelve-mile
Reef
Tubarão
Garoupa
Kingsh
Lighthouse
Reef
Two-mile
Reef
Camel’s
Hump
Amphitheatre
Trophic
FAMILY species Category
124 J. Q. MAGGS ET AL.
Bodianus diana Lacepède, 1801 DC
Cheilinus fasciatus (Bloch, 1791) DC
Cheilinus trilobatus Lacepède, 1801 DC
Cheilinus undulatus Rüppel, 1835 DC
Cheilio inermis Forsskål, 1775 DC
Cirrhilabrus exquisitus Smith, 1957 DC
Coris aygula Lacepède, 1801 DC
Coris caudimacula Quoy & Gaimard, 1834 DC
Coris cuvieri (Bennett, 1831) DC
Coris frerei (Bennett, 1830) DC
Gomphosus caeruleus Lacepède, 1801 DC
Halichoeres cosmetus Randall, & Smith, 1982 DC
Halichoeres hortulanus Lacepède, 1801 DC
Halichoeres iridis Randall, & Smith, 1982 DC
Halichoeres scapularis Bennet, 1832 DC
Hemigymnus fasciatus Bloch, 1792 DC
Hologymnosus annulatus Lacepède, 1801 DC
Hologymnosus doliatus Lacepède, 1801 DC
Labroides bicolor Fowler & Bean, 1928 DC
Labroides dimidiatus Valenciennes, 1839 DC
Macropharyngodon bipartitus Smith 1957 DC
Macropharyngodon cyanoguttatus Randall, 1978 DC
Novaculichthys taeniourus (Lacepède, 1801) DC
Pseudocheilinus hexataenia (Bleeker, 1857) DC
Pseudodax moluccanus (Valenciennes, 1840) O
Stethojulis interrupta (Bleeker, 1851) DC
Thalassoma amblycephalum Bleeker, 1856 DC
Thalassoma hardwicke Bennet, 1830 DC
Thalassoma hebraicum Lacepède, 1801 DC
Thalassoma lunare Linnaeus, 1758 DC
LETHRINIDAE
Gnathodentex aureolineatus (Lacepède, 1802) NC
Lethrinus crocineus Smith, 1959 NC
Lethrinus harak (Forsskål, 1775) NC
Lethrinus nebulosos (Forsskål, 1775) NC
Lethrinus rubrioperculatus Sato, 1978 NC
Lethrinus mahsena (Forsskål, 1775) NC
Monotaxis grandoculis (Forsskål, 1775) NC
LUTJANIDAE
Aphareus furca (Lacepède, 1801) PI
Aprion virescens Valenciennes, 1830 PI
Lutjanus argentimaculatus (Forsskål, 1775) NC
Lutjanus bohar (Forsskål, 1775) NC
Lutjanus fulviamma (Forsskål, 1775) NC
Lutjanus gibbus (Forsskål, 1775) NC
Lutjanus kasmira (Forsskål, 1775) NC
Lutjanus lutjanus Bloch, 1790 NC
Lutjanus notatus (Cuvier, 1828) NC
Lutjanus rivulatus NC
(Cuvier in Cuvier and Valenciennes, 1828)
Twelve-mile
Reef
Tubarão
Garoupa
Kingsh
Lighthouse
Reef
Two-mile
Reef
Camel’s
Hump
Amphitheatre
Trophic
FAMILY species Category
RAPID VISUAL ASSESSMENT OF FISH COMMUNITIES ON SELECTED BAZARUTO
REEFS 125
Lutjanus sebae (Cuvier, 1816) NC
Macolor niger (Forsskål, 1775) NC
MALACANTHIDAE
Malacanthus brevirostris Guichenot, 1848 DC
MICRODESMIDAE
Ptereleotris evides (Jordan & Hubbs, 1925) DP
Ptereleotris heteroptera (Bleeker, 1855) DP
MOBULIDAE
Manta birostris (Walbaum, 1792) DP
MONACANTHIDAE
Amanses scopas (Cuvier, 1829) BSI
Cantherhines pardalis (Rüppel, 1837) BSI
Pervagor janthinosoma (Bleeker, 1854) BSI
MULLIDAE
Mulloidichthys avolineatus (Lacepède, 1801) NC
Mulloidichthys vanicolensis NC
Valenciennes in Cuvier and Valenciennes, 1831)
Parupeneus barberinus (Lacepède, 1801) DC
Parupeneus bifasciatus (Lacepède, 1801) C
Parupeneus cyclostomus (Lacepède, 1801) PI
Parupeneus indicus (Shaw, 1803) DC
Parupeneus macronema (Lacepède, 1801) DC
MURAENIDAE
Gymnothorax breedeni McCosker and Randall, 1977 C
Gymnothorax favagineus Bloch & Schneider, 1801 NC
Gymnothorax meleagris (Shaw, 1795) DC
MYLIOBATIDAE
Aetobatus narinari (Euphrasen, 1790) DC
NEMIPTERIDAE
