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Eco-Efficient Product Design Using Theory of Inventive Problem Solving (TRIZ) Principles

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Problem statement: In recent years, much attention has been focused on the eco-efficiency of product development. The majority of environmental decisions are only made in the later stages of product development where not much modification can be done. To produce eco-efficient products, environmental decisions ought to be considered in the early stages of product development. With the demand of developing more eco-efficient products, designers are found to be lacking the appropriate design tools and guidelines. Approach: Products were designed to solve problems. Therefore, we suggest the usage of the 40 principles of TRIZ to generate eco-efficient product designs. The 40 principles of TRIZ is one of the fundamental tools of TRIZ. We studied the design features of different water filters, washing machines and power drills to correlate the elements of eco-efficiency and the principles of TRIZ. Results: From the case studies, it was shown that there is a correlation between eco-efficient elements and TRIZ principles in existing products. The information obtained from the product case studies alongside with the study of the individual TRIZ principles resulted in the formation of a new tool. This new tool was called the TRIZEE Design Tool. After that, literature review on the commonly practiced design methodologies were carried out. A new methodology termed TRIZEE Design Methodology was developed. New tools and existing tools were incorporated within this methodology. Conclusion: We proved that there is a correlation between eco-efficient elements and the 40 principles of TRIZ. Through this research, a new design methodology is also formed to that can be a guideline for designers.
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American Journal of Applied Sciences 7 (6): 852-858, 2010
ISSN 1546-9239
© 2010 Science Publications
Corresponding Author: Issac Lim Sing Sheng, Department of Mechanical Engineering,
School of Engineering,
Monash University Sunway Campus, Sunway, Malaysia
852
Eco-Efficient Product Design Using Theory of
Inventive Problem Solving (TRIZ) Principles
Issac Lim Sing Sheng and Teoh Kok-Soo
Department of Mechanical Engineering, School of Engineering,
Monash University Sunway Campus, Sunway, Malaysia
Abstract: Problem statement: In recent years, much attention has been focused on the eco-efficiency
of product development. The majority of environmental decisions are only made in the later stages of
product development where not much modification can be done. To produce eco-efficient products,
environmental decisions ought to be considered in the early stages of product development. With the
demand of developing more eco-efficient products, designers are found to be lacking the appropriate
design tools and guidelines. Approach: Products were designed to solve problems. Therefore, we
suggest the usage of the 40 principles of TRIZ to generate eco-efficient product designs. The 40
principles of TRIZ is one of the fundamental tools of TRIZ. We studied the design features of different
water filters, washing machines and power drills to correlate the elements of eco-efficiency and the
principles of TRIZ. Results: From the case studies, it was shown that there is a correlation between
eco-efficient elements and TRIZ principles in existing products. The information obtained from the
product case studies alongside with the study of the individual TRIZ principles resulted in the
formation of a new tool. This new tool was called the TRIZEE Design Tool. After that, literature
review on the commonly practiced design methodologies were carried out. A new methodology termed
TRIZEE Design Methodology was developed. New tools and existing tools were incorporated within
this methodology. Conclusion: We proved that there is a correlation between eco-efficient elements
and the 40 principles of TRIZ. Through this research, a new design methodology is also formed to that
can be a guideline for designers.
Key words: Product design, eco-efficiency, TRIZ, TRIZEE
INTRODUCTION
In the pursuit of economic prosperity, the
environment is left in the state of decline. With
prosperous economies, the lifestyle of mankind has also
elevated. More natural resources are used to sustain such
lifestyles and even more irreversible damage is done on
the environment. The consumption of energy, water and
non renewable resources is increasing, on both a total
and per capita basis (Rock and Angel, 2009). Shortages
are ensuing in many parts of the world even in the
present time. Such developments are not sustainable due
to its lack of eco-efficiency. Every product impacts the
environment throughout its lifecycle. In order to have a
sustainable environment, more eco-efficient products
should be designed. One of the main challenges for
product designers is the lack of tools to incorporate
environmental decisions (McAloone et al., 1998). This
research aims to develop a design methodology for eco-
efficient products using TRIZ principles.
