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Abstract

The cultivation of providing online feedback that is positive, effective, and enhances the learning experience is a valuable educator skill. Acquisition of the art of providing feedback is through education, practice, and faculty development. This article provides information about the best practices for delivering online feedback to learners. An examination is given of the concept, importance, purpose, and types of online feedback. A deliberation includes the best practices for giving online feedback to learners, such as prompt, frequent, personalized, detailed, clear, specific, and balanced. Additionally, a discussion of the various avenues of delivering online feedback, such as the written word, audio file, video recording, pre-set automated feedback, and live web-based conferenc-ing. The " art " and scientific evidence of providing online feedback are coupled in this article to provide helpful tips for the online educator.
The Journal of Effective Teaching
an online journal devoted to teaching excellence
The Journal of Effective Teaching, Vol. 15, No.1, 2015, 34-46
©2015 All rights reserved.
The Art of Giving Online Feedback
Nancyruth Leibold
1
and Laura Marie Schwarz
Minnesota State University, Mankato, MN 56001
Abstract
The cultivation of providing online feedback that is positive, effective, and enhances the
learning experience is a valuable educator skill. Acquisition of the art of providing feed-
back is through education, practice, and faculty development. This article provides in-
formation about the best practices for delivering online feedback to learners. An exami-
nation is given of the concept, importance, purpose, and types of online feedback. A de-
liberation includes the best practices for giving online feedback to learners, such as
prompt, frequent, personalized, detailed, clear, specific, and balanced. Additionally, a
discussion of the various avenues of delivering online feedback, such as the written word,
audio file, video recording, pre-set automated feedback, and live web-based conferenc-
ing. The “art” and scientific evidence of providing online feedback are coupled in this ar-
ticle to provide helpful tips for the online educator.
Keywords: Online feedback, learner feedback, online teaching, balanced feedback, feed-
back sandwiches.
Giving effective online feedback is an important skill for educators to develop because it
guides the learner’s development. Since feedback is important to the learning process, the
art of giving effective online feedback is a critical skill for an educator. Teacher skills for
giving online feedback to learners varies from giving feedback in face to face courses be-
cause non-verbal communications (tone of voice, facial expressions) are absent in written
online feedback. Moreover, students often complain that faculty do not provide enough
positive feedback (Zsohar & Smith, 2009). Learners have reported that inadequate feed-
back from teachers is less than satisfactory in an online course (Soon, Sook, Jung, & Im,
2000). Timely and frequent feedback from the course instructor contributes to student
learning (Theile, 2003). These factors create the need for well-crafted online feedback in
the written, audio, video, or in the live synchronous web-based conference format. An
estimated 5.5 to 7.1 million students take at least one online course in the US according
to the US Education Department and Babson Survey Research Group as reported by Ko-
lowich (2014). An implication of providing effective online feedback is the positive im-
pact for online learner performance (Goldsmith, 2014). This article explains practical in-
formation about the best practices of how to develop or refine the art of giving online
feedback to learners.
1
Corresponding author's email: nancyruth.leibold@mnsu.edu
The Art of Giving Online Feedback 35
The Journal of Effective Teaching, Vol. 15, No.1, 2015, 34-46
©2015 All rights reserved.
Concept of Feedback
The definition of feedback is information from an agent, such as a teacher, peer, or other
about one’s performance (Hattie & Timperley, 2007). Learners may also trade feedback
with each other about coursework. Effective feedback is constructive, which means to
improve performance by correcting errors (Cole, 2006; Zsohar & Smith, 2009) using a
positive, future-focused, helpful manner. In addition, feedback can be informational or it
can be informational and instructional (Hattie & Timperley, 2007). When feedback takes
on a corrective function, then it also becomes instructional. Spink (1997) points out that
feedback may be verbal or non-verbal. In the online setting, feedback for learners may be
written, audio, video, or in the live synchronous web-based conference format. The defi-
nition of online feedback is information from an educator, peer, or other in an online
format, such as the written word, audio file, video, pre-programmed automatic reply, or
live web-based conferencing.
Purpose of Feedback
The purpose of giving feedback is to point out strengths and provide comments on areas
for improvement and development. Clear, effective, meaningful feedback is a robust way
to foster learning (Hattie & Timperley, 2007), especially when teamed with personaliza-
tion, such as addressing the receiver by their name. In online courses, due to the lack of
face-to-face interactions, feedback may function to increase a connection between the
educator and learner (Bonnel, Ludwig, & Smith, 2007). The authors recommend individ-
ualized feedback for each learner that includes addressing them by their name and com-
ments specific to their coursework.
Feedback is one of the seven principles for good teaching practice in undergraduate edu-
cation described by Chickering and Gamson (1987). Later, Chickering and Gamson
(1999) revised this principle to include assessment in addition to prompt feedback. Stu-
dents are able to reflect on their knowledge base after receiving feedback, and think about
what they need to learn after considering the feedback for improvement (Chickering &
Gamson, 1999). Yet, the feedback principle was a less common principle met by online
educators in a meta-analysis of the seven principles for good practice (Mukawa, 2006).
The lack of providing effective feedback to learners in Mukawa’s study signals the ne-
cessity of faculty development in this area.
Replication of research findings regarding the purposes of feedback have emerged. Ed-
wards, Perry, and Janzen (2011) presented qualitative data in their study of what makes
an exemplary online educator. Affirmed, challenged, and influenced are common state-
ments learners used in the verbatim examples regarding the feedback they received. This
represents a consistent theme in the research literature that effective feedback stimulates
and motivates learners to acknowledge areas of success and strive for improved perfor-
mance.
