ArticlePDF Available

Abstract and Figures

Studies on the herbaceous and sub-shrub layer of cerrado showed the occurrence of modifications in its composition between different regions, demonstrating sensibility to changes in climate, soil and intensity of fires, among other factors. The aim of this study was to describe the phenological variation in a campo sujo vegetation in the Urucum plateau. We established eight transects of 250 m each, 50 m apart. We sampled all flowering and fruiting species located at least three meters from each side of the transect. Beginning in October 2007, one month after an accidental fire occurred in the study site, we analysed flowering and fruiting plants in the transects' area. The intensity of the flowering and fruiting phenophases was not uniformly distributed. This study provide us information about the possible fire influence on the reproductive patterns of the community, presenting flowering peaks in October and November, two months after this event. Regression analysis with monthly rainfall also provides us information about the influence of climate data on the flowering and fruiting peaks.
Content may be subject to copyright.
Braz. J. Biol., 2011, vol. 71, no. 4, p. 881-888 881
Post-fire phenology in a campo sujo vegetation
in the Urucum plateau, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil
Neves, DRM.* and Damasceno-Junior, GA.
Programa de Pós-graduação em Biologia Vegetal, Centro de Ciências Biológicas e da Saúde,
Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso do Sul – UFMS, CP 549, CEP 79070-900, Campo Grande, MS, Brazil
*e-mail: danilormn@gmail.com
Received July 20, 2010 – Accepted December 16, 2010 – Distributed November 30, 2011
(With 5 figures)
Abstract
Studies on the herbaceous and sub-shrub layer of cerrado showed the occurrence of modifications in its composition
between different regions, demonstrating sensibility to changes in climate, soil and intensity of fires, among other factors.
The aim of this study was to describe the phenological variation in a campo sujo vegetation in the Urucum plateau. We
established eight transects of 250 m each, 50 m apart. We sampled all flowering and fruiting species located at least
three meters from each side of the transect. Beginning in October 2007, one month after an accidental fire occurred
in the study site, we analysed flowering and fruiting plants in the transects’ area. The intensity of the flowering and
fruiting phenophases was not uniformly distributed. This study provide us information about the possible fire influence
on the reproductive patterns of the community, presenting flowering peaks in October and November, two months
after this event. Regression analysis with monthly rainfall also provides us information about the influence of climate
data on the flowering and fruiting peaks.
Keywords: flowering, fruiting, fire.
Fenologia pós-queima em uma área de campo sujo do maciço
do Urucum, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brasil
Resumo
Estudos sobre o componente herbáceo-subarbustivo do cerrado indicam a ocorrência de grandes mudanças na
sua composição entre diferentes regiões, demonstrando tratar-se de uma flora sensível a variações de clima, solo,
intensidade de queimadas, entre outros fatores. O objetivo deste estudo foi descrever as variações fenológicas em uma
comunidade vegetal de campo sujo de cerrado do maciço do Urucum. A amostragem foi feita com oito transectos de
250 m, distantes 50 m entre si, nos quais foram amostradas todas as espécies de angiospermas floridas ou frutificadas
que se encontravam distantes até no máximo três metros de cada lado, no total de 0,6 ha. A partir de outubro de 2007,
um mês após uma queima acidental na área de estudo, foi feito acompanhamento mensal das fenofases de emissão de
flores e frutos nas plantas que se encontravam na área do transecto. A intensidade de floração e frutificação não foi
uniformemente distribuída. Os dados indicam possível influência da queima na atividade reprodutiva da comunidade
ao se observar os picos de floração em outubro e novembro, dois meses subsequentes ao evento. Análise de regressão
com a precipitação mensal demonstra ainda influência dos dados climáticos nos picos de floração e frutificação.
Palavras-chave: floração, frutificação, fogo.
1. Introduction
The cerrado vegetation, according to the “forest-
ecotone-grassland” concept (Coutinho, 1978), consists of
two distinct floras: one of shrubs and trees, predominantly
in forest fragments (cerradão), and another of herbs and
sub-shrubs, characteristic of grasslands. The savannah
physiognomy, the intermediate form (campo sujo and
cerrado sensu stricto), is characterised by the occurrence
of a mixed flora consisting of forest and grassland elements
(Coutinho, 2002).
Studies on the herbaceous layer of cerrado showed the
occurrence of modifications in its composition between
different regions, demonstrating sensibility to changes in
climate, soil, and intensity of fires, among other factors
(Batalha and Martins, 2004; Filgueiras, 2002). The strong
seasonality of this vegetation type, with rainy summers
and dry winters, has been the target of investigations on
the phenological pattern of individual species, groups
of congeneric species and communities (Mantovani and
Braz. J. Biol., 2011, vol. 71, no. 4, p. 881-888
Neves, DRM. and Damasceno-Junior, GA.
882
Martins, 1988; Oliveira, 1998; Miranda, 1995; Gouveia
and Felfili, 1998; Munhoz and Felfili, 2005; Silva et al.,
2009; Tannus et al., 2006).
Mantovani and Martins (1988) demonstrated that
an increase in precipitation and temperature correlated
positively with the increase in the number of species
flowering in the herbaceous and shrub layer. Batalha
and Mantovani (2000) reported more autochoric and
anemochoric species dispersing in the dry season, while
zoochoric species increased during the rainy season when
studying differences between dispersal syndromes.
In addition, fire is an important factor causing changes
in the floristic composition, physiognomy, structure and
phenology reducing the density and height of the vegetation
and changing biodiversity (Coutinho, 1977, 1990; Sato,
2003). Coutinho (2002) indicated that the occurrence
of fires in cerrado dates from 30,000 years ago and the
adaptation of the vegetation to fire is related to several
factors like the type of fire, the burning regime, frequency,
fire intensity and soil temperature (Miranda et al., 2004).
