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The aim of this review is to discuss the use of microalgae as a feed ingredient in poultry nutrition. Microalgae are unicellular, photosynthetic aquatic plants. They are introduced to poultry diets mainly as a rich source of n-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, including docohexaenoic and eicosapentaenoic acid, but they can also serve as a protein, microelement, vitamin and antioxidants source, as well as a pigmentation agent for skin and egg yolks. The majority of experiments have shown that microalgae, mainly Spirulina and Chlorella sourced as a defatted biomass from biofuel production, can be successfully used as a feed ingredient in poultry nutrition. They can have beneficial effects on meat and egg quality, i.e. via an increased concentration of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and carotenoids, and in regards to performance indices and immune function. Positive results were obtained when fresh microalgae biomass was used to replace antibiotic growth promoters in poultry diets. In conclusion, because of their chemical composition, microalgae can be efficiently used in poultry nutrition to enhance the pigmentation and nutritional value of meat and eggs, as well as partial replacement of conventional dietary protein sources.
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Application of microalgae biomass in
poultry nutrition
S. ŚWIĄTKIEWICZ
1
*, A. ARCZEWSKA-WŁOSEK
1
and D. JÓZEFIAK
2
1
National Research Institute of Animal Production, Department of Animal
Nutrition;
2
PoznańUniversity of Life Sciences, Department of Animal Nutrition and
Feed Management ul. Wołyńska 33, 60-637 Poznań, Poland
*Corresponding author: sylwester.swiatkiewicz@izoo.krakow.pl
The aim of this review is to discuss the use of microalgae as a feed ingredient in
poultry nutrition. Microalgae are unicellular, photosynthetic aquatic plants. They
are introduced to poultry diets mainly as a rich source of n-3 long chain
polyunsaturated fatty acids, including docohexaenoic and eicosapentaenoic acid,
but they can also serve as a protein, microelement, vitamin and antioxidants
source, as well as a pigmentation agent for skin and egg yolks. The majority of
experiments have shown that microalgae, mainly Spirulina and Chlorella sourced as
a defatted biomass from biofuel production, can be successfully used as a feed
ingredient in poultry nutrition. They can have benecial effects on meat and egg
quality, i.e. via an increased concentration of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and
carotenoids, and in regards to performance indices and immune function. Positive
results were obtained when fresh microalgae biomass was used to replace antibiotic
growth promoters in poultry diets. In conclusion, because of their chemical
composition, microalgae can be efciently used in poultry nutrition to enhance
the pigmentation and nutritional value of meat and eggs, as well as partial
replacement of conventional dietary protein sources.
Keywords: microalgae; poultry; egg and meat quality; PUFA; carotenoids
Introduction
Microalgae, which are dened as microscopic algae, are unicellular, photosynthetic
organisms which grow in salt or fresh water. As a rich source of nutrients and
biologically active substances, including protein, amino acids, n-3 long chain
polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA n-3), microelements, vitamins, antioxidants, and
carotenoids, they have a long history of application as a food for humans (Belay et al.,
1996).
The increasing demand for human protein food sources has resulted in a need for new
feed materials which provide a safe source of nutrients for poultry and livestock. Several
feeding experiments have demonstrated that microalgae of different species can be
doi:10.1017/S0043933915002457
© World's Poultry Science Association 2015
World's Poultry Science Journal, Vol. 71, December 2015
Received for publication July 30, 2015
Accepted for publication August 13, 2015 663
successfully included into poultry diets, for example as a defatted biomass byproduct
from biofuel production, and can have a benecial inuence on birdshealth,
performance, and the quality of meat and eggs. Especially important for the poultry
industry are recent studies where microalgal biomass was efciently used in the
production of eggs containing health-promoting lipids, i.e. eggs enriched with health-
promoting long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFAs n-3). The traditional
method of enriching eggs with LCPUFAs n-3 is to incorporate linseed or sh oil into the
layer diet; however, this latter method is limited by the high demand for marine products
and the risk of their contamination with heavy metals (Wu et al., 2012). For this reason
the use of some microalgae species, for instance Nannochloropsis gaditana,
Schizochytrium limacinum,Phaeodactylum tricornutum, and Isochrysis galbana,in
poultry nutrition could be of interest not only as a source of nutrients, but also as an
alternative way of enriching of eggs with LCPUFAs n-3. The objective of this review is
to discuss the results of current poultry studies where the effects of poultry feeding with
microalgae have been examined.