Eco-efficiency elements: Eco-efficiency was originally
defined by the World Business Council for Sustainable
Development (WBCSD) back in 1992 before the Earth
Summit in Rio de Janeiro. In exact definition, WBCSD
states that eco-efficiency is reached by the delivery of
competitively priced goods and services that satisfy
human needs and bring quality of life, while
progressively reducing ecological impacts and resource
intensity. Eco-efficiency is categorized according to the
seven elements. The eco-efficiency elements are
reduction of material, energy and toxicity in goods and
services. Other eco-efficient elements are increase in
the usage of renewable resources, durability and service
intensity of the product.
TRIZ principles: In the 1940s, a Russian inventor by
the name of Genrikh Saulovich Altshuller researched
for some generic rules that would explain creation of
new, inventive, patentable ideas. After correlating
Am. J. Applied Sci., 7 (6): 852-858, 2010
853
thousands of patterns, he discovered that all industries
utilized the same underlying inventive principles. These
principles could be generalized and universally applied.
Therefore, Altshuller developed the TRIZ methodology
which is the Russian acronym for Teoriya Resheniya
Izobretatelskikh Zadatch meaning ‘The theory of
inventive problem solving’. Inventive problem solving
can now be learnt and taught. The main TRIZ tool used
in this research is the 40 principles of TRIZ (Technical
Innovation Center, 2009).
MATERIALS AND METHODS
Design methodology: A general eco-efficient product
design methodology has been developed. This
methodology is further improved by gaining feedback
information from the industry. Information and
feedback are obtained through company interviews and
product case studies.
In this research, the approach of applying Eco-
efficiency elements and TRIZ principles are integrated
with the proposed TRIZEE (TRIZ Eco-efficiency)
Design Methodology.
TRIZEE design methodology: There are numerous
product design methodologies being practiced in the
industry. For this project to be relevant and effective in
the general industry, the nature of the proposed
TRIZEE Design Methodology functions as a
complement and not as a substitute for existing design
processes. The methodology is set up to complement
general design processes. New design tools are
developed in this project.
In general the design methodology consists of four
main design phases which are problem origin, problem
exploration, solution generation and evaluation. The
flow chart in Fig. 1 displays the complete TRIZEE
Design Methodology.
Fig. 1: TRIZEE design methodology
Am. J. Applied Sci., 7 (6): 852-858, 2010
854
Table 1: Eco-efficiency element ranking matrix
Eco-efficiency
Element 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Total score
1 -
2 -
3 -
4 -
5 -
6 -
7 -
Table 2: TRIZEE design tool
Eco-efficiency element TRIZ principles
Material reduction 1, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 13, 14, 16, 17, 18, 23,
26, 28, 29, 30, 31, 34, 35, 36, 37, 40
Energy reduction 1, 5, 6, 7, 9, 10, 12, 13, 14, 16, 17, 18,
19, 20, 23, 25, 26, 28, 29, 31, 38, 39
Toxicity reduction 2, 9, 10, 11, 13, 16, 18, 21, 22, 23, 24,
30, 38, 39
Increase recyclability 1, 2, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 15, 21, 22, 24, 29,
32, 33, 34, 35, 37
Increase resource sustainable 3, 8, 18, 25, 28, 36, 37
Increase product durability 7, 9, 10, 11, 14, 39
Increase product service 1, 4, 5, 6, 7, 9, 10, 14, 15, 17, 18, 24, 25,
27, 29, 30, 31, 32, 36, 38, 39
Problem origin: A design problem can be initiated
internally or externally. The first is the internal input
from the company itself. Internal inputs are driven by
the company’s own initiation to improve the eco-
efficiency of its products. External inputs are factors
that are beyond the influence of the company.
Problem exploration: According to Altshuller (1996),
a problem ought to be termed as concise as possible.
To help explore the problem, an existing tool called
OFFERS is used. The term OFFERS in an acronym of
the different considerations evaluated while defining
the problem. These considerations are objective,
function, factors, effects, requirements and
specifications (Field, 2006).
The type of eco-efficiency element that is to be
improved depends on the capability of the design team.