The Urucum plateau, with contrasting vegetation types
including semi-deciduous forest to high-altitude campo
sujo, has many variables that can influence the phenology
of this plant community, such as iron and manganese rich
soil, soil humidity and regular fire among others that have
not been extensively studied.
The aim of this study was to describe the phenological
variations in an area of campo sujo vegetation in the
Urucum plateau. We attempted to answer the following
questions: 1) What is the phenological pattern of a campo
sujo community in the post-fire event period?, 2) Do the
observed events correlate with the seasonal rainfall in the
area, as proposed in the literature for the herbaceous and
sub-shrub layer (Spina et al., 2001; Munhoz and Felfili,
2005)? and 3) Is there phenological variation of the plant
species with different dispersal syndromes?
2. Material and Methods
2.1. Study site
We conducted this work in the Urucum region, a
plateau with about 5,327 ha in Mato Grosso do Sul, which
is considered the most prominent plateau of the Pantanal’s
western edge (Isquierdo, 1997). Among the hills that
make up the Urucum plateau, are the Urucum (971 m),
the Grande (951 m), the Santa Cruz (1065 m), the São
Domingos (800 m), the Tromba dos Macacos (500 m),
the Jacadigo (600 m) and the Rabichão with 700 m above
sea level (Franco and Pinheiro, 1982).
The region’s climate is of the megathermic tropical
type (average temperature of 25 °C) with annual rainfall
of about 1,120 mm and two distinct seasons, a dry season
from April to September (winter) and a rainy season from
October to March (summer), classified as Aw in the Köppen
system (Soriano, 2000).
The landscape of the region is represented by a mosaic
of different types of natural vegetation, according to the
variety in the local geology and geomorphology. In the
region, there are several vegetation types, such as the cerrado
– from campo sujo to cerrado sensu stricto, deciduous
forest and semi-deciduous forest (Pott et al., 2000).
The campo sujo vegetation is located covering the top
of the hills and characterised by a coverage of grasses, herbs
and shrubs with heights ranging between 30 and 40 cm.
Species such as Trachypogon spicatus (L.f.) O. Kuntze,
Thrasya petrous (Trin.), Aiouea trinervis Meissn. and
Qualea cryptantha (Spreng.) Warm. are important for
the vegetation coverage (Damasceno Junior et al., 2005).
2.2. Phenology
We carried out this study in the Santa Cruz hill (19° 12’ S
and 57° 35’ W), in the city of Corumbá - MS. Sampling
began on October 2007, approximately one month after
an accidental fire occurred in the study site.
We established eight transects of 250 m, 50 m apart. We
sampled all flowering and fruiting species located at least
three meters from each side of the transects. Four transects
were established on each side of the hill to standardise the
data and the whole study area reached 0.6 ha (Figure 1).
We analysed the flowering and fruiting plants within
the transect area from October 2007 to September 2008.
The criterion for inclusion of species in the phenological
analysis was the presence of a flowering or fruiting event
during the study period. Mature and immature fruits were
considered within the fruiting phenophase.
The vegetation types in this study were divided into herbs,
palms, climbers, dwarf plants and sub-shrubs. The dwarf
plants are species that, in normal environmental conditions,
have the arboreal life-form. However, these species do not
develop normally in the campo sujo vegetation within the
study area due to the characteristics of the Urucum plateau
such as soil (depth, humidity), wind and fire (Lehn et al.,
2008). The sub-shrubs form was considered when the
plant had secondary growing only at the base, thus not
reaching the branches.
2.3. Data analysis
We classified the species, with n 10 individuals,
in the categories of the semi-quantitative scale adapted
from Fournier (1974) for herbaceous species, which
estimates the intensity of each phenological phase using
the following scale: 0-absence of characteristic, 1-presence
of characteristic in the range from 1-25%, 2-from 26-50%,
3-from 51-75%, 4-from 76-100%.
We executed a regression analysis of monthly rainfall
(obtained from the Mineração Corumbaense Reunida S/A
company) to the intensity of species in the flowering and
fruiting events. We used the Rayleigh test (Zar, 1999) to
evaluate whether the species in the study flower and fruit
uniformly throughout the year. We also applied the Rayleigh
test (Zar, 1999) to assess whether the anemochorous,
autochorous and zoochorous species fruit uniformly
throughout the year. To test whether the mean of fruiting
period for the anemochorous, autochorous and zoochorous
Braz. J. Biol., 2011, vol. 71, no. 4, p. 881-888
Post-fire phenology in a campo sujo vegetation
883
species were different, we used the Watson-William test
for the three samples (Zar, 1999).
To determine dispersal syndromes, we considered
field observations and the scientific literature available
for the species (Pott and Pott, 1994; Jardim et al. 2003).
Ballistics and barocoric syndromes were grouped into the
autochoric category (Van der Pjil, 1972).
3. Results
Five out of the 53 monitored species had less than
10 individuals in the studied area and therefore were
excluded from the calculation of the Fournier intensity.
The most representative life-forms of this campo sujo
community were dwarf plants with 41.45% individuals,
herbs with 32.26% and sub-shrubs with 26.24%. Climbers
and palms represented less than 1%.
The most abundant species in this campo sujo vegetation
in the Urucum plateau was Bulbostylis paradoxa Nees with
354 individuals, followed by Spiranthera odoratissima A.
St.-Hil. with 176, Qualea crypthanta (Spreng.) Warm.
with 155 and Davilla elliptica A. St.-Hil. with 126 (Table 1).
3.1. Flowering
The intensity of the flowering phenophase (Figure 2)
was not uniformly distributed (z = 11.87, P < 0.01). The
correlation between rainfall and the flowering phenophase
was insignificant (r
2
= 0.21, P = 0.49) (Figure 4). The late
dry season was the peak period in flowering.