Scolopsis ghanam (Forsskål, 1775) DC
Scolopsis vosmeri (Bloch, 1792) DC
OSTRACIIDAE
Ostracion cubicus (Linnaeus, 1758) BSI
Ostracion meleagris Shaw, 1796 BSI
PEMPHERIDAE
Parapricanthus ransonneti Steindachner, 1870 NP
Pempheris adusta Bleeker, 1877 NP
PINGUIPEDIDAE
Parapercis hexophtalma (Cuvier, 1829) DC
PLATYCEPHALIDAE
Papilloculiceps longiceps (Cuvier, 1829) DC
POMACANTHIDAE
Apolemichthys trimaculatus (Lacepède, 1831) O
Twelve-mile
Reef
Tubarão
Garoupa
Kingsh
Lighthouse
Reef
Two-mile
Reef
Camel’s
Hump
Amphitheatre
Trophic
FAMILY species Category
126 J. Q. MAGGS ET AL.
Twelve-mile
Reef
Tubarão
Garoupa
Kingsh
Lighthouse
Reef
Two-mile
Reef
Camel’s
Hump
Amphitheatre
Centropyge acanthops (Norman, 1922) O
Centropyge bispinosus (Günther, 1860) O
Centropyge multispinis (Playfair, 1867) O
Pomacanthus chrysurus (Cuvier, 1831) O
Pomacanthus imperator (Bloch, 1787) BSI
Pomacanthus rhomboides
(Gilchrist and Thompson, 1908) C
Pomacanthus semicirculatus BSI
(Cuvier in Cuvier & Valenciennes, 1831)
POMACENTRIDAE
Abudefduf natalensis Hensley & Randall, 1983 O
Abudefduf notatus Day, 1870 O
Abudefduf sordidus (Forsskål, 1775) O
Abudefduf sparoides (Quoy & Gaimard, 1825) O
Abudefduf vaigiensis (Quoy & Gaimard, 1825) O
Amphiprion akallopisos Bleeker, 1853 O
Amphiprion allardi Klausewitz, 1970 O
Chromis dimidiata (Klunzinger, 1871) DP
Chromis opercularis (Günther, 1867) DP
Chromis weberi (Fowler & Bean, 1928) DP
Chrysiptera unimaculata (Cuvier, 1830) O
Dascyllus carneus Fischer, 1885 O
Dascyllus trimaculatus (Rüppel, 1829) DP
Plectroglyphidodon dickii (Liènard, 1839) O
Plectroglyphidodon johnstonianus
Fowler & Ball, 1924 O
Plectroglyphidodon lacrymatus
(Quoy & Gaimard, 1825) O
Pomacentrus caeruleus (Quoy & Gaimard, 1825) O
PRIACANTHIDAE
Priacanthus hamrur (Forsskål, 1775) NC
PSEUDOCHROMIDAE
Pseudochromis dutoiti Smith, 1955 DC
SCARIDAE
Scarus frenatus (Lacepède, 1802) H
Scarus ghobban Forsskål, 1775 H
Scarus rubroviolaceus Bleeker, 1847 H
Scarus scaber H
(Valenciennes in Cuvier and Valenciennes, 1840)
Scarus sordidus (Forsskål, 1775) H
Scarus tricolor Bleeker, 1847 H
SCIAENIDAE
Umbrina robinsoni Gilchrist and Thompson, 1908 C
SCOMBRIDAE
Euthynnus afnis (Cantor, 1849) C
Scomberomorus commerson (Lacepède, 1800) PI
Trophic
FAMILY species Category
RAPID VISUAL ASSESSMENT OF FISH COMMUNITIES ON SELECTED BAZARUTO
REEFS 127
Twelve-mile
Reef
Tubarão
Garoupa
Kingsh
Lighthouse
Reef
Two-mile
Reef
Camel’s
Hump
Amphitheatre
SCORPAENIDAE
Pterois miles (Bennet, 1825) PI
Scorpaenopsis venosa (Cuvier, 1829) C
SERRANIDAE
Aethaloperca rogaa (Forsskål, 1775) NC
Cephalopholis argus Bloch & Schneider, 1801 PI
Cephalopholis miniata (Forsskål, 1775) NC
Epinephelus fasciatus (Forsskål, 1775) NC
Epinephelus avocaeruleus (Lacepède, 1801) PI
Epinephelus lanceolatus (Bloch, 1790) NC
Epinephelus macrospilos (Bleeker, 1855) C
Epinephelus malabaricus (Bloch & Schneider, 1801) NC
Epinephelus tukula Morgans, 1959 NC
Nemanthias carberryi Smith, 1954 DP
Plectropomus punctatus Quoy & Gaimard, 1824 PI
Pseudanthias squamipinnis Peters, 1855 DP
Variola louti (Forsskål, 1775) PI
SIGANIDAE
Siganus luridus (Rüppell, 1829) H
Siganus sutor H
(Valenciennes in Cuvier and Valenciennes, 1835)
SPARIDAE