Through OFFERS, designers could identify the
restrictions that will govern their design strategy.
To assist designers in selecting the suitable eco-
efficiency requirement, a tool has been designed. It is
termed the Eco-Efficiency Element Ranking Matrix.
Information from the design objective, functions and
factors will assist the usage of this matrix.
The eco-efficiency requirement ranking matrix
consists of the product requirements on the horizontal
as well as the vertical columns as shown in Table 1. For
this project, the 7 eco-efficiency elements are the
requirements for product design. A score of ‘1’ is given
if a particular requirement is more important than the
compared requirement. If not, a ‘0’ is given instead.
The requirement with the highest total score will have
the main priority in design considerations.
Solution generation: There are two strategies of
generating solutions. One is through concept analysis
and the other is through part analysis. Concept analysis
is used to generate designs of a totally new product.
The new concept generated is different from the trends
seen in existing as well as previous models. Part
analysis on the other hand is used for the improvement
existing parts of a product. It is carried out through
reverse engineering. Part analysis is most commonly
practiced due to its shorter development period as
compared to concept analysis.
The core of this methodology is the TRIZEE
design tool. Compared to sustainable design practices,
the TRIZEE design tool provides structured problem
solving guideline in the integrated form of eco-
efficiency elements and TRIZ principles.
After studying the definitions and applications of
each of the 40 TRIZ principles, eco-efficiency elements
were linked to the individual principles (Table 2). After
determining which eco-efficiency element is required,
solutions can be generated using the associated TRIZ
principles as listed in the following TRIZEE Design
Tool. Concept and part analysis is reiterated till the
products meet the eco-efficient design specifications.
Evaluation: Evaluation of a designed product is done
through the use of indicators. There are two indicators
proposed for the TRIZEE design methodology which
are the Eco-Efficiency Ratio and Factor X. These two
indicators provide a quantitative evaluation of the level
of eco-efficiency of products and were developed by
WBCSD and Japan Environmental Management
Association for Industry (JEMAI).
Eco-efficiency ratio formula:
Product value
Eco-efficiencyRatio =
Environmentalinfluence
For the Eco-efficiency Ratio, the numerator is
represented by the perceived value of the product.
Environmental influence or impact represents the
denominator for this indicator. A product’s eco-
efficiency is higher if the value of the product
outweighs its environmental impact.
Am. J. Applied Sci., 7 (6): 852-858, 2010
855
The eco-efficiency formula brings together the two
eco dimensions of economy and ecology to relate
product value to environmental impact. Different
companies use indicators with a slight difference of
system boundaries. Companies such as NEC, Sony,
Canon and Ricoh represent product value in terms of
financial performance. Other companies by the likes of
Matsushita, Panasonic, Mitsubishi, Hitachi, Fujitsu and
Toshiba evaluates product feature instead of its
financial aspect (Aoe et al., 2005). After analyzing the
annual environmental report of Panasonic, Sanyo and
Toshiba, it is concluded that there is commonly an
emphasis on four common environmental aspects.
These aspects in terms of eco-efficiency elements are
the reduction of material, energy, toxicity and the
increase of recyclability.
Factor X formula:
Eco-efficiencyof the new product
Factor X =
Eco-efficiencyof the old product
Factor X is the ratio of the eco-efficiency of the
evaluated product over the previous or competing
product (Nakaniwa, 2001). With Factor X, companies
are able to gauge the quantitative advancement their
product’s eco-efficiency.
RESULTS
The product case studies were aimed to prove the
correlation between eco-efficiency and TRIZ in current
product designs. By proving this correlation through the
case studies, the adaptability of TRIZEE design tool
can be proven. Separate case studies on products were
conducted for concept and part analysis. Water filter
and washing machine are the types of products chosen
for concept analysis. As for part analysis, electric
impact drills were chosen as case study.
Concept analysis of water filters: There are numerous
products that provide us with potable water. Six
different water filters were chosen for study. They are
the distiller, reverse osmosis, ultra violet radiation
system, water ionizer, carbon and water filters.