Efcacy of microalgal biomass in poultry nutrition
SPIRULINA
The blue-green algae (Spirulina) is cultivated worldwide for use in the food and feed
industries. Because of their prokaryotic cell type, this microalgae is sometimes called
cyanobacteria and can be classied into two species: Spirulina platensis and S. maxima.
Dried Spirulina biomass has a high nutritional value for human and animals as it contains
about 60-70% protein, as well as being a good source of essential fatty acids, vitamins
and minerals (Khan et al., 2005). Spirulina is a rich source of carotenoids and contains
around 6,000 mg total xanthophylls and 7,000 mg total carotenoids/kg in freeze-dried
biomass (Anderson et al., 1991). The study by Muhling et al. (2005) has shown a high
concentration of gamma-linolenic acid in Spirulina biomass, which is an essential
polyunsaturated fatty acid (12.9-29.4% total fatty acids).
The results of the experiments on Spirulina inclusion use in broiler diets are
summarised in Table 1. In recent work, Evans et al. (2015) showed that dried full-fat
Spirulina algae had an energy value equal to 90% the energy of corn (2839 kcal TMEn/
kg), as well as containing a high level of crude protein (76%) and essential amino acids.
They also reported that up to 16% of dried algae can be incorporated into a broiler starter
diet without any negative effects on the performance of chicks. Similar results were
obtained in work by Ross and Dominy (1990) who found no signicant differences in
performance of broilers fed a diet containing 1.5, 3, 6 or 12% dehydrated Spirulina in
feed. They concluded that Spirulina at up to 12% of the diet may be substituted for other
protein sources in broiler diets with good growth and FCR. Toyomizu et al. (2001)
reported no difference in growth performance of broilers fed with or without 4 or 8% of
Spirulina biomass in the diet. However, the yellowness of muscles, skin, fat and liver
increased with an increasing dietary level of microalgae, being more attractive for
consumers in certain markets. Hence, dietary Spirulina is useful for the manipulation
of chicken meat colour, especially as the range where the llets produced by feeding
Spirulina do not fall under the extremes of either dark or light meat (Toyomizu et al.,
2001). Similar results were reported by Venkataraman et al. (1994) who demonstrated no
effect of dried Spirulina (included at 14 or 17% in the diet) as a replacement for dietary
sh meal or groundnut cake protein on performance, dressing percentage and
histopathology in the various organs of broiler. However they found a more intensive
meat colour in the case of birds fed algal-supplemented diets. In contrast to the above
Microalgae in poultry nutrition: S. Świątkiewicz et al.
664 World's Poultry Science Journal, Vol. 71, December 2015
authors, Shanmugapriya et al. (2015) recently observed improved body weight gain
(BWG), FCR and villus length in broilers fed a diet containing Spirulina biomass.
Mariey et al. (2014) reported that a low dietary level of Spirulina biomass (0.02 or
0.03%) not only improved performance in broilers, but also increased dressing
percentage, meat colour score, weight of lymphoid organs, improved blood
morphology and decreased relative abdominal fat weight, blood cholesterol,
triglycerides and total lipids.
Table 1 Results of selected studies on the effects of Spirulina inclusion into poultry diets.
Dietary Animals, duration of Results References
concentration the study and studied
of algae characteristics
1.5, 3, 6, Leghorn cockerel chicks, No signicant effect of Spirulina Ross and
or 12% 1-21 d. Performance on performance. Dominy
indices (1990)
0.001, 0.01, White Leghorns and broiler No effect of Spirulina on performance. Qureshi et al.