Acanthopagrus bifasciatus (Forsskål, 1775) DC
SPHYRAENIDAE
Sphyraena barracuda (Walbaum, 1792) DC
Sphyraena jello Cuvier in Cuvier and Valenciennes, 1829 NC
Sphyraena putnamae Jordan and Seale, 1905 NC
SYNODONTIDAE
Synodus dermatogenys Fowler, 1912 PI
TETRAODONTIDAE
Arothron hispidus (Linnaeus, 1758) NC
Arothron nigropunctatus Bloch & Schneider 1801 NC
Arothron stellatus (Bloch & Schneider 1801) NC
Canthigaster smithae Allen and Randall, 1977 O
Canthigaster solandri (Richardson, 1845) O
Canthigaster valentini (Bleeker, 1853) O
ZANCLIDAE
Zanclus canescens (Linnaeus, 1758) BSI
Trophic
FAMILY species Category
128 J. Q. MAGGS ET AL.
not comparable to our study, which
used only UVC.
The ve reef types sampled in
this study comprised a submerged
sandstone reef, sedimented rocky
patch reefs, a fringing coral reef, a
barrier coral reef and two submerged
rocky massifs. In terms of reef damage,
diver and anchor damage were evident
in the coral-covered inner lagoon of
Two-mile Reef where large areas of
Acropora were dead. Corallivorous
crown-of-thorns (Acanthaster planci)
starsh were also observed on Two-
mile Reef. These have been persistent,
being rst recorded at Bazaruto in 1994
(Schleyer, 1998), providing further
ecological pressure. Nevertheless,
Two-mile Reef had the highest species
richness in our study. In other studies, a
reduction in hard coral cover resulting
from mechanical damage has been
linked to recreational SCUBA diving
(Hawkins et al., 1999). This reduces
reef complexity which correlates
with species richness (Bell & Galzin
1984; Gratwicke & Speight 2005),
but without long-term monitoring, it
is uncertain whether such an effect is
taking place on Two-mile Reef.
Garoupa (open to shing) is a
small, at, sandy ledge with low coral
cover and little physical complexity,
yet its high sh species richness and
abundance was comparable to that of
Lighthouse Reef but with six more
sh families. The reason for this rich
diversity and abundance is unclear;
however, it is remarkably similar to
Stringer Reef, a small sandy ledge at
58 families at Andavadoaka (south-
west Madagascar) and van der Elst &
Chater (2001), working at Bassas da
India, recorded 305 species. It is not
certain why Bazaruto’s reefs have a
lower species richness and, since the
other studies in the region are not
directly comparable, it is difcult to
place Bazaruto in a spatial or temporal
context.
Glorieuses Islands, Juan de Nova
and Bassas da India are isolated
coral atolls with no permanent
human habitation, and consequently
experience low to negligible shing
pressure, which has been reported to
reduce species richness (McClanahan,
1994; Wantiez et al., 1997). Their
isolation from human disturbance and
consequent lack of shing would make
them suitable candidates for control
studies but their reefs are different
from those at Bazaruto. Andavadoaka
is more directly comparable with
Bazaruto, being exposed to shing
pressure from a nearby shing
village and located on the mainland
of Madagascar. Andavadoaka is
also further south and therefore at
a comparable latitude, negating the
latitudinal effect on biodiversity.
However, the study at Andavadoaka
was conducted over one year
compared to nine days at Bazaruto.