Leibold and Schwarz 36
The Journal of Effective Teaching, Vol. 15, No.1, 2015, 34-46
©2015 All rights reserved.
Types of Feedback
Evidence published about the type of feedback that is the most effective for learners re-
lated to writing in online courses is increasing in volume. Alvarez, Espasa, and Guasch
(2011) studied types of feedback for writing assignments in an online learning environ-
ment and identified four types: corrective feedback, epistemic feedback, suggestive feed-
back, and epistemic plus suggestive feedback. Corrective feedback is the feedback that is
specific to the requirements of the assignment and content. For example, “The instruc-
tions called for x, however x was not included.” Epistemic feedback includes prompts or
questions for further thought and explanation or clarification. For example, “Say more
about how this concept relates to the point you make.” Suggestive feedback contains ad-
vice, expansion, or ideas to improve an idea. For example, “By giving an example of
courage after you describe the concept would make the meaning of courage clearer.” Ep-
istemic + Suggestive Feedback combines the use of prompts/questions for further devel-
opment and making suggestions for improvement. In a subsequent study, the quality of
learner writing performance improved the most with the use of epistemic feedback and
epistemic + suggestive feedback (Guasch, Espasa, Alvarez, & Kirshner, 2013). This evi-
dence supports the intervention that asking a question to promote critical thinking in
learners is an effective feedback skill for educators to incorporate in their practice.
Best Practices for Giving Online Feedback to Learners
The collection of research studies on the topic of effective teacher feedback is extensive.
Hattie (1999) reported a synthesis of over 500 meta-analyses related to effective feed-
back, which reported over 100 variables that influence student success. In this synthesis,
receiving feedback and comments about how to improve was a powerful teacher inter-
vention. Additionally, Hattie (1999) found that feedback that addresses items done cor-
rectly, as opposed to pointing out incorrect performance was more effective. Feedback
that builds upon previous knowledge is also effective.
The volume of evidence related to feedback and online teaching practice is increasing.
Online teacher practice research often includes a focus on feedback and the crucial role it
plays in online courses. Providing feedback was a common response in a study of 40 un-
dergraduate and graduate faculty when asked about effective practices for online educa-
tors (Lewis & Abdul-Hamid, 2006). Effective online feedback from educators to learners
is able to guide learners toward positive learning outcomes (Getzlaf, Perry, Toffner, La-
marche, & Edwards, 2009). Feedback is a necessary skill for online instructors.
Feedback is an important intervention for the online educator because it is an opportunity
to develop the instructor-learner relationship, improve academic performance, and en-
hance learning. In an exploratory study about online teaching behaviors, attitudes, and
beliefs, Bigatel, Ragan, Kennan, May, and Redmond (2012) identified 64 teaching com-
petencies for online teaching success. Feedback practices were identified multiple times
in relation to online teaching success. Specific teaching competencies include communi-
cating expectations for learner performance, grading that is visible to learners, providing
prompt feedback, giving feedback that is helpful and enhances learning, and providing
The Art of Giving Online Feedback 37
The Journal of Effective Teaching, Vol. 15, No.1, 2015, 34-46
©2015 All rights reserved.
clear, detailed feedback on assignments (Bigatel et al., 2012). Helpful feedback builds the
instructor-learner relationship through positive interactions. Feedback is a critical aspect
of online educator practice (see Table 1) because it promotes the learning experience.
Table 1. Best Practices for Providing Online Feedback: Application Examples.
Address the learner by name For example, “Sue, the font selected for the
PowerPoint presentation is easy to read.
Good choice!”
Provide frequent feedback Set a pattern for providing feedback to
learners. For example, every week by
Wednesday for the previous week and with-
in 72 hours after an assignment deadline.
Provide immediate feedback Within 72 hours of courseroom discussions
and less than one week for paper/project as-
signments.
Provide balanced feedback “Peggy, great job with including APA
source citation. For APA format, place a
comma after the author name and before the
year. The APA for the corresponding refer-
ence on the reference page is correct! Good
work!
Provide specific feedback “The second paragraph on page 4 includes
helpful information that is explained in clear
terms. The information in this paragraph
should have a source citation and reference
on the reference page. Good job using Times
New Roman 12 point and double spacing
the entire APA document.”
Use a positive tone Two-thirds of the feedback should be posi-
tive and point out what is correct. Create a
feedback tone that inspires the learner to use
the comments to improve future work.
Ask questions to promote thinking “Great job with the definition of the concept.
What are some examples of the concept you
could describe in the paper after the defini-
tion to help clarify the meaning?”
Lifelong education about best practices for educators regarding current recommendations
for giving feedback is important. A study by Jamison (2004) compared facilitators with
feedback education (treatment group) to facilitators in a control group without feedback
education at the university level. The learners who received feedback from facilitators
that participated in education on how to give feedback had significant differences from
the control group. Learners of trained feedback facilitators were more engaged in learn-
Leibold and Schwarz 38
The Journal of Effective Teaching, Vol. 15, No.1, 2015, 34-46
©2015 All rights reserved.
ing, had higher levels of learner self-efficacy, and reported learning enjoyment (Jamison,
2004). The skill of providing online feedback is worthy of development in faculty.