3.2. Fruiting
The intensity of the fruiting phenophase (Figure 2) was not
uniformly distributed (z = 11.96, P < 0.01). The correlation
between rainfall and the fruiting phenophase was significant
Figure 1. Map showing the study site in the Urucum plateau, Corumbá, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil and the four transects of
250 m on each side of the hill. Source: Mineração Corumbaense Reunida S/A-2005 IKONOS modified image.
ab
Figure 2. Circular histograms of Fournier intensity for flowering a) and fruiting b) in the campo sujo vegetation in the Uru-
cum plateau, Corumbá, Mato Grosso do Sul.
Braz. J. Biol., 2011, vol. 71, no. 4, p. 881-888
Neves, DRM. and Damasceno-Junior, GA.
884
Table 1. Number of individuals from each studied species in the campo sujo vegetation in the Urucum plateau Corumbá,
Mato Grosso do Sul, classified according to life-form and dispersal syndrome.
Family Species Life-forms
Individuals
DS
Apiaceae Eryngium pristis Cham. & Schlecht. SBS 34 AUT
Apocynaceae Hemipogon acerosus Decne. HER 10 ANE
Mandevilla illustris (Vell.) Woodson HER 59 ANE
Odontadenia lutea (Vell.) Markgr. CLI 47 ANE
Arecaceae Allagoptera leococalyx Kuntze PAL 21 ZOO
Asteraceae Baccharis sp. SBS 26 ANE
Eupatorium inulifolium H.B. & K. HER 13 ANE
Eupatorium cf. squalidum DC. SBS 24 ANE
Vernonia coriacea Less. SBS 38 ANE
Vernonia herbacea Rusby HER 16 ANE
Vernonia nitens Gardner HER 45 ANE
Vernonia sp. SBS 27 ANE
Viguiera grandiflora Gardner SBS 56 ANE
Bignoniaceae Anemopaegma arvense (Vell.) Stellfeld ex de Souza HER 29 ANE
Tabebuia ochracea (Cham.) Standl. DWP 27 ANE
Bromeliaceae Dyckia sp. HER 81 ANE
Cactaceae Echinopsis calochlora K. Schum. HER 90 ZOO
Clusiaceae Kielmeyera coriacea (Spreng.) Mart. DWP 84 ANE
Cyperaceae Bulbostylis paradoxa Nees HER 354 ANE
Dilleniaceae Davilla elliptica A. St.-Hil. DWP 126 ZOO
Erythroxylaceae Erythroxylum campestre A.St.Hil. DWP 44 ZOO
Erythroxylum suberosum A. St.-Hil. DWP 3 ZOO
Euphorbiaceae Manihot tripartita Müll.Arg. HER 41 ZOO
Sebastiania hispida (Mart.) Pax. SBS 36 ZOO
Fabaceae Aeschynomene falcata (Poir.) DC. SBS 6 AUT
Chamaechrista cordistipula (Mart.) H.S.Irwin & Barneby SBS 33 AUT
Clitoria guianensis (Aubl.) Benth. SBS 22 AUT
Eriosema crinitum (Kunth) G. Don. SBS 21 AUT
Indigofera lespedezioides Kunth SBS 42 AUT
Galactia sp. SBS 11 AUT
Hymenaea stygonocarpa Mart. ex Hayne DWP 18 ZOO
Mimosa nuda Benth. SBS 114 ANE
Mimosa sensibilis Griseb. SBS 30 ANE
Stryphnodendron obovatum Benth. DWP 46 ZOO
Stylosanthes macrocephala M.B.Ferreira & Sousa Costa HER 26 ZOO
Lauraceae Aiouea trinervis Meissn. DWP 113 ZOO
Lithraceae Lafoensia pacari A. St.-Hil. DWP 22 ANE
Malpighiaceae Byrsonima coccolobifolia Kunth DWP 34 ZOO
Byrsonima intermedia A. Juss. DWP 4 ZOO
Heteropterys byrsonimaefolia Adr. Juss. DWP 60 ANE
Melastomataceae Miconia albicans (Sw.) Triana DWP 63 ZOO
Miconia fallax DC. DWP 14 ZOO
HER = herbaceous, CLI = climber, DWP = dwarf plant, SBS = sub-shrub, ANE = anemochoric, AUT = autochoric,
ZOO = zoochoric.
Braz. J. Biol., 2011, vol. 71, no. 4, p. 881-888
Post-fire phenology in a campo sujo vegetation
885
(r
2
= 0.64, P = 0.02) (Figure 5). The late rainy season was
the peak period in fruiting.
3.3. Dispersal syndromes
Analyses of the dispersal syndromes showed that
50.94% of the individuals were zoochorous, 36.36%
anemochorous and 12.7% autochorous. The proportions
of anemochorous, autochorous and zoochorous (Figure 3)
were not uniformly distributed (z = 11.88, z = 11.77,
z = 11.95, respectively; P < 0.01 in all three cases). The
mean fruiting periods for these dispersal syndromes were
not significant different (Table 2).
4. Discussion
Ragusa-Netto and Silva (2007) recorded the flowering
peak in August and September while studying a dry forest
in the bottom of Santa Cruz hill, near the study site. The
flowering peak of campo sujo in the consecutive months
can be essential to keep the pollinators in this area.
The fruiting peaks of the dry forest studied by Ragusa-
Netto and Silva (2007) were in the middle of the dry season
and in the transition between the dry and the rainy season.
This last peak was higher and represented by the zoochoric
species, such as Protium heptaphyllum March., Guarea
guidonia (L.) Sleumer, Pouteria torta Radlk. and Spondias
lutea L. Zoochoric species from the high-altitude campo
sujo showed the same pattern of nearby forest species
(Figure 3) and it happens during the period of greater
activity of frugivorous species like small birds.
Janzen (1980) analysed different dispersal syndromes
of tropical plants and demonstrated autochoric species
flowering in the wet season and fruiting in the dry season.