A previous sh inventory of Bazaruto
by van der Elst and Afonso (2008),
based on a study done in the late 80s,
yielded 269 species from 74 families,
but their results included shery-
dependent data and are consequently
RAPID VISUAL ASSESSMENT OF FISH COMMUNITIES ON SELECTED BAZARUTO
REEFS 129
Sodwana Bay in South Africa (29°
31.784’ S; 32° 40.969’ E), which is
closed to shing. Both reefs are similar
in terms of coral cover, structural
simplicity and high sh abundance
(pers. obs.). At Garoupa, the
piscivorous lutjanid, Aprion virescens,
and the scombrid (mackerel),
Scomberomorus commerson, were
prevalent in the mid-water, suggesting
a predator-dominated environment,
but further ecological investigation of
this reef is warranted.
The sh diversity at Twelve-mile
Reef (submerged sandstone reef)
was expected to be high, given its
physical complexity, high coral cover
and relative inaccessibility, being
furthest offshore. Since the greatest
shing pressure on the Bazaruto reefs
is believed to be caused by artisanal
shermen using non-motorised
dhows, Twelve-mile Reef should
experience relatively little shing
pressure because of its remoteness.
High sh diversity may be associated
with low shing effort (McClanahan,
1994; Wantiez et al., 1997) but did not
prove the case on Twelve-mile Reef.
The submerged rocky massifs;
Camel’s Hump and Amphitheatre
(both open to shing) have high
vertical relief but are not structurally
complex and have minimal coral
cover, probably due to high turbidity
(Rogers, 1990). Their relatively low
sh diversity may be explained by
these attributes, which may also be
the reason why the top ve families
(labrids, acanthurids, chaetodons,
pomacentrids and serranids) were
underrepresented.
Trophic Structure
Kulbicki (1988) suggested that trophic
structure is usually constant within a
region and this has been conrmed
in other studies in the WIO (Table 3).
Reef disturbances in the form of over-
shing, pollution or coral bleaching
have been reported to cause a reduction
in the number of carnivores and an
increase in herbivores (Chabanet,
2002; Harmelin-Vivien, 1992). While
large carnivores are targeted by
shers (Chabanet & Durville 2005),
a reduction in coral cover caused
by pollution (Rogers, 1990) and
Table 3. Comparison of trophic structure (%) in reef sh communities in the Western
Indian Ocean (WIO).
Location Reference Carnivores Omnivores Herbivores
Tuléar Harmelin-Vivien, 1979 74 13.5 12.5
Réunion Chabanet, 1994 51 24 25
Mayotte Chabanet, 2002 69 12.5 18.5
Geyser and Zéléé Chabanet et al., 2002 69 16 15
Glorieuses Durville et al., 2003 73 12 15
Juan de Nova Chabanet & Durville 2005 73 11 16
Andavadoaka Gillibrand et al., 2007 76 11 13
Bazaruto This study 76 12 12
130 J. Q. MAGGS ET AL.
coral bleaching encourages the rapid
growth of lamentous algae, which
provides increased food for herbivores
(Chabanet, 2002).
Reefs that are considered healthy
usually have carnivore levels of
between 60-80% (Harmelin-Vivien,
1979), as found on the Bazaruto and
other reefs in the WIO (Table 3).
Bazaruto had a high proportion of
carnivores compared to these other
studies. If one compares the Bazaruto
sh communities with those in
isolated environments with little or
no human interference (Glorieuses
Durville et al., 2003; Juan de
Nova Chabanet & Durville 2005),
they appear, supercially, to be in a
healthy state. However, amalgamation
of the carnivorous groups in this
study and in many others yields an
oversimplication of the situation.
Andavadoaka also has an abundance
of carnivores (Gillibrand et al., 2007)
similar to the Bazaruto reefs, yet
experiences shing pressure and the
reefs are reported to be in a degraded
state following broad-scale coral
bleaching (Gillibrand et al., 2007). It
is therefore difcult to link reef health
to a simple index such as carnivore
abundance.
Future studies should focus on
the true trophic hierarchy in the sh
communities on the Bazaruto reefs,
differentiating between the higher and
lower carnivores, rather than between
diel preferences. Small carnivorous
species (e.g., labrids, chaetodons) are
the most abundant and are unlikely
to be affected by shing pressure.
These smaller carnivores may even
benet from shing because of
reduced predation, giving a false
impression of reef health. Although
a thorough analysis of the carnivore
hierarchy was lacking, the proportion
of herbivores on Bazaruto’s reefs
was low, consistent with other reef
environments in the region. This
indicates a relative measure of reef
health where pollution and bleaching
are concerned.