In a descriptive exploratory, two phase study, Bonnel and Boehm (2011) studied best
practices for giving feedback to online learners. Common themes emerged as 1) maxim-
ize technology, 2) use rubrics, templates, and automated responses, 3) have a system, and
4) create a feedback-rich environment. Experienced online educators provided their ex-
pert opinions about the best practices for giving online feedback to learners. Educators
should maximize technology by using email communication, courseroom messaging, an-
nouncement section (when not confidential or private feedback), synchronous web-bed
conferences that can be recorded for those who could not attend, audio messages, and
post online office hours. Related to the use of rubrics, templates, and automated respons-
es, participants recommended the use of rubrics, and that educators refer to them in feed-
back. The theme “have a system” refers to using consistent interventions to provide feed-
back and information, such as making expectations clear, clarifying expectations, and
scheduling feedback (for example, all grading and feedback for assignments will be re-
turned to learners within 72 hours). Other recommendations include the use of praise and
constructive feedback in private, and use of online discussions for some feedback that
would be appropriate for all learners to view. In addition, the “system” should include
giving timely and regular feedback as stated in the course syllabus, offer support, encour-
agement, and promote critical thinking skills. The final theme: create a feedback-rich en-
vironment includes tips such as promote learner self-reflection, use peer review, vary
feedback so it fits the assignment, use group feedback, teacher feedback, and automated
feedback.
Prompt and Frequent Feedback
Learners are able to build on their previous experiences through receipt of timely and ef-
fective feedback. Chickering and Gamson (1987) describe prompt feedback as one of the
seven principles of effective teaching. Ritter and Lemmke (2000) studied the seven prin-
ciples for good teaching practice in internet-enhanced courses and reported electronic
mail as a useful way to provide feedback to students. Most learning management systems
have feedback areas built into the grading function that are also useful and immediate.
Practice tests and exercises in the online courseroom can also be set to provide immedi-
ate, automated feedback about their comprehension of course content (Ritter & Lemke,
2000). The Net Generation learners prefer and even expect immediate feedback (Groome,
2011). Online learners define immediate feedback as ranging from 24 to 48 hours and up
to one to two weeks (Getzlaf et al., 2009). A study by Arbaugh and Hornik (2006) tested
Chickering and Gamson’s seven principles to online learning and found that prompt
feedback was important to learners. Learners receiving immediate feedback perform bet-
ter than learners who receive delayed feedback (Johnson, 2014; Lemley, Sudweeks,
Howell, Laws, & Sawyer, 2007). Online discussion feedback is best returned to learners
within 72 hours of the due date and time. Assignment feedback is best when returned to
learners in less than one week from the due date. This allows the learner to have rapid
acknowledgement of strengths and areas to improve before the next course assignment.
Feedback is best when immediate (Lewis & Abdul-Hamid, 2006), because it is a critical
The Art of Giving Online Feedback 39
The Journal of Effective Teaching, Vol. 15, No.1, 2015, 34-46
©2015 All rights reserved.
aspect of quality instruction, so learners know what areas they have exceled in and what
areas to focus on for improvement.
In addition to timely feedback, online educators should have a feedback frequency prac-
tice established for consistent use. The practice of frequent feedback promotes online
success (Junk, Deringer, & Junk, 2011) and is best when communicated to learners in the
online courseroom or course syllabus. For example, the instructor may provide a state-
ment in the course syllabus that reads, “Feedback for weekly discussions is available to
learners each week by Wednesday at 11:59 pm. Feedback for assignments is available to
learners within 7 days of the due date.” This transparent statement communicates to
learners what and when to expect feedback. In a comparison study of individualized and
frequent feedback versus collective feedback in online courses, learners in the individual-
ized, frequent feedback group had better academic performance, and increased student
satisfaction (Gallien & Oomen-Early, 2008). Frequent feedback is a best practice of
online educators to promote learner success.
Tone of Feedback
The tone of the feedback is as important as the content of the feedback. Praise the learner
by pointing out skills done well. For example, consider the difference in feedback
phrased in a positive, encouraging way, and feedback that is not positive and encouraging
(see Table 2). In a study of online exemplary faculty, the use of encouraging feedback
with learners was identified (Lewis & Abdul-Hamid, 2006). Praise and encouragement
can serve to both reward and motivate the learner to continue their hard work and strive
to continue to develop and improve.
Table 2. Positive and Negative Examples of Feedback.
Positive Feedback Tone Excellent job with writing in the active tense
throughout your paper! One area to make
your writing even stronger is to add exam-
ples of the concepts throughout the paper.
For example, when describing the concept
of caring, give a few examples of when car-
ing was present. This will clarify your mean-
ing of caring to the reader. See sample paper
AB in the courseroom resources area to see
an example. You did a good job with proof-
reading in your paper (no spelling, grammar,
or punctuation errors present)!
Negative Feedback Tone “The implications for practice section needs
work. Blah, blah, blah. Not enough detail.”
Leibold and Schwarz 40
The Journal of Effective Teaching, Vol. 15, No.1, 2015, 34-46
©2015 All rights reserved.
Specific Feedback
Clear feedback that communicates specific information to the learner is another best prac-
tice for giving effective online feedback. A message that includes enough detail so the
learner is able to understand the meaning is preferred (Bigatel et al., 2012; Lewis & Ab-
dul-Hamid, 2006). Vague comments such as “this is vague,” “good paper,” and “there are
grammar errors” (see Table 3) do not provide the learner with enough information to be
able to take action to improve performance. Clear communications in the online envi-
ronment are important for the instructor to use so that the message to the learner is clear
(Bailey & Card, 2009). Eren (2003) studied learners’ perceptions on the effectiveness of
feedback in online courses and found that detailed feedback is preferred. One tip for use
when an assignment lacks clarity and is vague is to respond with a question to promote
critical thinking in the learner. For example, “What could you add to this section to pro-
vide more detail for the reader?” Another example is to comment, “Say more about this
idea by explaining it more for the reader. Add three or four more sentences describing
this in more detail.” These comments promote critical thinking in the learner.