Generally, the studied water filters can be grouped
into three concepts. The first concept removes
contamination, the second distills the water and the
third inactivates microorganism. The water filter
concepts, eco-efficiency elements and TRIZ principles
are correlated in Table 3.
Concept analysis of washing machines: Current
washing machine manufacturers in the market focus on
precise motor control for energy efficiency and
dynamic washing drum design for increased water
agitation. However, a Japanese based home appliances
manufacturer has successfully introduced three new
concepts to its washing machine. Firstly, it has an
option of cleaning using ozone instead of water.
Another concept is its recycling of bathwater. Besides
that, the drum is positioned higher and at an angle. Eco-
efficiency elements and TRIZ principles are then
related to the individual concepts. Table 4 showed the
description of the correlated eco-efficiency elements
and TRIZ principles for the different concepts of
existing washing machines.
Part analysis: This type of product is chosen because it
is commonly used both by the industry as well as the
consumer market. Two different brands were selected
for case study. Brand B is of a European based
company and was manufactured locally in Malaysia.
Brand S is produced by an Asian Original Equipment
Manufacturer (OEM). It is manufactured and imported
from the same country as the OEM. Both of the drills
have impact mode and were similar in their power
rating of 500 W. The drills were reverse engineered
through a series of dismantling processes.
Table 3: Correlation between water filter concepts, eco-efficiency element and TRIZ principle
Concept Eco-efficiency element TRIZ principle
Filters Energy reduction: #31 porous material
Electricity is not needed. Ceramic and carbon filters are porous.
Distillation Toxicity reduction: #29 hydraulic
No chemicals needed. Pressure is applied to induce reverse osmosis.
Material reduction: #30 flexible membrane
Filter mechanism is replaced by flexible
membrane which is made of lesser material. Thin layer of membrane acts as filter for extremely small particles.
Inactivate microorganisms Product service:
Effectively kills all microorganism while #18 mechanical vibration
preserving the water minerals. UV light is a high frequency wave.
#38 accelerated oxygen
Sliver ions are impregnated into the carbon filters.
Am. J. Applied Sci., 7 (6): 852-858, 2010
856
Table 4: Correlation between washing machine concepts, eco-efficiency element and TRIZ principle
Concept Eco-efficiency element TRIZ principle
Ozone: Material reduction: #38 Use strong oxidizers
Oxygen in the air is converted to ozone and Ozone is used instead of water to disinfect Transition from one level of oxidation to the
injected into the drum to eliminate bacteria and deodorize. next higher level.
from delicate clothing. Ozone is a strong oxidant which can be
generated from normal air.
Toxicity reduction:
It is able to kill odor-causing bacteria
although it is non toxic.
Product service:
Reduction of cycle time from 30-20 min.
Possible to wash more delicate fabrics that
are vulnerable to heat.
Recycled water: Material reduction: #22 Convert harm into benefit
Bathwater is cleaned and recycled for use Bathwater as well as water used in rinse cycle Waste water contains causes pollution. Using
in laundry. The water is cleaned by infusing is cleaned using ozone and reused for washing. ozone to disinfect, waste water is converted into
ozone in micro bubble form. Less fresh water is used for washing. water that is fit for washing laundry.
Higher and angled drum: Product service: #4 Asymmetry
The height of the washing drum is designed to Easy to reach without straining while loading Conventional washing machines are designed to
be as high as an average kitchen counter. or unloading the drum. Stress on knees, elbows be symmetrical in shape.
The drum is also tilted instead of the and backs will be reduced. This washing machine employs the principle of
conventional front or top loading orientation. asymmetry as the washing drum is tilted
upwards in an angle.
Table 5: Correlation between the design of power drill parts, eco-efficiency elements and TRIZ principles
Description of part Eco-efficiency element TRIZ principle
Quantity of screws: Material reduction: #3 local quality
More screws are placed at the motor and chuck The Bosch drill needs one less screw. Screws are only placed in critical vibration
sections. One less screw is used at the handle of It may seem insignificant but as the drill is areas such as the motor and chuck sections.
the Bosch drill as compared to the Starke drill. manufactured by the tens of thousands, a Less screw is used at the bottom of the
considerable amount of material saving can Bosch drill handle where vibration is
be achieved. Savings in raw material usage minimal relative to the other parts.
translates directly to monetary savings as well.