In the campo sujo of the present study, the intensity peak
of autochoric species occurred in the late rainy season.
This may be due to the fact that 40.29% of the autochoric
individuals belonged to the family Fabaceae, which showed
flowering peak in the dry season. This pattern must be
confirmed with other phenological studies in the Urucum
plateau without fire events.
Many herbs and sub-shrubs species in the cerrado
have adaptive traits to fire (Coutinho, 1977) such as a soil
layer protecting the root system (Coutinho, 1978). These
species recover quickly after a fire, synchronising flowering
(Sarmiento, 1992). The flowering peaks in October and
November, two months after the fire, indicate the adaptation
of the studied species. The insignificant difference in the
means of the fruiting period was also a consequence of
this synchronisation.
Another detectable effect may be the absence of
zoochoric species fruiting in the months after the fire
since these species are often found fruiting every month
of the year (Batalha et al., 1997; Batalha and Mantovani,
2000). Gentry (1982), Morellato and Leitão-Filho (1996)
and Talora and Morellato (2000) demonstrated that the
proportions of zoochoric species in tropical rainforests
were higher than 80%, showing the importance of these
species to the maintenance of frugivorous animals.
Grasses in the studied campo sujo did not flower,
reducing the percentage of anemochoric individuals in
the community. Damasceno-Junior et al. (2005) recorded
10 grass species in the campo sujo community of Santa
Cruz hill. Trachypogon spicatus (Lf) O. Kuntze, Axonopus
Table 1. Continued...
Family Species Life-forms
Individuals
DS
Myrtaceae Blepharocalyx salicifolius (Kunth) O.Berg DWP 112 ZOO
Eugenia punicifolia (Kunth) DC. SBS 22 ZOO
Psidium cinereum Mart. ex DC. SBS 7 ZOO
Ochnaceae Ouratea spectabilis (Mart.) Engl. SBS 2 ZOO
Rubiaceae Borreria sp. HER 11 AUT
Palicourea rigida Kunth DWP 53 ZOO
Rutaceae Spiranthera odoratissima A. St.-Hil. SBS 176 AUT
Salicaceae Casearia sylvestris Swartz DWP 30 ZOO
Smilacaceae Smilax fluminensis Steud. CLI 27 ZOO
Styracaceae Styrax ferrugineous Nees & Mart. DWP 53 ZOO
Vochysiaceae Qualea crypthanta (Spreng.) Warm. DWP 155 ANE
HER = herbaceous, CLI = climber, DWP = dwarf plant, SBS = sub-shrub, ANE = anemochoric, AUT = autochoric,
ZOO = zoochoric.
Table 2. F values and probability of Watson-Williams test
for the dispersal syndromes in a campo sujo vegetation in
the Urucum plateau, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil.
Syndromes 1 Syndromes 2 F P
Anemochory Autochory 0.094 0.763
Anemochory Zoochory 0.598 0.448
Autochory Zoochory 0.061 0.807
Braz. J. Biol., 2011, vol. 71, no. 4, p. 881-888
Neves, DRM. and Damasceno-Junior, GA.
886
ab
c
Figure 3. Circular histograms of Fournier intensity for the fruiting phenophase in the campo sujo vegetation in the Uru-
cum plateau, Corumbá, Mato Grosso do Sul, and the species classified by dispersal syndromes. Anemochorous (a), Auto-
chorous (b) and Zoochorous (c).
Figure 4. Regression between rainfall and the Fournier
intensity for the flowering phenophase in the campo sujo
vegetation in the Urucum Plateau, Corumbá, Mato Grosso
do Sul.
Figure 5. Regression between rainfall and the Fournier in-
tensity for the fruiting phenophase in the campo sujo veg-
etation in the Urucum Plateau, Corumbá, Mato Grosso do
Sul.
aureus Beauv. and Thrasya petrosa (Trin.) Chase were the
most abundant. Most of the Poaceae species found in the
Damasceno-Junior et al. (2005) study were flowering in the
month of February. Poaceae species flowering or fruiting
were not found in the present study. This is probably the
main detectable effect of the fire in this study, because
Braz. J. Biol., 2011, vol. 71, no. 4, p. 881-888
Post-fire phenology in a campo sujo vegetation
887
the fire may have changed the flowering ability of the
grasses in that year.
Phenological patterns in the plant community bring
important contributions to the understanding of the flowering
and fruiting periods in the study site. The data indicate
a possible influence of a fire in the analysed campo sujo
vegetation, showing the absence of zoochoric species
fruiting in the months following the event and the absence
of grasses flowering or fruiting during the entire study.
Acknowledgements – To Ademir Oliveira and Maria Rosângela
Sigrist for valuable suggestions, to Fausto Cuiabano for help
during the fieldwork; to Edson Miranda da Silva and Felipe
Coelho for authorising access to the study site; to FUNDECT/
CAPES for the grants to D. R. M. Neves.
References
BATALHA, MA., ARAGAKI, S. and MANTOVANI, W., 1997.
Variações fenológicas das espécies do Cerrado em Emas
(Pirassununga, SP). Acta Botanica Brasilica, vol. 11, p. 61-78.
BATALHA, MA. and MANTOVANI, W., 2000. Reproductive
phenological patterns of cerrado plant species at the Pé-de-
Gigante Reserve (Santa Rita do Passa Quatro, SP, Brazil): a
comparasion between herbaceous and wood floras. Revista
Brasileira de Biologia = Brazilian Journal of Biology, vol. 60,
no. 1, p. 129-145. PMid:10838932. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/
S0034-71082000000100016
BATALHA, MA. and MARTINS, FR., 2004. Reproductive
phenology of the cerrado plant community in Emas National Park
(central Brazil). Australian Journal of Botany, vol. 52 p. 149-161.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1071/BT03098
COUTINHO, LM. 1977., Aspectos ecológicos do fogo no cerrado:
as queimadas e a dispersão em algumas espécies anemocóricas
do estrato herbáceo sub-arbustivo. Boletim de Botânica da
Universidade de São Paulo, vol. 5, p. 57-64.