CONCLUSION
The Bazaruto reefs are exposed to
shing pressure, diving and anchor
damage, and crown-of-thorns
(Acanthaster planci) starsh, yet have
sh communities rich in diversity
and a trophic structure similar to that
of other reefs in the WIO which are
considered healthy. They endured
the 1998 bleaching event without
substantial die-off (Schleyer &
Celliers 2005). However, without a
long-term quantitative monitoring
programme, it is difcult to place the
health of the Bazaruto reefs in context.
This study, like others in the WIO,
presents a representative, updated
inventory of the sh communities,
providing a baseline for more detailed
studies. However, further studies
should analyse the trophic hierarchy
and include abundance measurements.
A lack of directly comparable results
became evident during our study,
highlighting a signicant gap in the
regional understanding of the reef
RAPID VISUAL ASSESSMENT OF FISH COMMUNITIES ON SELECTED BAZARUTO
REEFS 131
sh populations. It is suggested that
a long-term monitoring programme
(Chabanet & Durville 2005),
specically adapted for Bazaruto’s
multiple reef-types, would be suitable
for conservation planning in the area.
Acknowledgements: Sasol provided
funding for this research. Eduardo
Videira participated in data collection
in the rst survey. Bruce Mann is
thanked for advice in planning the
surveys, Fiona Mackay for assistance
with data analysis, Taryn Winson and
Derick Young for preparation of the
map and Pierre Pradervand and Sean
Fennessy for their general comments.
Ben Thompson, Vicky Page, John
Cranswick and Nicolene Rossouw
provided logistical support in the eld.
Anonymous referees are gratefully
acknowledged for valuable input to
the manuscript.
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16: 215-224.
134 J. Q. MAGGS ET AL.
... Most of these have focussed on a broad range of demersal fishes associated with coral reefs, without a specific focus on species that are important targets of reef fisheries (e.g. Maggs et al. 2010;Chabanet et al. 2016;Samoilys et al. 2019, although see McClanahan and Jadot 2017). This lack of data on targeted species is concerning, given the importance of such data to baseline monitoring of trends in the status of fish communities. ...
... Much of this work has focused on assessments of biodiversity (e.g. Maggs et al. 2010), rather than the species targeted by fisheries. The country has more-developed management of marine resources than some other areas of East Africa, and there are a number of well-established marine reserves in Mozambique, such as the Ponta do Ouro Partial Marine Reserve in the extreme south, and around the Bazaruto Archipelago. ...
... The country has more-developed management of marine resources than some other areas of East Africa, and there are a number of well-established marine reserves in Mozambique, such as the Ponta do Ouro Partial Marine Reserve in the extreme south, and around the Bazaruto Archipelago. The archipelago, composed of five islands (Figure 1), located about 15 km off the mainland coast, has had protected status since 1971, although initially this included only three islands (Benguerra, Magaruque and Bangué) (Maggs et al. 2010). In 2001, the protected area was enlarged to include all five islands, and the legislation was strengthened with the official creation of the Bazaruto Archipelago National Park (BANP) (Maggs et al. 2010). ...
Article
Coastal populations of maritime countries in eastern Africa rely on fish as a primary source of protein, but baseline information on the abundance of fish communities on these coastlines is often lacking. We used baited remote underwater video stations to compare the abundance and diversity of reef fishes targeted by fishing at two sites in southern Mozambique, one at Lighthouse Reef within the Bazaruto Archipelago National Park and the other to the south at San Sebastian Reef on the San Sebastian Peninsula. Fish that are known targets of fisheries (mostly small-scale and artisanal) had an abundance that was almost three-times greater at San Sebastian Reef (80.22 ind. h–1 [SE 18.00]) than at Lighthouse Reef (29.70 ind. h–1 [SE 8.91]). Similarly, there was greater mean species richness at San Sebastian Reef (38.74 species h–1 [SE 2.79]) than at Lighthouse Reef (25.37 species h–1 [SE 3.66]). The main drivers of targeted fish abundance were habitat and depth, with shallow (<15 m) and mixed reef areas having the greatest abundance and richness. More sampling was done over sand habitat at Lighthouse Reef, which likely led to the lower abundance and species richness observed at this site; however, that finding could also be attributable to the fact that protection is provided to only a section of available coral reef habitat in a small area. Nevertheless, fish community structure was comparable between the sites, with similar proportions of carnivores (78–81%), herbivores (12–14%) and omnivores (7–8%). Our findings highlight the variation in species abundance and assemblages of coral-reef fish targeted by fishing in Mozambique and emphasise the importance of localised environmental variables as a driver of these patterns. To ensure maximum protection of Lighthouse Reef fish communities, we recommend an extension of the no-take zone to include the entire reef complex.