Types of screws: Enhance recyclability: #33 homogeneity
There is a single type of screw used for the It is faster to assemble as well as disassemble Identical screws are used to at the different
Bosch drill. This is opposed to the variety of components that are attached by a single type parts of the product.
three screws sizes used for the Starke drill. of screw. It eliminates the need of another
tool. Hence, decreasing time and effort in
separating the product components.
Interior structure: Increase service intensity: #17 transition into a new dimension
Ribs are placed within the motor and chuck The motor as well as the chuck fits firmer on The internal structure has ribs that are
section. For the Starke drill, internal ribs are the horizontal and vertical ribs. Hence, the positioned both in the horizontal as well as
only designed in the horizontal plane. internal components will not shift and cause the vertical axis.
Additional ribs in the vertical plane are additional vibration. Ultimately, torque will be
designed for Bosch drill. delivered efficiently from the motor to the
drill bit.
Power cord inlet: Increase service intensity: #14 spheroidility
The power cord is connected to the drill If the power cord is connected at an angle to A linear design for the power cord inlet is
through the bottom handle. For the Starke drill, the handle, there will be less obstruction to changed into a curved path.
the power cord enters perpendicularly to the the user’s wrist and arm. This promotes better
bottom of the handle. As for the Bosch drill, handling of the drill during operation.
it connects to the handle at an angle.
Number of fins: Increase service intensity: #25 self service
There are a total of 39 fins for the Bosch fan Prevents the motor from overheating. More fins The torque generated to drive the chuck is
as oppose to the 32 fins for the Starke drill. in the fan will increase air flow and ultimately also used to rotate the fan.
will dissipate heat in a shorter period of time.
Am. J. Applied Sci., 7 (6): 852-858, 2010
857
Each of the drill was brand new before its functions
were tested. Information such as the performance and
ease of use were recorded. Next, the drill is dismantled
to its separate parts. Not all of parts can be separated
individually. Some were tightly fixed since product
assembly. Each dismantling step was photographed.
The parts later named and quantified. Both of the action
and tool needed to dismantle the parts were recorded as
well in the dismantling list. Once dismantling has been
completed, the body of material is listed. The feature of
the parts such as quantity, weight and dimension was
catalogued. This information from both drills was
compared to each other.
For parts of similar function, the differences in
terms of design features were noted. This information
from both drills was compared to each other. The power
drill design features, eco-efficient elements and TRIZ
principles are then correlated in Table 5.
DISCUSSION
Products come in a variety of concepts and parts.
From the case study of concept analysis, it is learnt that
there are multiple products that are designed to achieve
the same function of producing potable water. The
water filters are considerably different in terms of
concept.
Products with a similar concept were studied in
part analysis. For products with similar concept like the
electric power drills, there are only minor differences in
the design of its parts and components. Each differing
concept and part has its own eco-efficiency advantage
over the other. All of the principles used in designing
the studied products were found in the list of TRIZ
principles.
The product case study has reached its aim, which
is to prove that there is a correlation between eco-
efficient elements and TRIZ principles in existing
product designs. Therefore, it is possible to use the
TRIZEE Design Tool directly to generate solutions for
eco-efficient products.
CONCLUSION
The contribution of this project is twofold. First,
the benefits eco-efficiency to both the economy and
ecology can be shared by the industry, consumers and
the environment. Next, designers and engineers are
introduced to the powerful set of TRIZ inventive
principles to improve the thinking process behind the
generation of design concepts and solutions. Eco-
efficient product design is more reliable and predictable
through the works of this project.
For every eco-efficiency element featured in the
product case study, the usage of a TRIZ principle can
be identified. This indicates the existence of a link
between eco-efficiency elements and TRIZ principles.
Therefore, the TRIZEE design tool can be used directly
in guiding designers to select the possible TRIZ
principles needed to increase eco-efficiency elements of
the designed product. The simplicity of the proposed
TRIZEE design methodology enables also it to be
assimilated into concept as well as part design
processes.