-, 1978. O conceito de Cerrado. Revista Brasileira de Botânica,
vol. 7, p. 17-23.
-, 1990. Fire in the ecology of brazilian Cerrado. In GOLDAMMER,
JG. (Ed.). Fire in the Tropical Biota - Ecosystem Process and
Global Challenges. Berlin: Springer-Verlag Ecological Studies.
p. 82-105.
-, 2002. O bioma do cerrado. In KLEIN, AL. (Ed.). Eugen
Warming e o cerrado brasileiro: um século depois. São Paulo:
Editora da UNESP. p. 77-91
DAMASCENO JUNIOR, GA., ISHII, IH., MILLIKEN, W., POTT,
A., POTT, V., RATTER, J. and YESILYURT, J., 2005. Vegetation
of the Morraria de Santa Cruz, Brazil. Corumbá: Mineradora
Corumbaense Reunida S/A. 52 p. Relatório preliminar interno.
FILGUEIRAS, TS., 2002. Herbaceous plant communities. In
OLIVEIRA, PS. and MARQUIS, JR. (Eds.). The Cerrados of
Brazil: Ecology and natural history of a neotropical savanna.
New York: Columbia University Press. p. 121-139
FOURNIER, LA., 1974. Un método cuantitativo para la medición
de características fenológicas en árboles. Turrialba, vol. 24,
p. 422-423.
FRANCO, MM. and PINHEIRO, R., 1982. Geomorfologia. In
BRASIL. Projeto RadamBrasil. Rio de Janeiro: MME. p. 161-
224. (Folha SE.21 Corumbá).
GENTRY, AH., 1982. Patterns of neotropical plant species
diversity. Evolution Biology, vol. 15, p. 1-84.
GOUVEIA, GP. and FELFILI, JM., 1998. Fenologia da comunidades
de cerrado e mata de galeria no Brasil Central. Revista Árvore,
vol. 22, no. 4, p. 443-450.
ISQUIERDO, SWG., 1997. Análise integrada da sub-bacia da
Lagoa Negra - MS: um ensaio de cartografia temática com aplicação
de SIG. São Paulo: Universidade de São Paulo. Dissertação de
Mestrado em Geografia.
JANZEN, DH., 1980. Ecologia vegetal nos trópicos. São Paulo:
EDUSP. 79 p.
JARDIM, A., KILLEEN, TJ. and FUENTES, A., 2003. Guia de
los arboles y arbustos del bosque seco chiquitano, Bolivia. Santa
Cruz: Fundación Amigos de la Naturaleza Noel Kempf. 324 p.
LEHN, CR., ALVES, FM. and DAMASCENO JUNIOR,
GA., 2008. Florística e fitossociologia de uma área de cerrado
sensu stricto na região da Borda Oeste do Pantanal, Corumbá,
MS, Brasil. Pesquisa Botânica, vol. 59, p. 129-142.
MANTOVANI, W. and MARTINS, FR., 1988. Variações
fenológicas das espécies do Cerrado da Reserva Biológica de
Mogi-Guaçu, estado de São Paulo. Revista Brasileira de Botânica,
vol. 23, p. 227-237.
MIRANDA, IS., 1995. Fenologia do estrato arbóreo de uma
comunidade de cerrado em Alter-do-Chão, PA. Revista Brasileira
de Botânica, vol. 18, no. 2, p. 235-240.
MIRANDA, HS., SATO, MN., ANDRADE, SMA., HARIDASAN,
M. and MORAIS, HC., 2004. Queimadas de Cerrado: caracterização
e impactos. In AGUIAR, LMS. and CAMARGO, AJA. (Eds.).
Cerrado: ecologia e caracterização. Brasília: Embrapa Informação
Tecnológica. 249 p.
MORELLATO, LPC. and LEITÃO-FILHO, HF., 1996. Reproductive
phenology of climbers in a Southeastern Brazilian Forest. Biotropica,
vol. 28, no. 2, p. 180-191. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2389073
MORELLATO, LPC., TALORA, DC., TAKAHASI, A., BENCKE,
CC., ROMERA, EC. and ZIPPARRO, VB., 2000. Phenology
of Atlantic rain Forest trees: a comparative study. Biotropica,
vol. 32, no. 4, p. 811-823
MUNHOZ, CBR. and FELFILI, JM., 2005. Fenologia do estrato
herbáceo-subarbustivo de uma comunidade de campo sujo na
Fazenda Água Limpa no Distrito Federal, Brasil. Acta Botanica
Brasilica, vol. 19, no. 4, p. 979-988.
OLIVEIRA, PE., 1998. Fenologia e biologia reprodutiva das
espécies de cerrado. In SANO, SM. and ALMEIDA, SP. (Orgs.).
Cerrado: Ambiente e Flora. Brasília: EMBRAPA-CPAC. p. 169-192.
POTT, A. and POTT, VJ., 1994. Plantas do Pantanal. Brasília:
EMBRAPA Pantanal.
POTT, A., SILVA, LSV., SALIS, SM., POTT, VJ. and SILVA,
MP., 2000. Vegetação e uso da terra. In SILVA, JSV. (Ed.).
Zoneamento ambiental da borda oeste do Pantanal: maciço do
Urucum e adjacências. Brasília: Embrapa Comunicação para
Transferência de Tecnologia. p. 111-131.
RAGUSA-NETTO, J. and SILVA, RR., 2007. Canopy phenology
of a dry forest in western Brazil. Brazilian Journal of Biology,
vol. 67, no. 3, p. 569-575. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S1519-
69842007000300024
Braz. J. Biol., 2011, vol. 71, no. 4, p. 881-888
Neves, DRM. and Damasceno-Junior, GA.
