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Elaphoglossum discolor (Kuhn) C.Chr. (Dryopteridaceae, Polypodiales, Monilophyta): First record for the state of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil

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  • Instituto Federal de Educação, Ciência e Tecnologia Farroupilha.

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Elaphoglossum discolor was recently discovered and collected on the Urucum plateau of the Brazilian state of Mato Grosso do Sul, lying in the western outskirts of the Pantanal flood plain. This is the southernmost distribution of E. discolor in Brazil.
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Elaphoglossum discolor (Kuhn) C.Chr. (Dryopteridaceae,
Polypodiales, Monilophyta): rst record for the state of Mato
Grosso do Sul, Brazil
Carlos Rodrigo Lehn
1
*, Elton Luis Monteiro de Assis
2
and Danilo Mesquita Neves
3
1 Instituto Federal Farroupilha, Câmpus Panambi, Rua Erechim, 820, Bairro Planalto, CEP 98820-000, Panambi – RS, Brazil
2 Jardim Botânico do Rio de Janeiro, PPG Escola Nacional de Botânica Tropical, Rua Pacheco Leão, 2040, Bairro Horto, CEP 22460-036,
Rio de Janeiro – RJ, Brazil
3 Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh, Tropical Research Group, 20a Inverleith Row, EH3 5LR, Edinburgh, United Kingdom
* Corresponding author. E-mail: crlehn@gmail.com
Abstract: Elaphoglossum discolor was recently discovered
and collected on the Urucum plateau of the Brazilian state
of Mato Grosso do Sul, lying in the western outskirts of
the Pantanal ood plain. is is the southernmost distri-
bution of E. discolor in Brazil.
Key words: ferns, Urucum plateau, Pantanal wetlands,
southernmost recorded distribution
Dryopteridaceae Herter is a fern family of pantropical
distribution (Tryon and Tryon ) comprising –
genera and about , species, most of which (ca. )
belonging to one of the four richest genera: Ctenitis,
Dryopteris, Elaphoglossum e Polystichum (Smith et al.
). In Brazil Dryopteridaceae includes ca.  species
mainly distributed in South and Southeastern regions,
with  belong to the genus Elaphoglossum (Prado et
al. ).
Elaphoglossum Schott ex. J. Sm. is one of the most
diverse genera of ferns, comprising ca.  species,
and is mostly distributed in cloud forests (Moran ;
Vasco and Moran ). e center of diversity for the
genus is the Neotropic region, which includes three-
quarters of all species (Mickel and Smith ). More
specically, the Andean regions between Colombia
and Bolivia have the highest number of Elaphoglossum
species (Tryon and Tryon ). In Brazil, about 
of Elaphoglossum species occur in montane habitats of
South and Southeastern regions (Windisch and Kieling-
Rubio ).
Smith et al. () reported that many Elaphoglossum
species are yet to be described, which is supported by
the recent publications of Melo and Salino () and
Kieling-Rubio and Windisch (), indicating that the
diversity of this genus in Brazil may be signicantly
higher than currently recognized.
e present study reports the rst record of
Elaphoglossum discolor (Kuhn) C.Chr. for the state of
Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil.
e present study was carried out in the Urucum
plateau region (ʹ.ʺ S, ʹ.ʺ W), western
outskirts of the Pantanal ood plain, Mato Grosso do
Sul state. e examined material (Brazil: Mato Grosso
do Sul: Corumbá, July , Morro São Domingos –
Maciço do Urucum, C.R.Lehn, ) was deposited in
the herbarium CGMS of the Universidade Federal de
Mato Grosso do Sul and duplicates were sent to the
herbarium SP in the Instituto de Botânica de São Paulo.
e material was sent for expert identication.
Elaphoglossum discolor is a herbaceous species, with an
ascending rhizome clothed in linear-lanceolate scales,
sterile fronds ovoid-lanceolate with maximum size to 
cm and fertile fronds lanceolate-shaped with maximum
size to  cm (Figure ). According to Brade (), the
closest relative of E. discolor is E. riparium Brade, which
occur only in Goiás state in the central plateau of the
Brazilian shield and is distinguished from E. discolor by
equal-sized sterile and fertile fronds.
A total of eight individuals were found in a cerrado
sensu stricto on ironstone outcrops, distributed at two
points (ʹ.ʺ S, ʹ.ʺ W and/ ʹ.ʺ
S, ʹ.ʺ W) at a mean altitude of  m above sea
level.