... Species richness information is currently missing from the PTPB seas but this data is vital for future ecosystem management. Biodiversity data is necessary to identify key biological components (Pereira, 2000), provide a baseline from which ecosystem stability and function can be assessed (Cleland, 2011), and to predict the effects of biodiversity loss on ecosystem provision (Bellwood & Hughes, 2001;Gillibrand et al., 2007;Maggs et al., 2010). The PTPB area is bor- The area shows comparable species diversity to protected areas in the southwestern Indian Ocean and has a high proportion of carnivores, together hinting at these reefs being in good condition. ...
... Seventeen of the species' feeding habits were assumed from those of congener species whilst fifteen were labelled as 'unknown'. The (Table 3) (Maggs et al., 2010;Chabanet & Durville, 2005;Gillibrand et al., 2007;Durville et al., 2003). In particular, SR theor shows high similarity to areas in southern Mozambique and South Africa that are fully or partially protected (e.g. ...
... In particular, SR theor shows high similarity to areas in southern Mozambique and South Africa that are fully or partially protected (e.g. Floros et al., 2012;Maggs et al., 2010;Pereira et al., 2004). ...
... Benayahu & Schleyer, 1996;Maggs et al., 2010;2000;Schleyer & Celiiers, 2005;Schleyer, 2008; Ervas Marinhas 8 Bandeira, 1995;Bandeira & Gell, 2003;Bandeira et al., 2008;Dias, 2005;Mafambissa, 2003;Muiocha, 2008;Narane, 2011;Giddy, 2016 Algas Em termos de monitoria, registos indicam que a monitoria dos recursos naturais no PNAB teve o seu início em 1993, com a implementação da monitoria de ninhos de crocodilo . ...
... 90 cm, [61,62]. They are relatively common and broadly distributed among reef systems in the Indo-Pacific [14,[63][64][65]. Scarus ghobban resides in seagrass beds as juveniles and then migrates to reef habitats as it grows [62]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Spatial configuration of habitat types in multihabitat seascapes influence ecological function through links of biotic and abiotic processes. These connections, for example export of organic matter or fishes as mobile links, define ecosystem functionality across broader spatial scales. Herbivory is an important ecological process linked to ecosystem resilience, but it is not clear how herbivory relates to seascape configuration. We studied how herbivory and bioerosion by 3 species of parrotfish were distributed in a multi-habitat tropical seascape in the Western Indian Ocean (WIO). We surveyed the abundance of three species with different life histories-Leptoscarus vaigiensis (seagrass species), Scarus ghobban (juvenile-seagrass/adults-reefs) and Scarus rubroviolaceus (reef species)-in seagrass meadows and on reefs and recorded their selectivity of feeding substrate in the two habitats. Herbivory rates for L. vaigiensis and S. ghobban and bioerosion for S. rubroviolaceus were then modelled using bite rates for different size classes and abundance and biomass data along seascape gradients (distance to alternative habitat types such as land, mangrove and seagrass). Bioerosion by S. rubroviolaceus was greatest on reefs far from seagrass meadows, while herbivory rates by S. ghobban on reefs displayed the opposite pattern. Herbivory in seagrass meadows was greatest in meadows close to shore, where L. vaigiensis targeted seagrass leaves and S. ghobban the epiphytes growing on them. Our study shows that ecological functions performed by fish are not equally distributed in the seascape and are influenced by fish life history and the spatial configuration of habitats in the seascape. This has implications for the resilience of the system, in terms of spatial heterogeneity of herbivory and bioerosion and should be considered in marine spatial planning and fisheries management.