888
SARMIENTO, G. 1992. Adaptative strategies of perennial grasses
in South American savannas. Journal of Vegetation Science, vol. 3,
p. 325-336. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/3235757
SATO, MN., 2003. Efeito de longo prazo de queimadas prescritas
na estrutura da comunidade lenhosa da vegetação do cerrado
sensu stricto. Brasília: Universidade de Brasília. Tese de Doutorado
em Ecologia.
SILVA, IA., CIANCIARUSO, MV, and BATALHA, MA., 2009.
Dispersal modes and fruiting periods in hyperseasonal and
seasonal savannas, central Brazil. Revista Brasileira de Botânica
vol. 32, p. 155-163.
SOKAL, RR. and ROHLF, FJ., 1996. Biometry. New York:
Freeman & Company. 859 p.
SORIANO, BMA., 2000. Climatologia. In SILVA, JSV. (Ed.).
Zoneamento ambiental da borda oeste do Pantanal: maciço do
Urucum e adjacências. Brasília: Embrapa Comunicação para
Transferência de Tecnologia. p. 69-82.
SPINA, AP., FERREIRA, WM., LEITÃO-FILHO, HF., 2001.
Floração, frutificação e síndromes de dispersão de uma comunidade
de Floresta de Brejo na região de Campinas (SP). Acta Botanica
Brasilica, vol. 15, no. 3, p. 132-138.
TALORA, DC. and MORELLATO, LPC., 2000. Fenologia de
espécies arbóreas em floresta de planície litorânea do sudeste do
Brasil. Revista Brasileira de Botânica, vol. 23, no. 1, p. 13-26.
TANNUS, JLS., ASSIS, MA. and MORELLATO, LPC., 2006.
Fenologia reprodutiva em campo sujo e campo úmido numa área
de Cerrado no sudeste do Brasil, Itapirina - SP. Biota Neotropica,
vol 6 , no. 3. Available from: <http://www.biotaneotropica.org.
br/v6n3/pt/abstract?article+bn02806032006>.
Van DER PIJL, L., 1972. Principles of dispersal in higher
plants. 2nd ed. BerlIn Springer-Verlag.
ZAR, JH., 1999. Biostatistical analysis. New Jersey: Prentice Hall.
... In certain plant species, fire increases the intensity of flowering. Nevertheless, depending on the time of year, individuals of fire-sensitive species perish in the fires, lose epigeal parts, or postpone their reproductive activities (Neves and Damasceno-Junior, 2011). By destroying plants in their reproductive phase during the dry season, fires can cause trophic mismatch by decreasing the availability of fruits and floral resources for fauna. ...
Article
URL providing 50 days' free access: https://authors.elsevier.com/a/1d8aq14Z6thO2i In the Brazilian Pantanal, wildfire occurrence has increased, reaching record highs of over 40,000 km² in 2020. Smoke from wildfires worsened the situation of isolated, as well as urban communities, already under an increasing toll of COVID-19. Here we review the impacts and the possible causes of the 2020 mega-fires and recommend improvements for public policies and fire management in this wetland. We calculated the amount of area burnt annually since 2003 and describe patterns in precipitation and water level measurements of the Paraguay River. Our analyses revealed that the 2020 wildfires were historically unprecedented, as 43% of the area (over 17,200 km²) had not been burnt previously in the last two decades. The extent of area affected in 2020 represents a 376% increase compared to the annual average of the area burnt annually in the last two decades, double than the value in 2019. Potential factors responsible for this increase are (i) severe drought decreased water levels, (ii) the fire corridor was located in the Paraguay River flood zone, (iii) constraints on firefighters, (iv) insufficient fire prevention strategy and agency budget reductions, and (v) recent landscape changes. Climate and land use change will further increase the frequency of these extreme events. To make fire management more efficient and cost-effective, we recommend the implementation of an Integrated Fire Management program in the Pantanal. Stakeholders should use existing traditional, local ecological, and scientific knowledge to form a collective strategy with clear, achievable, measurable goals, considering the socio-ecological context. Permanent fire brigades, including indigenous members, should conduct year-round fire management. Communities should cooperate to create a collaborative network for wildfire prevention, the location and characteristics (including flammability) of infrastructures should be (re)planned in fire-prone environments considering and managing fire-catalysed transitions, and depending on the severity of wildfires. The 2020 wildfires were tackled in an ad-hoc fashion and prioritisation of areas for urgent financial investment, management, protection, and restoration is necessary to prevent this catastrophe from happening again.
... It can also synchronize flowering of some species, such as Stirlingia latifolia R. Br. in the woodlands of Australia (Bowen and Pate 2004) or wet prairie grasses in Florida (Main and Barry 2002). In contrast, it can prevent the flowering of grasses, such as in the case of a Cerrado area where, after burning, all grasses stayed 1 year without flowering (Neves and Damasceno-Junior 2011). Fire can also diminish the number of tillers in grasses (Silva and Klink 2001). ...
... On the one hand, many woody species have their sexual reproduction negatively affected by fire incidence (Miranda and Sato, 2005;Dodonov et al., 2017). On the other hand, many ground-layer species are generally associated with a massive bloom of reproduction three months after the fire passage, which stimulates seed production (Neves and Damasceno-Junior, 2011;Pilon et al., 2018). ...