Previous occurrence records for Elaphoglossum discolor
were restricted to the Amazonian forest in the states
of Acre, Amazonas, Roraima and Mato Grosso (Brade
; Windisch and Kieling-Rubio ). According to
Pott et al. (), the Pantanal region is inuenced by
its surrounding phytogeographical provinces (of which
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ISSN 1809-127X © 2015 Check List and Authors
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1715
21 August 2015
Notes oN GeoGraphic DistributioN
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Lehn et al. | First record of Elaphoglossum discolor for Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil
the Amazon forest is obviously important), which
could explain the establishment of E. discolor in the
area. e headwaters of several tributary rivers of the
Rio Paraguai (the main river of the Pantanal basin) are
located in the outskirts of the Amazon basin, creating
a potential corridor for Amazonian species throughout
the Pantanal (Pott et al. ).
Besides the physiognomic distinction between the
Amazon and the Pantanal oodplain (mostly savanna-
like formations), Elaphoglossum species commonly occur
in primary forests and are very sensitive to habitat change
(Tryon and Tryon ). However, some Elaphoglossum
species are resilient to anthropic disturbance, e.g., the E.
discolor populations of the present study being observed
in areas aected by mining. e western outskirts of
the Pantanal oodplain, including the Urucum plateau
represent the area with most inventories of ferns and
lycophytes in Mato Grosso do Sul state, totaling 
species (Assis ). e present study reports the
Urucum plateau as the southernmost distribution of E.
discolor in Brazil (Figure ).
Figure 1. Elaphoglossum discolor (Kuhn) C.Chr. in natural conditions on the
Urucum plateau, western outskirts of the Pantanal ood plain, Corumbá,
Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. Photo: Carlos Rodrigo Lehn.
Figure 2: Distribution map of Elaphoglossum discolor (Kuhn) C.Chr. in Brazil, showing the southern limit of occurrence in the Urucum plateau, Mato Grosso
do Sul, Brazil.
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Lehn et al. | First record of Elaphoglossum discolor for Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
e authors thanks to Dr. Jeerson Prado for the
determination of the species and Dr. Alan Sciamareli for
drawing the map.
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Authors’ contribution statement: CRL and ELMA collected data,
CRL, ELMA and DMN wrote the text.
Received:  January 
Accepted:  June 
Academic editor: Rubens Luiz Gayoso Coelho
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Introduction and historical summary Over the past 70 years, many fern classifications, nearly all based on morphology, most explicitly or implicitly phylogenetic, have been proposed. The most complete and commonly used classifications, some intended primarily as herbarium (filing) schemes, are summarized in Table 16.1, and include: Christensen (1938), Copeland (1947), Holttum (1947, 1949), Nayar (1970), Bierhorst (1971), Crabbe et al. (1975), Pichi Sermolli (1977), Ching (1978), Tryon and Tryon (1982), Kramer (in Kubitzki, 1990), Hennipman (1996), and Stevenson and Loconte (1996). Other classifications or trees implying relationships, some with a regional focus, include Bower (1926), Ching (1940), Dickason (1946), Wagner (1969), Tagawa and Iwatsuki (1972), Holttum (1973), and M.ckel (1974). Tryon (1952) and Pichi Sermolli (1973) reviewed and reproduced many of these and still earlier classifications, and Pichi Sermolli (1970, 1981, 1982, 1986) also summarized information on family names of ferns. Smith (1996) provided a summary and discussion of recent classifications. With the advent of cladistic methods and molecular sequencing techniques, there has been an increased interest in classifications reflecting evolutionary relationships. Phylogenetic studies robustly support a basal dichotomy within vascular plants, separating the lycophytes (less than 1% of extant vascular plants) from the euphyllophytes (Figure 16.1; Raubeson and Jansen, 1992, Kenrick and Crane, 1997; Pryer et al., 2001a, 2004a, 2004b; Qiu et al., 2006). Living euphyllophytes, in turn, comprise two major clades: spermatophytes (seed plants), which are in excess of 260000 species (Thorne, 2002; Scotland and Wortley, 2003), and ferns (sensu Pryer et al. 2004b), with about 9000 species, including horsetails, whisk ferns, and all eusporangiate and leptosporangiate ferns. © Cambridge University Press 2008 and Cambridge University Press 2009.
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