... 90 cm, [61,62]. They are relatively common and broadly distributed among reef systems in the Indo-Pacific [14,[63][64][65]. Scarus ghobban resides in seagrass beds as juveniles and then migrates to reef habitats as it grows [62]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Spatial configuration of habitat types in multihabitat seascapes influence ecological function through links of biotic and abiotic processes. These connections, for example export of organic matter or fishes as mobile links, define ecosystem functionality across broader spatial scales. Herbivory is an important ecological process linked to ecosystem resilience, but it is not clear how herbivory relates to seascape configuration. We studied how herbivory and bioerosion by 3 species of parrotfish were distributed in a multi-habitat tropical seascape in the Western Indian Ocean (WIO). We surveyed the abundance of three species with different life histories-Leptoscarus vaigiensis (seagrass species), Scarus ghobban (juvenile-seagrass/adults-reefs) and Scarus rubroviolaceus (reef species)-in seagrass meadows and on reefs and recorded their selectivity of feeding substrate in the two habitats. Herbivory rates for L. vaigiensis and S. ghobban and bioerosion for S. rubroviolaceus were then modelled using bite rates for different size classes and abundance and biomass data along seascape gradients (distance to alternative habitat types such as land, mangrove and seagrass). Bioerosion by S. rubroviolaceus was greatest on reefs far from seagrass meadows, while herbivory rates by S. ghobban on reefs displayed the opposite pattern. Herbivory in seagrass meadows was greatest in meadows close to shore, where L. vaigiensis targeted seagrass leaves and S. ghobban the epiphytes growing on them. Our study shows that ecological functions performed by fish are not equally distributed in the seascape and are influenced by fish life history and the spatial configuration of habitats in the seascape. This has implications for the resilience of the system, in terms of spatial heterogeneity of herbivory and bioerosion and should be considered in marine spatial planning and fisheries management.
... Despite the above-mentioned drawbacks of UVC, the method remains very popular and is used extensively for sampling in MPAs (Buxton and Smale 1984, Alcala 1988, Russ and Alcala 1989, García-Rubies and Zabala 1990, Chater et al. 1995, Jennings et al. 1995, Roberts 1995, Rakitin and Kramer 1996, Russ and Alcala 1996a, Jennings and Polunin 1997, Graham et al. 2003, Bennett et al. 2009, Floros 2010, Maggs et al. 2010. The distinct advantages of this method are that surveys are relatively inexpensive (Watson and Quinn 1997), do not require specialist equipment and are particularly suitable for sensitive areas where destructive methods are unacceptable. ...
... Trophic Category ACANTHURIDAE Acanthurus dussumieri Cuvier & Valenciennes, 1835 S H Acanthurus leucosternon Bennett, 1833 S H Acanthurus lineatus Linnaeus, 1758 S H Acanthurus nigrofuscus Forsskål, 1775 S H Acanthurus tennentii Günther, 1861 S H Acanthurus triostegus Linnaeus, 1758 S H Acanthurus xanthopterus Valenciennes, 1835 S H Naso brachycentron Valenciennes, 1835 S H Naso brevirostris Cuvier, 1829 S H Paracanthurus hepatus Linné, 1766 Maggs et al. (2010) 249 40 6.23:1 Tofo/Barra This study 324 79 4.16:1 Juan de Nova Chabanet & Durville, ...
Article
Full-text available
The coral reefs around Praia do Tofo, southern Mozambique, are known for their aggregations of marine megafauna but as yet few studies have comprehensively examined their broader biodiversity. This study is the first to assess the ichthyofaunal diversity of this economically important area. Methodology involved SCUBA and snorkel underwater visual censuses conducted between February and May, 2016, and the use of photographic records from 2015 to capture rare species. A total of 324 species, representing 79 families, were recorded from 16 reefs in the region. The area shows comparable species diversity and notably high family diversity in relation to other areas of the Western Indian Ocean. The trophic structure of the reefs, similar to that recorded in the wider region, suggests the reefs are in good health and fairly resilient to disturbance. This study highlights the area’s high biological value beyond its megafauna and lends support to greater management of these ecosystems for the benefit of the associated human population.
... Species richness data is vital for ecosystem management and provides the baseline from which: 76 ecosystem stability and function are assessed (Cleland, 2011); key biological components are 77 identified (Pereira, 2000); and the effects of biodiversity loss on ecosystem provision are 78 predicted (Bellwood & Hughes, 2001; Maggs et al., 2010the local dive industry are in deeper waters to the north and south of these bays. Therefore the 88 recorded diversity is representative of the wider area stretching approximately 40 km south to 89 Paindane Bay (site 16; Fig. 1). ...
Article
The coral reefs around Praia do Tofo, southern Mozambique, are known for their aggregations of marine megafauna but as yet few studies have comprehensively examined their broader biodiversity. This study is the first to assess the ichthyofaunal diversity of this economically important area. Methodology involved SCUBA and snorkel underwater visual censuses conducted between February and May, 2016, and the use of photographic records from 2015 to capture rare species. A total of 324 species, representing 79 families, were recorded from 16 reefs in the region. The area shows comparable species diversity and notably high family diversity in relation to other areas of the Western Indian Ocean. The trophic structure of the reefs, similar to that recorded in the wider region, suggests the reefs are in good health and fairly resilient to disturbance. This study highlights the area’s high biological value beyond its megafauna and lends support to greater management of these ecosystems for the benefit of the associated human population.