Jones and Blankenship (2014) studied 70 online learners regarding their perceptions of
instructor feedback on course work and the incorporation of feedback in future course
work. Students reported the two most helpful types of feedback as the numerical grade
and a grading rubric with comments at the end of the assignment. Ninety-three percent of
students reported they read the feedback, while 86 percent reported the feedback was
helpful for future course work. The study was a convenience sample with 70 participants
(Jones & Blankenship, 2014). Replication of the study is recommended.
Table 3. Specific Feedback versus Vague Feedback.
_______________________ ___________
Note: A specific feedback comment is of higher quality because it provides more infor-
mation to the receiver.
Example A
Specific “Good job with using proper citations for resources!”
Vague “Good job!”
Example B
Specific “There are some split infinitives in the paper. Check out
more information about split infinitives in the courseroom folder
titled Writing Resources.”
Vague “There are some grammar errors.”
Balanced Feedback
Balanced feedback is the use of positive, negative, and positive feedback. Also known as
the sandwich method of feedback, which is a three-part technique. First, sandwiched
feedback starts with a positive comment, then a comment about an area for improvement,
The Art of Giving Online Feedback 41
The Journal of Effective Teaching, Vol. 15, No.1, 2015, 34-46
©2015 All rights reserved.
and then a positive comment. Feedback sandwiches serve the purpose of making con-
structive criticism more palatable (Toledo, 2013). Comments should be specific and ap-
propriate to the level of the student (see Table 4 for example). That is, the comments
would vary for a student in a 100 level writing intensive course versus a graduate student.
Feedback that focuses on areas for improvement should include what needs correction in
terms of meeting the assignment instructions. Helpful resources may also be instructive
for the learner. For example, in a paper with multiple split infinitives, a resource about
split infinitives may help the learner to understand and consequently improve perfor-
mance.
Table 4. Example of Balanced or Sandwiched Feedback.
___________________________ ________
Top Bun A positive comment that focuses on an item done correctly.
Middle Focuses on a comment about something that needs improvement.
Include corrective feedback, such as a resource with information
or ask a probing question to facilitate learner thinking on the area.
Foundation Bun Includes a positive comment about something done correctly.
Although numerous articles exist in publication about the technique of feedback sand-
wiches, there is a gap in the research literature on the topic. One article that included two
studies on the topic of feedback sandwiches was present upon an extensive literature
search. Parkes, Abercrombie, and McCarty published a research article in 2013 that de-
scribes two research studies they did on the use of feedback sandwiches. The first study
had 21 participants and the second study had 350 participants. The researchers used a
multi-method approach and quasi-experimental design. Students were surveyed their
opinions about feedback sandwiches and this was compared to researcher measures of
improved performance. The students reported the feedback sandwiches improved their
future performance because as they did the next assignment, they would think about the
feedback that they had done an area correctly and what they needed to improve on. They
reported using this feedback to improve their performance. However, the researchers re-
ported the students did not improve their performance. In another study of online feed-
back, Getzlaff et al. (2009) reported that using feedback sandwiches was a helpful in-
structor behavior. The topic of feedback sandwiches needs more research to study if it is
effective or not.
Does Online Feedback Really Make a Difference?
With respect to negative outcomes related to online feedback, studies are less common in
publication. However, two themes are present in the literature. One theme relates to stu-
dent perception and the other is about effects of feedback on learner performance.
Leibold and Schwarz 42
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©2015 All rights reserved.
Student Perception
In a study by Jones and Blankenship (2014) of student perceptions about online instructor
feedback, 56 percent of students indicated that positive comments with the feedback were
not as useful as comments about how to improve course work. An examination of online
student satisfaction by Palmer and Holt (2008) identified instructor feedback for online
assignments of high importance to their course experience. Yet, participants reported low
satisfaction with the instructor’s feedback performance. This data strengthens the need
for instructor knowledge, and faculty development of best practices related to providing
online feedback.
Effects of Feedback on Learner Performance
Previously in this article a description of two studies by Parkes, Abercrombie, and
McCarty (2013) was given. Although students report the instructor feedback was incor-
porated to improve their performance, instructors report that the student performance did
not improve after receiving detailed feedback. In another study by Espasa and Meneses
(2010), 186 graduate students participated to analyze online feedback by instructors to
students. Online assignment feedback from the instructor has no relationship to the final
course grade (Espasa & Meneses, 2010). Student satisfaction with the feedback received
was high. It is noteworthy that the courses in this study do not require students to do as-
signments within the courses. Students are only required to complete a final assignment;
however have the option to complete assignments during the course. In this study, the
researchers stress that not all students completed assignments during the course (Espasa
& Meneses, 2010). The authors stress that faculty development related to giving feedback
in online courses is worthy, despite these findings.
Feedback Timesaving Tips for Educators
Providing online feedback for learners is a time-consuming task that is concerning for
online faculty (Bonnel, 2008; Lewis & Abdul-Hamid, 2006). This section includes a de-
scription of a variety of tips to save time when giving online feedback. Feedback banks in
word processing documents that include frequently used feedback comments are one
technique to save time. Cut and paste the remarks from a word processing document into
the learner’s paper or online feedback area (Lewis & Abdul-Hamid, 2006). This allows
the educator to construct carefully worded, specific, helpful feedback phrases with a posi-
tive tone for use.