Further works includes the modification of the
TRIZEE Design Tool as more product case studies are
carried out. The TRIZEE design Methodology will also
be tested in actual product development projects
through industrial collaboration. Finally, more new
design tools will be developed using the other tools of
TRIZ.
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Aoe, T., S. Kurihara, O. Namikawa, T. Takahashi and
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DOI: 10.1109/ECODIM.2005.1619344
Field, B.W., 2006. Introduction to Engineering Design.
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McAloone, T.C., T.A. Bhamra and S. Evans, 1998.
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The paper is focused on the anthropic and natural (mattergic and bioeconomic) recycling process of the pollutant products with the possibility to reintroduce in the technological flow a major quantity of the matter with a very low level of energy used with a top level of the informaction (actional information). Is introduced the contextual (2+2)Rs paradigm (reduce, recycle & reuse, recombine-recover) connected to the ENSEC, envinronmental-sociopolitic-economic paradigm of the knowledge based society/economy (KBS/E). The perspective of such a pattern is an optimistic one; so, preserving mattergic resources, even energetic, with a larger contribution of the smart components and technics of the recycling process, we could overcome the contextual thresholds of a future bioeconomy. This represents a new perspective of the recycling process and is considered an important oportunity for the global economy facing the current crisis. In order to have a comprehensive vision of the pollution and waste issue, we are puting together in this paper, in a synergistic-generative significant way (synergy 1+1>2, and significance 1-1≠0), three conceptual and analytical knowledge-spaces: transdisciplinarity as a methodology, globalization vs glocalization as a reality, and sustainable development as a necessity. The linear thermo economic recycling model is compared with the nonlinear, simply circular economic one, in the bio economic context, giving a comprehensive description of what does circular bio economic recycling pattern really means.
... This approach also presents limitations towards considering heritage needs as well as enabling new disruptive connections. This is relevant to mark the evolution of this approach towards addressing efficiency, as new methods like TRIZEE show (Sheng and Kok-Soo, 2010). ...
Thesis
This thesis explores new systems engineering design needs for evolutive systemarchitectures (eSAR), which are a subset of a new generation of complex hardware-basedsystems, within a context defined by global design stressors such as resource scarcity, andcomplexity. These evolutive system are highly adaptable, aiming towards resourceregeneration, and presenting a highly intelligent baseline. Based upon an extensive literaturereview highlighting key gaps on state-of-the-art design engineering and system engineeringtechniques, a full cycle evolutive development methodology (eSARD) is presented inspiredby natural evolution mechanisms while addressing heritage, and better systemperformances. The holistic eSARD method tackles design, implementation, systemoperations, and overall system optimization of an eSAR.
... The product design was developed using the TRIZEE method. The TRIZEE design method was introduced by Issac Lim Sing Sheng and Teoh Kok-Soo [39]. The concept analysis takes a minimalist, multifunctional, and unity concept. ...
Article
Full-text available
The furniture industry is suspected to have triggered global warming. The need for wood as raw material becomes a necessity for cutting down trees. The concept of a circular economy aims to reduce the use of natural resources by utilizing production waste or post-use product waste into raw materials. One strategy that can be used to support the circular economy is by implementing 6R. The application of 6R in a circular economic perspective on the furniture industry will be interesting to do. This study uses value stream mapping as a lean manufacturing analysis tool to identify furniture company waste. Value stream mapping is developed by integrating green manufacturing indicators such as material consumption and waste management. Practically, the furniture company can find out the map of production waste so that it can utilize waste as raw material for derivative products as an effort to reduce tree felling. Theoretically, this research will enrich the integration of green-value stream mapping toward the circular economy by implementing the 6R strategy in furniture companies. Reuse wood waste as a raw material for a variety of table products can reduce the amount of wood waste while reducing the resources of wood logs.
... Also, the combination of biological systems and solar energy is beneficial, as for biogas production from manure digestion by exploiting algae activated by sun, replacing the traditional reactors with oxidizing gases (Wu et al., 2020). In particular, the last option was already identified in Sheng and Kok-Soo (2010), from a test about the application of the TRIZ Inventive Principles in eco-design. This strategy is instead more lacking in reducing the water consumption. ...
