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First record of genus Siler Simon, 1889 (Araneae: Salticidae) from India

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The jumping spider Siler semiglaucus (Simon, 1901) has been newly reported from India, based on specimens studied from South India. These spiders were observed feeding on all life stages of Technomyrmex ants.
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Siler semiglaucus (Simon, 1901)
(Images 1–4)
Material examined: 3 males
(BNHS Sp.182-184), February 2015,
Chilavannur, Cochin, Kerala, coll.
Sunny Joseph; 1 female (BNHS Sp.
185), February 2015, Chilavannur,
Cochin, Kerala, coll. Sunny Joseph.
Body colour paern similar in male and female.
Dorsum coloured with iridescent scales when live (Image
1), lose shine in alcohol, ventrally yellowish. Carapace
paern comprising red between dorsal and lateral blue
stripe. Femora and patella I brown, rest yellow with
longitudinal black stripes. Abdomen densely covered
with two blue spots embedded in red patch, distally
grey. Cymbium longer than palpal bia, embolus curved
with pointed p (Image 2a); bial apophysis pointed,
arising 45 degrees (Image 2b). Female epigynum
ventrally with common transverse oval opening,
anterior margin parally enclosing copulatory opening
and posterior margin bent inwards (Image 3a). In dorsal
view, copulatory duct broadened inwards, broadest
before joining spherical spermatheca (Image 3b).
Discussion: This is a new record of Siler semiglaucus
from India, which was previously recorded from
neighbouring region of Sri Lanka. Although, this is rst
scienc record of the genus Siler, the images of these
Siler

Siddharth Kulkarni 1 & Sunny Joseph 2
1 Biome Conservaon Foundaon, 18, Silver Moon Apts.,1/2A/2,
Bavdhan Kh., Pune, Maharashtra 411021, India
2 Kidangeth, Chilavannur Road, South Kadavanthra, Cochin, Kerala
682020, India
1 sskspider@gmail.com (corresponding author), 2 sunnyjosef@gmail.com
7701
ISSN 0974-7907 (Online)
ISSN 0974-7893 (Print)
OPEN ACCESS