0.1, 1.0% chicks, 1-49 1-21 d. Leghorn chicks in Spirulina-dietary (1996)
Growth performance, groups had increased total anti-SRBC
Immune characteristics titters; birds of both strains had
increased phagocytic potential of
macrophages and NK-cell activity
4 or 8% Broiler chickens, 21-37 d. No effect of Spirulina on performance Toyomizu
Performance and and relative weights of internal organs. et al.
pigmentation of the Pigmentation (yellowness) of muscles, (2001)
muscles skin, fat, and liver increased with an
increasing dietary level of Spirulina
0.01, 0.02, Broiler chickens, 1-42 d. 0.02 or 0.03% of Spirulina increased Mariey et al.
or 0.03% Performance, carcass BWG, feed efciency, meat colour (2014)
and meat quality, score, weight of bursa, thymus and
blood haematology spleen, blood total protein, globulin and
and biochemistry, weight albumin, and red and white blood cells
of lymphoid organs count, as well as lowered relative
abdominal fat weight, blood plasma
cholesterol, triglycerides, and total lipids
6, 11, 16, Broiler chickens, 1-21 d. Dietary levels up to 16% algae Evans et al.
or 21% Performance, content resulted in a similar performance as in (2015)
of digestible amino acids control group. The positive effect of
in the diet algae inclusion on the digestible
methionine content in the diet
0.5, 1.0, Broiler chickens, 1-21 d. A positive effect of 1% Spirulina on Shanmugapriya
or 1.5% Performance indices, BWG, FCR, and villus length et al. (2015)
histological measurements
1.5, 2.0, Laying hens, 63-67 wk. Spirulina increased yolk colour without Zahroojian
or 2.5% Laying performance, an effect on egg performance et al. (2011)
yolk colour
1.5, 2.0, Laying hens, 63-67 wk. No signicant effect of Spirulina Zahroojian
or 2.5% Performance, egg quality, on studied indices, except yolk et al. (2013)
yolk cholesterol content colour, which was increased by
dietary algae addition
Microalgae in poultry nutrition: S. Świątkiewicz et al.
World's Poultry Science Journal, Vol. 71, December 2015 665
The results of several trials have shown that Spirulina can be used to enhance the
immune function of birds. Quereshi et al. (1996) reported that broiler chicks fed diets
containing 1% Spirulina had increased phytohaemagglutinin-mediated lymphocyte
proliferation and phagocytic activity of macrophages compared to control treatment.
Raju et al. (2005) found that dietary Spirulina (0.05% in feed) can partially alleviate
the negative effects of aatoxin on weight of immune organs and BWG in broilers.
Experiments with laying hens have been mainly focussed on evaluating the efciency
of Spirulina biomass as a source of carotenoids for pigmentation of egg yolks. In
experiments with laying hens, Zahroojian et al. (2011; 2013) demonstrated that algal
carotenoids were well absorbed and accumulated in the egg yolk, and 2.0-2.5% dietary
Spirulina could be used to produce eggs with increased yolk colour with similar
efciency to a synthetic pigment. An earlier study with quail (Anderson et al., 1991)
showed that optimal yolk colour was achieved when 1% of Spirulina biomass was added
to the diet. Mariey et al. (2012) reported improved egg production, hatchability and yolk
colour when laying hens were fed a diet with a low level of Spirulina inclusion (0.1-
0.2%).
A study with Japanese quail by Ross and Dominy (1990) evaluated the effect of
Spirulina included at 1.5, 3.0, 6.0, or 12.0% in the diet on growth performance, egg
production and quality.The authors observed no signicant differences due to the dietary
microalgae level, except for increased yolk colour and fertility in birds fed with Spirulina,
and concluded that up to 12% of Spirulina biomass could be included into diets. The
results of the study with growing quail (aged 15-35 days) showed no negative effects in
growth performance and meat quality when included in levels up to 4% of Spirulina in
feed (Cheong et al., 2015).