Article
This paper provides a quantitative evaluation of how much the application of the main TRIZ (Russian acronym for Theory of Inventive Problem Solving) strategies resulted in an increase of the sustainability of different devices by reducing their environmental impacts. The used dataset consists of 144 case studies of Comparative Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) extracted from 119 scientific articles. They were manually analysed and classified by analogy according to the TRIZ strategies. These latter deal with “Dematerialization of the device” through an increased involvement of fields, “Better exploitation of the resources” available in the system or the working environment, “Structure re-design” for eliminating the conflicting parts and properties, “Increasing the control” of the device during the functioning. While the considered environmental impact categories are: global warming potential, acidification potential, eutrophication potential, particulate matter formation, fossil resources consumption and water consumption. The study identified promising results in all the TRIZ strategies for almost all the environmental impact categories, with percentage reductions on average between 20 and 50%. Compared to previous studies in the literature, these obtained results provide more rigorous, consistent, and broad quantitative evidence about the validity of the individual TRIZ strategies in eco-design. At the same time, some common mechanisms of application of the TRIZ strategies were identified both when they provided the greatest and least environmental benefits. They enriched the discussion of the results, highlighting the many factors that are involved in evaluation, both about the device and external (e.g. electricity mix) and demonstrating that TRIZ's success in eco-design is not a foregone conclusion, despite the many positive opinions in the literature. The results and their discussion provide data history for the designer wishing to use TRIZ in eco-design.
Article
BACKGROUND: While studies have investigated relationships among learning motivation, social presence, and cognitive presence, there appear to be no studies on the inclusion of industry talks and the theory of inventive problem-solving (TRIZ) in strengthening engineering students’ learning motivation, social presence, and cognitive presence within a blended learning setting. OBJECTIVE: This study investigated the influence of industry talks and TRIZ on learning motivation, social presence, and cognitive presence in a blended learning environment. METHODS: Data samples were obtained from 98 engineering students in a blended learning course and analysed using Spearman’s correlation test, regression, ANOVA, and t-test. RESULTS: Findings suggested that TRIZ and industry talks strongly, positively, and significantly correlated with learning motivation, social presence, and cognitive presence. A well-rounded learning experience compounded of TRIZ and industry talks significantly affected learning motivation, social presence, and cognitive presence, thereby enhancing students’ programme outcome (PO) achievement. CONCLUSIONS: These findings can be attributed to the students’ independent learning capabilities with TRIZ and industry talks. Analogically, embracing TRIZ and industry talks helps turn blended learning into a “sweet instead of bitter pill to swallow” for engineering students in the face of the COVID-19 pandemic.
Chapter
Learning through Games is a mature teaching method, which has many applications in the field of e-learning through gamification, Intercultural learning or Promoting global empathy and interest. This study takes role-play as the main teaching idea and aims to understand the relationship between product and materials technology, structure design and appearance design from multiple perspectives by substituting students into different roles (designer, engineer and design director) in product engineering process. This case work is a part of product design course of China Central Academy of Fine Arts (CAFA). It takes reverse engineering as the medium and teaches sophomores. In the process of dismantling and reconstructing products, the team members had a clear division of labor according to the requirements in advance, including project manager, engineer, designer and recorder. They worked closely with each other to interpret the pre-set problems of the course from different perspectives, so as to solve various problems encountered in reverse engineering. Finally, through the form of questionnaire, the teaching method of Learning through games based on role play has been verified by the form of evaluation questionnaire. The results show that most students have reached the cognitive level of reverse engineering. We see this period of work as practical study, aiming to verify the possibility of using role-play to intervene in product design courses. In the second stage of the study, we will systematically deepen role-play characters, environmental scenes and design props.