Journal of Threatened Taxa | www.threatenedtaxa.org | 26 August 2015 | 7(10): 7701–7703
DOI: hp://dx.doi.org/10.11609/JoTT.o4266.7701-3 | ZooBank: urn:lsid:zoobank.org:pub:B349C69D-6EAC-47B1-9D38-8AC1AFF84A35
Editor: Anonymity requested.  26 August 2015 (online & print)
Manuscript details: Ms # o4266 | Received 03 March 2015 | Final received 03 May 2015 | Finally accepted 14 August 2015
 Kulkarni, S. & S. Joseph (2015). First record of genus Siler Simon, 1889 (Araneae: Salcidae) from India . Journal of Threatened Taxa 7(10): 7701–7703;
hp://dx.doi.org/10.11609/JoTT.o4150.7701-3
Copyright: © Kulkarni & Joseph 2015. Creave Commons Aribuon 4.0 Internaonal License. JoTT allows unrestricted use of this arcle in any medium, repro-
ducon and distribuon by providing adequate credit to the authors and the source of publicaon.
Funding: Self-funded.
The authors declare no compeng interests.
Acknowledgements: SK is thankful to Thomas Vaakaven, India Biodiversity Portal for photographing Siler rstly from southern India that led to this study, Jerzy
Prószyński for helpful discussions and Priyadarsanan Dharma Rajan for commenng on the ant identy.
The oriental genus Siler Simon, 1889, which was
erected with the descripon of female Siler cupreus
Simon, 1889 from Japan, comprises globally of nine
valid species (World Spider Catalog 2015), (Table 1).
Of these, Siler semiglaucus (Simon, 1901) is the most
widely distributed species and has been geographically
recorded nearest to India.
Specimens collected from Chilavannur (9.965N &
76.306E) were preserved in 70% alcohol and examined
with Brunel IMXZ™ stereozoom microscope and
imaged using Canon 1200D™ mounted camera. The
examined specimens are deposited at Bombay Natural
History Society (BNHS), Mumbai with registraon
numbers as given in the material examined below.
Species idencaon was conrmed by comparing
with Prószyński (1985) and matched with the species’
lectotype (J. Prószyński pers. comm. 11 February 2015).
NOT
EVALUATED
NE
DATA
DEFICIENT
DD
VULNERABLE
VU
ENDANGERED
EN
EXTINCT
IN THE WILD
EW
EXTINCT
EX
CRITICALLY
ENDANGERED
CR
LEAST
CONCERN
LC
NEAR
THREATENED
NT
Siler semiglaucus
Journal of Threatened Taxa | www.threatenedtaxa.org | 26 August 2015 | 7(10): 7701–7703
First record of genus Siler Kulkarni & Joseph
7702
spiders from India have been on internet since 2010
(Nature Magnied 2010). It is noceable from them,
that they could be more than one species of Siler and
therefore, need further study.
Nelson et al. (2004) and Jackson & Olphen (1992)
have experimentally proved Siler semiglaucus to
be myrmecophagic from Philippines and Sri Lanka
respecvely. Jackson & Olphen (1992) discussed
preference for ants as prey by S. semiglaucus, however
they feed upon any insect when starved for more than
two weeks. During eld survey, these spiders were
observed to feed on Technomyrmex sp. ants (Image 4).
Apart from the adults of ants, these spiders also fed
upon the eggs, larvae and pupae of those ants (Image
1b).
Image 1. Siler semiglaucus. a - male habitus, dorsal view; b - female habitus, dorsal view
Species 
Siler bielawskii Zabka, 1985 China, Vietnam
Siler collingwoodi (O. Pickard-Cambridge,
1871) China, Japan
Siler cupreus Simon, 1889 China, Korea, Taiwan, Japan
Siler avocinctus (Simon, 1901) Singapore
Siler hanoicus Prószyński, 1985 Vietnam
Siler lewaense Prószyński & Deeleman-
Reinhold, 2010 Sumba
Siler pulcher Simon, 1901 Malaysia
Siler semiglaucus (Simon, 1901) Sri Lanka to Philippines
Siler severus (Simon, 1901) China
Siler species
Image 2. Siler semiglaucus. a - male right palp, dorsal view; b - male
right palp, ectal view
References
hp://www.naturemagnied.com/2010/09/
colourful-jumping-spider-siler.html. Accessed on 02 May 2015.
Nelson, X.J., R.R. Jackson, S.D. Pollard, G.B. Edwards & A.T. Barrion
(2004). Predaon by ants on jumping spiders (Araneae: Salcidae)
in the Philippines. New Zealand Journal of Zoology 31(1): 45–56;
hp://dx.doi.org/10.1080/03014223.2004.9518358
On Siler, Silerella, Cyllobelus and Naa (Araneae,
Salcidae). Annales zoologici, Warszawa 39(2): 69–85.
Jackson, R.R. & A. van Olphen (1992). Prey-capturing techniques and
prey preferences of Chrysilla, Naa and Siler, ant-eang jumping
spiders (Araneae, Salcidae) from Kenya and Sri Lanka. Journal of
Zoology, London 227: 163–170.
World Spider Catalog (2015). World Spider Catalog. Natural History
Museum Bern, online at hp://wsc.nmbe.ch, version 16, accessed
on 01 March 2015.
ab
ba
© Sunny Joseph
© Siddharth Kulkarni
© Sunny Joseph
Journal of Threatened Taxa | www.threatenedtaxa.org | 26 August 2015 | 7(10): 7701–7703
First record of genus Siler Kulkarni & Joseph
7703
Threatened Taxa
Image 4. Siler semiglaucus feeding on Technimyrmex sp. ant
Image 3. Siler semiglaucus. a - female epigynum, ventral view; b - female epigynum, dorsal view
ab
© Siddharth Kulkarni
© Sunny Joseph
© Siddharth Kulkarni
... However, its congeneric sister species, S. cupreus Simon, 1889, has been described stealing ant larvae (Nakahira, 1955;Jo, 1964); thus, the behaviour is phylogenetically congruent. Both Grob (2015) and Kulkarni and Joseph (2015) have recently reported brood theft by S. semiglaucus in Thailand and India, respectively. Although unelaborated, these observations confirm the occurrence of the behaviour in widely separated Asian populations; thus, the behaviour is not a localized phenomenon. ...
... Siler semiglaucus was identified with reference to Simon (1901), Prószyński (1985), Peng et al. (1993), Koh & Ming (2014) and Kulkarni & Joseph (2015). Systematics follows the world spider catalog (WSC, 2018). ...
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On Siler, Silerella, Cyllobelus and Natta (Araneae, Salticidae)
  • J Prószyński
Prószyński, J. (1985). On Siler, Silerella, Cyllobelus and Natta (Araneae, Salticidae). Annales zoologici, Warszawa 39(2): 69-85.
World Spider Catalog Natural History Museum Bern
World Spider Catalog (2015). World Spider Catalog. Natural History Museum Bern, online at http://wsc.nmbe.ch, version 16, accessed on 01 March 2015.
World Spider Catalog
  • World Spider Catalog
World Spider Catalog (2015). World Spider Catalog. Natural History Museum Bern, online at http://wsc.nmbe.ch, version 16, accessed on 01 March 2015.