Some educators use voice technology to provide audio feedback for learners as a time-
saver (Lewis & Abdul-Hamid, 2006; Portolese Dias & Trumpy, 2014). The Desire to
Learn (D2L) learning platform has audio feedback built in to the assignment dropbox and
grading functions. Some educators use MP3 files to provide audio feedback that provides
learner and teacher benefit (Todd, 2012). Todd (2012) reports the teacher’s tone of voice
can be motivating for learners to make revisions in work for improvement and saves the
teacher time. In a study by Wood, Moskovitz, and Valiga (2011), audio feedback was fa-
vored to written feedback by baccalaureate and graduate nursing learners in online cours-
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©2015 All rights reserved.
es. Participants reported the audio feedback from the instructor had better clarity, was
more personal, motivating, and easier to retain than written feedback. In a related study
comparing audio and written feedback to written feedback, doctoral learners that received
audio and text feedback reported better cognitive development and satisfaction with the
instructor (Rockinson-Szapkiw, 2012). Lunt and Curran (2010) reported that learners
were ten times more likely to open audio feedback than written feedback. The use of au-
dio feedback is an effective, timesaving way to provide feedback for online learners.
Online educators can provide clear, detailed assignment instructions for learners (Bigatel
et al., 2012). Good instructions help learners, but also save time for faculty because the
expectations are clear, less questions and clarification are necessary, and thus application
is more likely. A best practice for online faculty found in a study by Lewis and Abdul-
Hamid (2006) is to include clear instructions and expectations for the assignment.
Schwarz recommends using small assignments that build to a larger, final assignment
(2012). The learner can incorporate feedback from the small assignments to improve per-
formance, and work up to a big project at the end of the course where they showcase their
development. The use of an assignment rubric is a behavior of exemplary faculty (Lewis
& Abdul-Hamid, 2006).
Video feedback and synchronized feedback are two more timesaving methods that educa-
tors can employ. Video recordings of feedback for learners are timesavers and provide
clear, personalized messages for the learner that include non-verbal communications. The
use of synchronous, web-based conferencing is one technique that online educators can
use to provide feedback. Adobe Connect, Skype, or similar tools are examples of tools to
conference with learners. Learners report improved clarity in understanding synchronous
web-based conferencing feedback (Chung, Shel, & Kaiser, 2006).
Conclusion
There are many reasons why giving effective online feedback is an important educator
skill. The online educator has an opportunity to create an environment where the focus is
on success and enhancement of learning! This forward-focused approach empowers and
influences the learner through affirmation, challenging questions to excel (Edwards, Per-
ry, & Janzen, 2011). The ability to provide effective online feedback is a critical educator
skill. Therefore, lifelong education for teachers to develop and polish online feedback
skills is a worthwhile activity. Best practice includes feedback that is prompt, clear, de-
tailed (Bigatel et al., 2012; Zsohar & Smith, 2009), individualized, and frequent (Gallien
& Oomen-Early, 2008), and balanced (Docheff, 1990). Educators may use a variety of
medium for delivery of online feedback, such as written word, audio files, videos, pre-set
automated feedback, and synchronous web-based conferencing. This article presents evi-
dence-based, practical strategies for educators to use in the online courseroom when
providing feedback. These best practices can assist faculty to deliver quality feedback to
enhance student learning.
Leibold and Schwarz 44
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©2015 All rights reserved.
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... Both face-to-face and online feedback had their advantages and disadvantages. Online communication permits learning and teaching to occur anytime and anywhere, while face-to-face counterpart cannot provide such flexibility (Evans, 2013;Gikandi et al., 2011;Leibold & Schwarz, 2015). Face-to-face feedback includes both verbal message and nonverbal cues such as tone of voice, gestures and facial expressions (Yin & Shi, 2022). ...
... The language use of online feedback can be accurate, formal and longer in utterances (Yin & Shi, 2022). Concerning that online feedback lacks nonverbal communication, such as tone and expression, scholars have suggested the need for well-designed online feedback in the form of written, audio, video, or web-based real-time synchronous meetings (Leibold & Schwarz, 2015). Online feedback helps students to have sufficient time to reflect upon the learning materials and to prepare formal feedback, enabling students to generate more in-depth and thorough thinking about the materials (Watts, 2016;Yin & Shi, 2022). ...
... Therefore, judging students by affirming their response is correct or incorrect, or using grades or marks is not enough, teachers are further suggested to give them cues, to provide directions to scaffold students to tackle the problems. Online platform or software can help teachers to give prompt verification feedback, and the online classroom can be set to provide automated feedback for specific assignments (Leibold & Schwarz, 2015;Tian & Zhou, 2020). After verification feedback, teachers' scaffolding feedback that communicates specific and personalized information enables students to improve their work and to know what to do next. ...
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Facilitating undergraduates’ self-regulated learning (SRL) is the key to successful online learning, and teachers’ various feedback plays an important role. Through an investigation on Chinese university students’ online learning experience, the study found students’ SRL strategies differences in terms of students’ gender, grades and achievement rank. The structural equation modeling analysis showed that different teacher feedback can influence different SRL strategies. Specifically, verification feedback, scaffolding feedback and teacher praise were positively related with students’ SRL, and teacher criticism also positively predicted three dimensions of SRL. Adopting verification and scaffolding feedback and the balance of teacher praise and criticism were suggested as they can enhance students’ online SRL strategies. Implications for university online teaching are further discussed.