CHLORELLA
Chlorella, a unicellular, freshwater green microalgae used mainly for human food and
biofuel production, has been studied in several animal experiments as a potential source
of high quality protein (approximately 60%), essential amino acids, vitamins, minerals,
and antioxidants. Chlorella biomass is a very good source of carotenoids, as it contains
1.2-1.3% of total pigments in dry mass (Batista et al., 2013). As indicated by Kotrbacek
et al. (2015), this microalgae is too expensive to be used as protein material for animals,
however, due to the content of many bioactive substances, even a low, economically
acceptable dietary level of Chlorella biomass may benecially affect animal performance.
A very early study with chickens (Combs, 1952) demonstrated that dried Chlorella,
included into the diet at 10% could serve as a rich source of certain nutrients, i.e.
carotene, riboavin and vitamin B12, and increased performance in birds when the
diet was decient in these nutrients. Grau and Klein (1957) reported that Chlorella
biomass grown in sewage was a rich source of protein and xanthophyll pigments, and
levels up to 20% in the diet was well tolerated by chicks. Similarly, Lipstein and Hurwitz
(1983) found that Chlorella was a suitable protein supplement in broiler diets and, used at
5 or 10% dietary level, had no adverse effect on growth performance.
Kang et al. (2013) studied the effects of the replacement of antibiotic growth promoter
with different forms of Chlorella on performance, immune indices and the intestinal
microoral population. They found that Chlorella in its fresh liquid form included at a
1% dietary level benecially affected BWG, some immune characteristics (e.g. number of
white blood cells and lymphocytes, plasma IgA, IgM, and IgG concentrations) and the
intestinal production of Lactobacillus bacteria (Table 2). Such an effect of dietary
Chlorella appears to be based on multiple components, and the bre fraction, among
others including a polysaccharide named immurella, glycoprotein, and peptides contained
in Chlorella, stimulate the immune response of birds (Kang et al., 2013). Likewise,
Microalgae in poultry nutrition: S. Świątkiewicz et al.
666 World's Poultry Science Journal, Vol. 71, December 2015
Kotrbacek et al. (1994) found that broilers fed a diet with 0.5% Chlorella signicantly
increased the phagocytic activity of leucocytes and lymphatic tissue development.
Rezvani et al. (2012) observed a numeric increase in response to phytohemagglutinin-
P, which was accompanied by improved FCR in broilers fed supplementary Chlorella.
Table 2 Results of selected studies on the effects of Chlorella inclusion to poultry diets.
Dietary Animals, duration of Results References
concentration the study and studied
of algae characteristics
Selenium- Broiler chickens, 1-42 d. Positive effect of algae on BWG, Se Dlouha et al.
enriched Performance, Se content and glutathione peroxidase (2008)
Chlorella added concentration and activity in breast meat. Decreased
in the amount activity of glutathione oxidation of stored breast meat of birds
supplying 0.3 mg peroxidase in meat, fed a diet with Se-enriched Chlorella
Se/kg of the diet oxidative stability
of meat lipids
0.07, 0.14, Broiler chickens, 1-42 d. Improved FCR and a numerical increase Rezvani et al.
or 0.21% Performance, immune in response to phytohemagglutinin-P (2012)
response indices in broilers fed with dietary
Chlorella biomass
1%, to replace Broiler chickens, 1-28 d. Fresh liquid Chlorella positively Kang et al.
antibiotic growth Performance, immune affected BWG, the immune (2013)
promoter (dried indices, intestinal characteristics and Lactobacillus
powder, or fresh bacteria population bacteria count in the intestine
liquid Chlorella)
0.25, 0.50, 0.75% Laying hens, 22-54 wk. Chlorella improved yolk colour, Halle et al.