Article
Changes in savanna's fire regimes, either through fire suppression or through an increase in fire frequency, can negatively affect their resilience. We evaluated the extent to which the aboveground biomass, diversity (taxonomic and functional) and resilience (functional redundancy and functional response indices) of savanna tree communities differ between burned and unburned plots. Burned plots experienced two fire events over the ten-years prior to sampling, while unburned plots experienced fire suppression over the same time period. We found that aboveground biomass was 40% smaller in burned plots, indicating that fire regimes must be included as a source of variation in models estimating the potential of savannas to store carbon. Burned plots had a higher functional diversity of vegetative traits but a smaller functional diversity of reproductive traits, indicating that generalizations about the effect of fire on tree functional diversity should be viewed with caution. Periodic fires can benefit savanna tree biodiversity by maintaining the balance between light-demanding and shade-tolerant species but can also increase the dominance of species with less specialized reproductive traits that do not rely on animal interactions. Burned plots had slightly lower functional redundancy but similar functional response diversity compared to unburned plots, suggesting that both communities harbor tree species that might respond positively or negatively to fire and, therefore, will be able to maintain the ecosystem functions considered under a future scenario of fire-suppression or increased fire frequency. Therefore, a longer-term fire suppression (>10 years) or a return fire interval of less than 4 years may be necessary to reduce the resilience of the savanna tree component, considering the ecosystem functions analyzed in this study.
... In the Cerrado, some studies have shown an increase in flowering (Neves & Damasceno-Junior, 2011;Massi et al.,2017;Pilon et al., 2018) in the first few post-fire months. One extraordinary case was reported for a Cerrado sedge species, Bulbostylis paradoxa, which is able to start flowering just 24 hr after fire . ...
Article
Questions In fire‐prone ecosystems, fire can enhance the flowering and fruiting of many species, a strategy assumed to be well represented in savanna. Despite this, there are surprisingly few studies assessing how prevalent fire‐stimulated flowering is. Thus, we asked: (a) are there differences in the reproductive phenology of Cerrado plants between recently burned and unburned areas; (b) how does fire affect the speed of flowering and how does this differ between growth forms; and (c) what are the post‐fire flowering (PFF) strategies of Cerrado species and is there evidence for high proportions of obligate PFF? Location Open savannas (campo sujo in the Cerrado) in Central Brazil (Reserva Natural Serra do Tombador — RNST, 13°35–13°38' S and 47°45'–47°51' W). Methods We established six plots, three recently and frequently burned (FB) and three excluded from fire for six years (E). In all treatments, the number of species flowering and fruiting was counted every 15 days for three months, and then at six, nine and 12 months after fire. We also counted the number of reproductive and vegetative shoots in 10 subplots (1 m × 1 m) per plot. Results Approximately 66% of species studied were fire‐stimulated, with half of these only flowering after fire (obligate PFF). Fire‐enhanced flowering was rapid, with the clearest differences between burned and unburned plots seen in the first 30 days, and up to three months after fire, where there were up to two times more species flowering in the FB than E areas. Conclusions The extremely high proportion of PFF species, at least five times that reported for heathlands and other shrub communities, highlights the role that short‐interval fire regimes have in savanna ecosystems, selecting for resprouting life forms and PFF dominance, particularly in herbaceous species. Rapid post‐fire reproduction may be a strategy to disperse large quantities of seed into an environment with a small recruitment window.
Article
The Brazilian Cerrado, a Neotropical savanna, is a fire-prone ecosystem where the ground layer biomass consists mainly of graminoids. However, as for other savannas, the effects of fire cues (such as smoke) on Cerrado grasses do not present a clear pattern, either for germination or seedling development. Smoke can stimulate different stages of the plant life cycle, which can alter the community and invasion processes. So far, most research on the subject focuses on germination, not addressing post-germinative phases, a sensitive stage of plant development. Here, we investigated the effect of smoke on a native ( Echinolaena inflexa ) and an invasive ( Urochloa decumbens ) grass species common in the Cerrado. We analysed germinative parameters and seedling mass and length after exposing the seeds to dry smoke for 5, 10, 15 or 20 min. Seedling development was assessed by measuring shoot and root systems after cultivating germinated seeds for 3, 7 or 15 d. Smoke did not affect germination percentages. However, fumigation reduced the mean germination time of both species and the germination onset of E. inflexa . U. decumbens had higher length values in all periods of cultivation, whereas mass values only surpassed that of E. inflexa at 15 d. Smoke exposure reduced the aboveground length of 7-d seedlings of U. decumbens , and mass of 15-d plants of both species. Also, smoke enhanced the root investment of the native and invasive species in different cultivation periods. Therefore, studying post-germinative parameters on seedling development may bring further insights into the smoke effects.
Article
Full-text available
ABSTRACT Studies of plant phenology have been performed predominantly with terrestrial species and rarely so with aquatic communities. Such plants are fundamental for the aquatic ecosystems, representing a valuable source of resources when they are scarce in terrestrial environments for the fauna. Studies of phenology help to understand the reproduction rhythms of plant communities and provide fundamental support to management and conservation. This study aimed to describe the reproductive phenology of 15 species of aquatic plants and determine how it is related to climatic factors and physicochemical variables of water. Plants were collected every 15 days throughout a single year, from two ponds in the Cerrado-Pantanal ecotone, Central-West Brazil. Species were observed in flower and fruit throughout the year with varying phenophases among life forms (amphibious, emergent, rooted, floating and rooted submerged). Photoperiod stood out among climatic variables for flowering and fruiting times. Phenophases were explained by climatic factors, as well as by physicochemical variables of the water. Nitrogen and pH were the variables most related to the highest number of phenophases of different life forms. Such information is relevant to understanding how physicochemical alterations to water by pollution, eutrophication and siltation, among others, can change the phenology of aquatic macrophytes.