Chapter
In the 20th century, the concept of Product Design was centered on an engineering process aimed at projecting and further developing a technological and as a rule physically tangible product. Thus, to support the heuristic stage of Product Design the TRIZ toolkit has appeared and turned to be an effective tool for engineers and inventors assisted at technological obstacles overcoming process. However, in the 21st century the commercial Product itself changes its forms and a way it’s being developed and leads to the market. The main reasons for that are decreased time-to-market, the dynamically changing product requirements, opportunities to effectively test product hypotheses and to use flexible development methodologies. These properties are peculiar for the products that launch in the digital era. Thus, present-day products require more and more design strategy and vision decisions rather than only engineering tricks to successfully meet market needs. With these realities, the User Experience and User Interface of the product, monetization model, the target audience, communication and branding become an integral part of the Product Design and Product Management processes. This article aims to demonstrate on several case studies how appropriately TRIZ methodology is able to support a heuristic stage of the modern Product Design and Management processes.
Conference Paper
In Japan, some leading industries and companies have started to apply the eco-efficiency concept in their management, decision-making and/or communication tools with stakeholders. Although still experimental, the eco-efficiency increasingly gains recognition as effective concept at the sectoral /corporate level and at a product level. In this paper, we first describe how the eco-efficiency concept is practiced; especially at a product level for that there are multi-attribute evaluation items. Second, we present an overview of eco-efficiency related activities in Japan, such as eco-efficiency project (funded by the Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry of Japan. Finally, we introduce one of the project activities, an eco-efficiency handbook that was issued in 2004 and describe coordinating methodologies and steps in the development of eco-efficiency indicators.
Conference Paper
As environmentally conscious design (ECD) is growing in importance and an increasing number of companies are beginning to introduce it into their product development processes, it is interesting to establish how companies have made it work. As this concept is still new for many organizations it is difficult to predict exactly what constitutes successful ECD. As part of the DEEDS research project at Cranfield University it was therefore decided to conduct a series of in-depth interviews in thirty companies from the electronic/electrical sector in the UK, Central Europe and USA. This paper presents two of the major research findings from this project. Firstly decisions that have a major environmental impact are largely made in the pre-specification stages of the product development process. Secondly, it is recognized that most companies have developed an information supply system to support ECD and have used people identified as environmental champions to do this. This paper explores the significance of these two findings and highlights the way in which other organizations can learn from these results
And Suddenly The Inventor Appeared TRIZ, the Theory of Inventive Problem Solving
  • G Altshuller
Altshuller, G., 1996. And Suddenly The Inventor Appeared TRIZ, the Theory of Inventive Problem Solving. 2nd Edn., Technical Innovation Centre, Inc., Worcester, ISBN: 10: 0964074028, pp: 196.
Development of eco-efficiency indicators regarding products Japan Environmental Management Association for Industry Grow first, clean up later? Industrial Transformation in East Asia. Taylor and Francis Group
  • C Nakaniwa
Nakaniwa, C., 2001. Development of eco-efficiency indicators regarding products. Japan Environmental Management Association for Industry. http://www.jemai.or.jp/JEMAI_DYNAMIC/data/c urrent/detailobj-2001-attachment.pdf Rock, M.T. and D.P. Angel, 2009. Grow first, clean up later? Industrial Transformation in East Asia. Taylor and Francis Group. http://www.environmentmagazine.org/Archives/Ba ck%20Issues/May%202007/Rock-abstract.html Technical Innovation Center, 2009. Altshuller. TRIZ. http://www.triz.org/triz/altshuller.shtml
Publication of the ecoefficiency Handbook
  • T Aoe
  • S Kurihara
  • O Namikawa
  • T Takahashi
  • C Nakaniwa
Aoe, T., S. Kurihara, O. Namikawa, T. Takahashi and C. Nakaniwa, 2005. Publication of the ecoefficiency Handbook in 2004 Eco-efficiency Project in Japan. Proceeding of the 4th International Symposium on Environmentally Conscious Design and Inverse Manufacturing, Dec. 12-14, IEEE Xplore Press, USA., pp: 764-765.
Development of eco-efficiency indicators regarding products. Japan Environmental Management Association for Industry
  • C Nakaniwa
Nakaniwa, C., 2001. Development of eco-efficiency indicators regarding products. Japan Environmental Management Association for Industry.