(in the form of Laying performance, egg shell weight and egg hatchability, (2009)
spray dried or quality and hatchability, without affecting performance
bullet milled and nitrogen balance and nitrogen balance
spray dried
biomass)
1.25% Laying hens, 25-39 wk. Positive effect of Chlorella on egg Englmaierova
Performance, egg weight, FCR, shell quality, yolk et al. (2013)
quality, oxidative colour, yolk lutein and zeaxanthin, as
stability of yolk lipids well as oxidative stability of yolk lipids
of fresh and stored eggs.
1 or 2% Laying hens, 56-63 wk. Chlorella increased yolk carotenoids, Kotrbacek
Egg quality, yolk lutein, β-carotene and zeaxanthin et al. (2013)
carotenoids content, content and yolk colour score. It
blood triacylglycerol decreased FI and yolk weight in hens
and cholesterol level fed a diet with 2% of Chlorella
1% (conventional Laying hens, 70-72 wk 1% conventional or lutein-fortied An et al.
or lutein-fortied. (Exp. 1), 60-62 wk Chlorella improved egg production, (2014)
Chlorella) (Exp of age (Exp. 2). yolk colour and lutein content in the
1), 0.1 or 0.2% Performance, egg serum, liver and growing oocytes. 0.2%
lutein-fortied quality, lutein of lutein- fortied Chlorella increased
Chlorella in the content in the body of egg weight, yolk colour and lutein
diet (Exp. 2) hens and eggs. content in eggs
Microalgae in poultry nutrition: S. Świątkiewicz et al.
World's Poultry Science Journal, Vol. 71, December 2015 667
Dietary Animals, duration of Results References
concentration the study and studied
of algae characteristics
0.1 or 0.2% Laying hens, 80-86 wk. Chlorella improved egg production, Zheng et al.
(fermented Performance, egg yolk colour, Haugh units and lactic (2012)
Chlorella quality, intestinal acid bacteria cecal population
biomass) microora prole
0.1 or 0.2% Pekin ducks, 1-42 d. Positive effect of Chlorella on BWG, FI, Oh et al.
(fermented Growth performance, meat quality and tibia breaking strength, (2015)
Chlorella meat quality, cecal without differences in cecal microora
biomass) microora, tibia
bones quality
Because Chlorella is grown in the presence of high levels of selenite, it accumulates
cellular selenium and there is a growing interest in the use of this algae as a rich source of
Se for animals (Kotrbacek et al., 2015). In a study with broilers, Dlouha et al. (2008)
found that dietary addition of Se-enriched Chlorella biomass not only positively affected
BWG but also increased Se content and glutathione peroxidase activity in breast meat, as
well as decreasing the oxidation of breast meat stored under refrigeration.
A positive effect of Chlorella as a feed material for laying hens was found by Halle et
al. (2009), who reported that layers fed a diet supplemented with dietary algae had
increased egg hatchability, yolk colour and shell weight without affecting egg
performance and nitrogen balance. In a subsequent study, the same authors showed a
higher diversity of the microbiota community in the intestinal tract of hens fed a diet
containing Chlorella and suggested that it could be responsible for the effects on egg
quality (Janczyk et al., 2009). A benecial inuence of feeding Chlorella on laying
performance, egg quality, and caecal lactic bacteria population was observed by Zheng et
al. (2012). Skrivan et al. (2008) reported that Se-enriched Chlorella was a more efcient
source of Se than sodium selenite as, despite equal doses of Se supplementation, a higher
Se content was found in eggs from hens fed diet supplemented with Chlorella.Anet al.
(2014) found that diet supplementation with conventional or lutein-enriched Chlorella
could positively affect egg performance, yolk colour and lutein concentration in eggs.
Hence, the use of Chlorella is a valuable tool for the production of chicken eggs enriched
with natural lutein, and increasing consumption of this compound can prevent macular
degeneration in the human ageing population. Englmaierova et al. (2013) showed that
supplementing layers with Chlorella not only increased the concentration of lutein and
zeaxanthin, but also improved FCR, shell quality, and the oxidative stability of yolk
lipids of fresh and stored eggs. In agreement, Kotrbacek et al. (2013) reported
signicantly increased yolk carotenoidscontent as well as yolk colour score in hens
fed with Chlorella supplementation, however, dietary microalgae decreased feed intake
and yolk weight.