Article
In fire-prone ecosystems, such as savannas, fire has been a common event for thousands of years. In these biomes, phenology is a functional trait characterizing the responses of plant communities to fire. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the effects of fire on the period of occurrence, seasonality, and number of species expressing vegetative and reproductive phenophases (sprouting, flowering, and fruiting) in a South American savanna community. We burned experimental plots in 2013, and during the subsequent year, we performed monthly evaluations of the presence and absence of vegetative and reproductive structures in 44 species of angiosperms in the control and burned plots. We described plant phenology at two levels: (i) considering all sampled plant species together (community); and (ii) separately considering the species found in the herbaceous-subshrub and shrub-tree layers (vegetation strata). We analyzed the data using circular statistics and generalized linear mixed models. At the community level, fire did not alter the mean period of occurrence of vegetative and reproductive phenophases; however, we observed changes in fruiting seasonality, which were mainly caused by the changes occurring in the shrub-tree layer. Except for those found in the shrub-tree layer, more species expressed the analyzed phenophases after fire compared to the “control” treatment. This study provides information regarding the responses of plants to burning at the end of the dry season, when most anthropogenic fires occur. Additionally, according to climate change predictions, the Southern Hemisphere is expected to experience longer dry seasons, which may contribute to an increased frequency of anthropogenic fires. Therefore, this phenological information can motivate subsidies that are important for the conservation of this biome and management plans related to the prescription of fires.
Article
Full-text available
Smoke from wildfires worsened the situation of isolated, as well as urban communities, already under an increasing toll of COVID-19. Here we review the impacts and the possible causes of the 2020 mega-fires and recommend improvements for public policies and fire management in this wetland. We calculated the amount of area burnt annually since 2003 and describe patterns in precipitation and water level measurements of the Paraguay River. Our analyses revealed that the 2020 wildfires were historically unprecedented, as 43% of the area (over 17,200 km2) had not been burnt previously in the last two decades. The extent of area affected in 2020 represents a 376% increase compared to the annual average of the area burnt annually in the last two decades, double than the value in 2019. Potential factors responsible for this increase are (i) severe drought decreased water levels, (ii) the fire corridor was located in the Paraguay River flood zone, (iii) constraints on firefighters, (iv) insufficient fire prevention strategy and agency budget reductions, and (v) recent landscape changes. Climate and land use change will further increase the frequency of these extreme events. To make fire management more efficient and cost-effective, we recommend the implementation of an Integrated Fire Management program in the Pantanal. Stakeholders should use existing traditional, local ecological, and scientific knowledge to form a collective strategy with clear, achievable, measurable goals, considering the socio-ecological context. Permanent fire brigades, including indigenous members, should conduct year-round fire management. Communities should cooperate to create a collaborative network for wildfire prevention, the location and characteristics (including flammability) of infrastructures should be (re)planned in fire-prone environments considering and managing fire-catalysed transitions, and depending on the severity of wildfires. The 2020 wildfires were tackled in an ad-hoc fashion and prioritisation of areas for urgent financial investment, management, protection, and restoration is necessary to prevent this catastrophe from happening again.
Article
Cerrado is a tropical savanna hotspot that is impacted by frequent wildfires, but where many effects of fire still are poorly understood. This is especially true for the herbaceous strata at the community level, in which reproductive efforts are deeply affected by fire. The objectives of this study were the following: evaluate if fire qualitatively and/or quantitatively affects the production of sexual reproductive structures in an open cerrado community; describe fire-stimulated or fire-inhibited flowering and fruiting species; and evaluate the influence of water availability on flowering and fruiting. The number of species with flowers and fruits/m² and the number of reproductive units/m² were sampled in eight 20×20 m² plots in Chapada Diamantina, Brazil. After the first sampling in the beginning of the rainy season (November 2009), the vegetation in four plots was burned and then the eight plots were resampled over five months. Indexes of fire-stimulated and fire-inhibited flowering and fruiting species were calculated. Non-metric multidimensional scaling and cross-correlation analyses were calculated and differences between the burnt and unburnt plots were compared with an analysis of variance. Sexual reproduction was deeply affected by fire, which changed the composition of reproducing species. Profuse reproduction of graminoids (Poaceae) and geophytic herbs classified as fire-stimulated flowering and/or fire-stimulated fruiting species concomitantly occurred with a high increase of water in the burnt soil compared to the unburnt soil in the first two months after the fires. The sexual reproduction of shrubby species was inhibited by fire. In an objective way, 21 species stimulated or inhibited by fire were recorded. Fire also changed the influence of rainfall on reproductive efforts. This study shows quick qualitative and quantitative effects of fire on open cerrado functioning and highlights the necessity of fire management for biodiversity conservation in savannas.
Article
Full-text available
Phenology ofthe arboreal stratum of a savanna col1ll1lunityat Alter-do-Chão, PA). The phenological strategies of 1983 individuaIs belonging to 19 species of trees were studied in the savanna at Alter-do-Chão, Pará. Observations were made during 14 months, from September 1987 to October 1988. The inter-specific synchrony was high for alI phenophases: leaffalI, leafflushing, flowering and fruiting. The majority ofthe species were seasonal in alI phenophases. Leaf drop and peaks in flowering and fruiting occurred in the dry season. There were two peaks for flower anthesis, one in the dry season and one in the wet season. Fleshy fruits ripened alI year round, while wind-dispersed fruits ripened in the dry season. RESUMO-(Fenologia do estrato arbóreo de uma comunidade de cerrado em Alter-do-Chão, PA). Foram estudadas as estratégias fenológicas de 1983 individuos, pertencentes a 19 espécies arbóreas que ocorrem num cerrado de Alter-do-Chão, Pará. As observações foram realizadas durante 14 meses, entre setembro de 1987 e outubro de 1988. As fenofases: queda de folha, brotamento, floração e frutificação ocorreram com grande sincronia intraespecífica. A maioria das espécies mostrou sazonalidade climática em todas as fenofases. A mudança foliar e os maiores picos de floração e frutificação ocorreram na estação seca. Houve dois picos de flores em antese, um na estação seca e um na chuvosa. Os frutos carnosos amadureceram durante todo o ano e os frutos anemocóricos na estação seca.