Technical Report
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The report lists 794 species, in 93 families, but should not be considered a complete listing of all species of reef-associated fishes that live in Mozambique waters.
Book
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This publication is an overview of the ecology of the Bazaruto Archipelago in Mozambique. It comprises a series of individual chapters compiled by different authors on topics ranging from the archipelago’s terrestrial fauna and flora to its rich marine biodiversity, human population and conservation management. Whilst the content has a scientific basis and will contribute to further study and management of the region, it is also considered to be a valuable source of information for tourists and others who visit the islands.
Article
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This paper constitutes the first study on reef fish communities at Juan de Nova, one of the Eparses Islands in the Mozambique Channel. These remote islands, with no permanent habitation, except a small military base, represent sites which experience minimal direct human influence. Sampling was firstly done by underwater visual observations, using SCUBA diving gear, at 31 stations distributed equally over the coral reef, between depths ranging from 0-15 m, and secondly, by using an anaesthetic in littoral rockpools. A total of 299 species belonging to 55 families were recorded. Nearly half of the observed species belong to five main families: Labridae (41 species), Pomacentridae (28 species), Acanthuridae (24 species), Serranidae (22 species), and Chaetodontidae (18 species). Among the reported species, 73% are carnivores, 16% herbivores and 11% omnivores. Some families are well represented, especially the carnivores such as sharks (Carcharhinidae, 6 species), the groupers (Serranidae, 20 species) and the snappers (Lutjanidae, 10 species), which are common at nearly every station sampled. The presence of these carnivorous species could be related to the absence of fishing pressure in the area. However, some species known to be common in the area seemed rare (e.g. Chaetodon trifascialis, Dascyllus carneus, Labroides bicolour) or entirely absent (Pseudanthias cooperi, Cephalopholis miniata, Chaetodon unimaculatus, Plectroglyphidodon johnstonianus and Lepidozygus tapeinosoma). From a biogeographic point of view, this study revealed a fairly diverse reef fish community for such a small, isolated island, located on the westward extreme (~ 45°E, 15°S) of the Indo-Pacific. The absence or the paucity of certain species and/or families could be the consequence of the 1998 massive coral bleaching. There is a need for long-term studies in order to better understand the resilience of coral reef communities to environmental disturbances..
Article
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Increasing numbers of crown-of-thorns starfish (COTs) Acanthaster planci are being found in the Indo-Pacific region (Engelhard 1996, Lassig and Engelhard 1994, Stump 1996). However, there appears to be a gap in the information presented by Lassig and Engelhard (1996) for the Western Indian Ocean (WIO). The Oceanographic Research Institute (ORI) in Durban has been involved in coral reef research in a number of areas in the WIO during this decade and has encountered COTs outbreaks since September 1994. The following brief account summarizes these observations. ORI coral research started on the reefs in northern KwaZulu-Natal in 1991. Schleyer (1995) provides a review on the nature and extent of the reefs (Fig. 1) which are rich in biodiversity but dominated by soft corals. The coral communities are at the limits of their distribution and are atypical in community structure. No COTs were initially found during extensive surveys of these reefs but sport divers reported their presence on the most heavily used reef at Sodwana Bay in 1993. Outbreaks were also reported for this area in 1994. COTs were found by ORI divers in September 1994 at the start of a reef damage survey (Schleyer and Tomalin submitted) and monitoring has continued. Historically, COTs were seen in some numbers circa 1970 but were not encountered in the intervening years up to the time of these records. The COTs outbreaks at Sodwana Bay were all found on Two-mile reef (TMR), with only a single 30 cm specimen found at Four-mile Reef (FMR). The COTs appeared to aggregate at the deeper fringe of TMR (24-27 m) where the reef shelf emerges from sediment covered bedrock (27-30 m). Once aggregated, they moved onto the reef as a feeding party, tending to move with the generally strong southward current.
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Coral collections and qualitative observations were made on the Bazaruto coral reefs in the Parque Nacional do Bazaruto. A checklist of species found on the reefs is presented with descriptions of their nature. Both the Alcyonacea and Scleractinia are well-represented on the reefs and their biodiversity is discussed in a regional context. The reefs constitute a valuable resource for ecotourism and recommendations are made for their sustainable use.