... 17, 1, 2023, 1-18 in line with Chetwynd and Dobbyn (2011), who underline that students need the capacity for self-regulated learning and independent work in distance education, and therefore, providing students with effective feedback is pivotal. For a teacher, it is a valuable skill to be able to provide students with efficient online feedback (Leibold & Schwarz, 2015). However, providing meaningful feedback in distance education is challenging (Uribe & Vaughan, 2017), and teachers have expressed concerns about their inability to provide immediate feedback in emergency remote teaching (Trudel et al., 2021). ...
... Brookhart (2017) has also underscored similar issues in effective feedback. Likewise, when it comes to efficient online feedback, feedback should be frequent, immediate, specific, and promote thinking (Leibold & Schwarz, 2015). ...
... Timely, personalised feedback amplifies learning in online settings (Castro & Tumibay, 2021;Tallent-Runnels et al., 2005). Using videos to provide feedback is recommended as it increases non-verbal communication compared to written online feedback in online courses (Leibold & Schwarz, 2015). Moreover, teachers' online feedback can stimulate language development (Ene & Upton, 2014). ...
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This case study investigated students’ perceptions of teacher feedback in foreign language emergency remote teaching in Finnish general upper secondary education. A total of 251 students from seven schools answered an online questionnaire. The results showed that students found teacher feedback to be encouraging, clear, instructive and general. Compared to students with higher course grades, students with lower course grades found teacher feedback to be discouraging, vague, unclear, and demotivating. Students perceived the quantity of oral feedback to be scarce. The results imply that feedback was not personalised to match students’ individual needs, and that teachers mostly relied on written feedback. Teachers can use these findings to reflect on their approach to feedback in emergency remote teaching and redesign strategies to diversify their feedback practices.
... Furthermore, giving an effective e-feedback is valuable skill, and it should be gained by English teacher due to the absences of face-to face interaction which has been replaced with textual, audio or video feedback in online platforms. In the other words, the ability of giving effective and positive online feedback is an art and critical skill that the teacher should gain in order to enhance the quality of teaching (Leibold and Schwarz, 2015). ...
... Consequently, the teachers in this case convey e-feedback that enables the students to know their weak and strong parties of their assignments and how could develop their performance; moreover, this formative specific explanations should be mixture of various related information besides asking questions to gain the desirable outcomes (Finn, Thomas, and Rawson, 2018 students to think critically about their tasks (Leibold and Schwarz, 2015). An examination of analyzing experiences of applying effective feedback in EFL setting through the use of digital technologies conducted by Mesén-Hidalgo and Sandí-Delgado ( 2020) indicated that applying feedback in online ESL classrooms contributes in increasing the students' critical thinking skills. ...
... Many researchers found that e-feedback is not only play a vital role in enhancing the student's learning and promote the educational outcomes, but also it subsidizes constructing a good rapport between EFL teachers and the students in the online community (Leibold and Schwarz, 2015). Nevertheless, being an active listener and active reader is considered as one of the characteristics that the educators should have in order to delivery effective efeedback. ...
... • Good practices for giving online feedback: Feedback is a central part of teaching. Good feedback informs, instructs, and offers suggestions to transform errors into successes (Leibold et Schwarz, 2015). Kaïros gives corrective feedback after having answered a question (figures 2 and 3) and suggestive feedback with a hint for each question. ...
... Kaïros gives corrective feedback after having answered a question (figures 2 and 3) and suggestive feedback with a hint for each question. As suggested by Leibold and Schwarz (2015), Kaïros aims to offer frequent, immediate, specific, and positive feedback. Now that we have a good overview of the framework and pedagogical principles on which Kaïros has been built, we will have a look at the tool itself. ...
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This paper is devoted to the results and outcomes of the evaluation of an online media-didactic teacher training. The training consists of self-paced asynchronous modules for independent learning about how to use digital media for teaching and an online community for exchange and peer review among German teachers. The aim of this training is to further develop teachers’ digital skills, which are nowadays required for integrating digital media not only into the preparation of teaching material, but also into the lesson itself and into daily teaching methods. The training has been developed based on specific media-didactic quality indicators, which have been identified and analysed through a literature analysis. The overall training’s effectiveness seems to depend on factors like the practical relevance of the training content for the participants, their prior experience with online media-didactic trainings, the overall acceptance of online learning, the user experience and communication and feedback of participants. During the pilot testing of the final media-didactic online teacher training, the effectiveness of the training has been evaluated by interviewing some of the participants after they have completed the training. The results of this evaluation, with focus on the usage, the training assessment, and the effects of the online training, will be further presented and discussed in this paper. Overall, the research question "What influences the acquisition of digital competencies that teachers strive for during online media didactic teacher training?" is answered by conducting a three-level training evaluation that contributes to the assessment of knowledge acquisition and ensures the implementation of this knowledge in daily teaching scenarios, resulting in comprehensive learning and training success.
... Using logbooks creates a new bridge between the teacher and the students and blurs the division between work done inside and outside the class, making it what Reinders and Benson (2017, p. 574) describe as an "extension of classroom learning," leading to "an interconnected web of learning opportunities." It also allows for feedback from the teacher, which can be beneficial to students provided it follows the online feedback best practices described by Liebold and Schwarz (2015) as follows: giving prompt, clear, detailed, individualized, frequent, and balanced feedback. The logbook then becomes a dialogue between the students and the teacher, where guidance and feedback are key elements. ...
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From an earlier study undertaken by the researchers, data revealed that more than 90 percent of students thought making goals would help them achieve academic success in English. However, the lack of explicit instructions on goal setting in classrooms resulted in students making goals that were often too difficult to achieve. In addition, a system for helping students monitor and evaluate their goals through teacher and peer support appears to be absent in many educational contexts. To help students attain higher success with achieving goals, a system inspired by aspects of the GROW model (Whitmore, 2017) was created to support goal-setting activities. For 13 weeks, students drafted goals on Google docs and shared them with peers during classroom instruction. Classroom activities were implemented to help encourage peer support and exploration of goals inside the classroom. Outside of the classroom, Google docs provided a way for teachers to view students’ progress towards goals and a platform to offer advice and support where needed. Qualitative and quantitative data were collected from a pre-semester and post-semester survey. Results are intended to help advance methods for turning goal-setting tasks into an interactive feedback system. This system could play a valuable role in autonomous learning environments. Keywords: Goal-setting, Interactive Feedback System, Autonomous Learning, Logbooks, Collaborative Dialogue
... It becomes a challenge when assignments are to be completed, be graded and given feedback in few weeks considering the small number of lecturers and markers in the module (Maphoto, 2021). One student recommended that other ways of providing feedback should be considered if writing comments is a challenge for lecturers and markers (Leibold & Schwarz, 2015). The recommendation reads, "lecturers and markers should consider innovative ways of doing things a recorded feedback won't be bad" (Paris, 2020 online open-ended evaluation questions). ...
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... It becomes a challenge when assignments are to be completed, be graded and given feedback in few weeks considering the small number of lecturers and markers in the module (Maphoto, 2021). One student recommended that other ways of providing feedback should be considered if writing comments is a challenge for lecturers and markers (Leibold & Schwarz, 2015). The recommendation reads, "lecturers and markers should consider innovative ways of doing things a recorded feedback won't be bad" (Paris, 2020 online open-ended evaluation questions). ...
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The objective of this study was to examine perceptions, expectations and challenges associated with the feedback that first-year English studies students receive in an Academic Writing module (ENG100) at an open distance and e-learning institution in South Africa. First-year students who speak English as an additional language experience difficulty in understanding the feedback they receive in their academic writing tasks. While constructive feedback is known to be a valuable teaching tool in various teaching contexts, the findings revealed that the feedback students receive is below the standard that they expect, is confusing, and inadequate for addressing most of the sociocultural challenges they encounter. The study followed a qualitative approach that obtained data from participants through online open-ended evaluation questions. Random sampling was utilised to select a sample size from a population of approximately 16 000 students. This paper proposes that academic writing modules should view writing as a social skill and not as a subject.
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Teaching an online multicultural literature course during the early stages of the COVID-19 pandemic from Fall 2020 to Spring 2021 created an opportunity to engage in reflection on instructional practices and student reactions to diverse literature selections. In an effort to understand how community was created and dialogue maintained between instructor and students, the author sought to reflect on strategies that encouraged critical thinking and ongoing sharing of individual student perspectives during the course. This chapter examines how an online multicultural literature course was created and facilitated for students during a time when college courses were delivered solely through online instruction. The chapter illustrates how the online multicultural literature course was developed with culturally responsive pedagogy in mind to generate online discussion, guide literary analysis, and develop student writing. In examining this process, the chapter highlights instructional strategies that can be utilized by faculty to create engaging online learning communities.
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Yabancı dil eğitimi öğrenciler için olduğu kadar öğretmenler için de uzun ve zorlu bir süreçtir. Dünyanın birçok yerinde yabancı dil öğretimi çeşitli yöntem ve tekniklerle gerçekleştirilmektedir. Dünyada ve ülkemizde her kurum Covid-19 salgınından önce bu öğretimi daha çok yüz yüze gerçekleştirmekteydi ancak Covid19 salgını ile beraber eğitim, salgının yayılmasını önlemek amacıyla çeşitli platformlar üzerinden uzaktan (çevrim içi) gerçekleştirilmeye çalışılmıştır. Yakın geçmişte var olan ancak bu kadar yoğun ve uzun süreçli olmayan uzaktan eğitime bir anda geçiş yapılması, yeni normale alışmayı ve süreçte yaşanan sorunları gidermeyi gerektirmiştir. Eğitimin her alanında olduğu gibi yabancı dil eğitiminde de uzaktan öğretime geçiş sürecinde yabancı dil öğretiminin nasıl olacağı konusu eğitimciler için soru işaretleri doğurmuştur. Bu durum, ani bir geçişle olduğu için öğretmenleri ve öğrencileri hazırlıksız yakalasa da uzaktan eğitimle dil öğretimi üzerine yapılan çalışmalar araştırılmış ve bu çalışmalardan yola çıkılarak uzaktan eğitimle dil öğretiminde dikkat edilmesi gereken hususlar derlenmiş ve yabancı dil öğretmenlerine bu konuda öneriler getirilmiştir. Bu araştırma, bir tarama çalışması olup doküman incelemesi yoluyla betimsel analiz yapılarak derlenmiştir. Uzaktan dil öğretimi yapan öğretmenlere uzaktan eğitimde nelere dikkat etmeleri konusunda yardımcı olacağı düşünülmektedir. Uzaktan eğitimin yararlılıkları ve sınırlılıkları, kavramları, modelleri araştırılmış ve uzaktan dil öğretiminde öğretmenlere uzaktan öğretimde dikkat etmeleri gereken ilkeler derlenmiştir. Uzaktan eğitimde etkili bir dil öğreticisi olabilmenin birçok faktörü vardır. Bu araştırmada bunların bir kısmı derlenmiştir. Araştırmada, literatür taramasına dayalı olarak öğreticilerin eğitimi, ders planı yapmak, dil öğretiminde bir model uygulamak, teknolojiyi etkin kullanmak, öğrencilerin motivasyonunun yüksek tutmak, öğrencilere dönüt vermek, uzaktan öğretimde sosyalleşmeyi sağlayabilmek olarak kategoriler oluşturulmuştur ve bu kategorilere yönelik araştırmalar sunulmuştur.
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Yabancı dil eğitimi öğrenciler için olduğu kadar öğretmenler için de uzun ve zorlu bir süreçtir. Dünyanın birçok yerinde yabancı dil öğretimi çeşitli yöntem ve tekniklerle gerçekleştirilmektedir. Dünyada ve ülkemizde her kurum Covid-19 salgınından önce bu öğretimi daha çok yüz yüze gerçekleştirmekteydi ancak Covid-19 salgını ile beraber eğitim, salgının yayılmasını önlemek amacıyla çeşitli platformlar üzerinden uzaktan (çevrim içi) gerçekleştirilmeye çalışılmıştır. Yakın geçmişte var olan ancak bu kadar yoğun ve uzun süreçli olmayan uzaktan eğitime bir anda geçiş yapılması, yeni normale alışmayı ve süreçte yaşanan sorunları gidermeyi gerektirmiştir. Eğitimin her alanında olduğu gibi yabancı dil eğitiminde de uzaktan öğretime geçiş sürecinde yabancı dil öğretiminin nasıl olacağı konusu eğitimciler için soru işaretleri doğurmuştur. Bu durum, ani bir geçişle olduğu için öğretmenleri ve öğrencileri hazırlıksız yakalasa da uzaktan eğitimle dil öğretimi üzerine yapılan çalışmalar araştırılmış ve bu çalışmalardan yola çıkılarak uzaktan eğitimle dil öğretiminde dikkat edilmesi gereken hususlar derlenmiş ve yabancı dil öğretmenlerine bu konuda öneriler getirilmiştir. Bu araştırma, bir tarama çalışması olup doküman incelemesi yoluyla betimsel analiz yapılarak derlenmiştir. Uzaktan dil öğretimi yapan öğretmenlere uzaktan eğitimde nelere dikkat etmeleri konusunda yardımcı olacağı düşünülmektedir. Uzaktan eğitimin yararlılıkları ve sınırlılıkları, kavramları, modelleri araştırılmış ve uzaktan dil öğretiminde öğretmenlere uzaktan öğretimde dikkat etmeleri gereken ilkeler derlenmiştir. Uzaktan eğitimde etkili bir dil öğreticisi olabilmenin birçok faktörü vardır. Bu araştırmada bunların bir kısmı derlenmiştir. Araştırmada, literatür taramasına dayalı olarak öğreticilerin eğitimi, ders planı yapmak, dil öğretiminde bir model uygulamak, teknolojiyi etkin kullanmak, öğrencilerin motivasyonunun yüksek tutmak, öğrencilere dönüt vermek, uzaktan öğretimde sosyalleşmeyi sağlayabilmek olarak kategoriler oluşturulmuştur ve bu kategorilere yönelik araştırmalar sunulmuştur.
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Literature supports that feedback is central to the learning process, and technology is central in the delivery of online education. Critical lines of research consistently identify two crucial vari-ables associated with effective online higher education: community and learning. Thus, the cur-rent study examined how audio and text feedback as compared written feedback can contribute to 125 online doctoral students' sense of community and learning. The findings show that doctoral students who received audio and text feedback had better perceptions of their instructor and cog-nitive development than those who received written feedback. The students who received audio and text feedback also had better learning outcomes. There was no difference in social presence between the two groups. These results are consistent with qualitative research on audio and text feedback and are explained by media theory.
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Abstract Learner satisfaction has been shown to be positively correlated with quality of learning outcomes. An understanding of the factors that influence student satisfaction with online learning in a particular context can be used as an input to the appropriate design of learning environments, and for the provision of targeted support to students, with an aim to positively influence the student online learning experience. Following the mandatory inclusion of at least one wholly online unit of study in all undergraduate programs at Deakin University, a large ‘experiences of learning online’ (ELO) survey was undertaken to gauge students’ perceptions of studying in the wholly online mode. A multivariate linear regression of all the questionnaire items was performed against an overall satisfaction item. Five items were found to significantly contribute to a model that explained approximately 70% of reported student satisfaction. Factors that were found to positively influence student satisfaction with studying a wholly online unit primarily related to how confident they felt about their ability to communicate and learn online, having a clear understanding of what was required to succeed in the unit and how well they thought they were performing in the unit. Other results are also reported.
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The need for supporting student writing has received much attention in writing research. One specific type of support is feedback—including peer feedback—on the writing process. Despite the wealth of literature on both feedback and academic writing, there is little empirical evidence on what type of feedback best promotes writing in online environments. This article reports on research that tries to determine what type of feedback best improves the quality of collaborative writing and what the effects of feedback are on student learning in an environment based on asynchronous written communication. The results reveal that concerning the type of feedback, epistemic feedback or epistemic and suggestive feedback best improve the quality of collaborative writing performance. The nature of the feedback-giver (whether teacher feedback or teacher and peer) makes a difference to the final text only when the feedback is epistemic, or epistemic and suggestive.
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In too many physical education classes and athletic practices, specific performance feedback is not often given. Put together the ingredients for a feedback sandwich and achievement gains will soar!