OTHER MICROALGAE SPECIES
The results of an early study by Lipstein and Hurwitz (1981) showed that the
microalgae Micractinium could be a useful protein source for broilers, and
supplementing up to a 6% in the diet had no negative effect on growth performance.
However, chickens fed a higher inclusion level of this algae had decreased feed intake
and BWG. The study by Austic et al. (2013) evaluated the effects of Staurosira
Table 2 Continued
668 World's Poultry Science Journal, Vol. 71, December 2015
Microalgae in poultry nutrition: S. Świątkiewicz et al.
incorporation into the broilersdiet, and the results indicated that Staurosira may be used
to substitute 7.5% of soybean meal without any negative inuence on performance or
plasma and liver biomarkers, when an appropriate amino acids dietary level was
maintained.
The aim of the study by Waldenstedt et al. (2003) was to evaluate the efcacy of an
increasing dietary level of Haematococcus pluvalis meal, used as an astaxanthin source,
in broiler chickens infected with Campylobacter jejuni. The authors showed no inuence
of algal meal on performance, but tissue astaxanthin concentrations were signicantly
higher with increasing levels of dietary algae. Caecal Campylobacter jejuni populations
was not affected by Haematococcus pluvalis inclusion, however a diet with 0.18% algal
meal reduced caecal Clostridium perfringens counts. Yan and Kim (2013) showed that
adding 0.1 or 0.2% Schizochytrium to the diet improved the fatty acid composition of
breast meat lipids, without affecting BWG in broilers.
Poultry products enriched with n-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids are good
examples of a functional food, i.e. food that, in addition to possessing traditionally
understood nutritional value, can benecially affect the metabolic and health status of
consumers, thus reducing the risk of various chronic lifestyle diseases (Pietras and
Orczewska-Dudek, 2013; Yanovych et al., 2013; Zdunczyk and Jankowski, 2013).
The results of several experiments have shown that microalgae, as a rich source of
LCPUFAs n-3, can be introduced into the diet of laying hens to produce functional
foods, i.e. designer eggs with naturally increased LCPUFAs n-3 concentration. For
instance, Bruneel et al. (2013) reported an increased content of DHA in egg yolks of
hens fed a diet containing Nannochloropsis gaditana and suggested that this algae may
be used as an alternative to current sources of LCPUFA n-3 for the production of DHA-
enriched eggs. A similar effect was seen on enhanced DHA yolk concentration through
diet supplementation with the marine microalgae Schizochytrium limacinum (Rizzi et al.,
2009). What is important here is that the sensory characteristics of eggs enriched with
LCPUFA n-3 by a addition of Schizochytrium were not altered (Parpinello et al., 2006).
The results of recent work by Park et al. (2015) have shown that the addition of
Schizochytrium to layersdiet not only signicantly improved the fatty acids prole of
the yolks but also positively affected laying performance and egg quality.
Lemahieu et al. (2013) compared the efcacy of four different algae species
(Phaeodactylum tricornutum,Nannochloropsis oculata,Isochrysis galbana and
Chlorella fusca) on the enrichment of egg yolks in LCPUFA n-3. They reported that
the highest enrichment with PUFA n-3 as well as increased yolk colour was achieved
with supplementation using Phaeodactylum or Isochrysis, and these two microalgae
could be used as an alternative to current sources for the enrichment of eggs.
Subsequent studies proved the suitability of Isochrysis as an LCPUFA n-3 source and
showed that 2.4% dietary supplementation with Isochrysis lead to the highest LCPUFA
n-3 enrichment in the yolk, and that this supplementation level should be considered as
the optimal dose (Lemahieu et al., 2014; 2015).
Because of a high content of lipids, certain microalgal species can be used as a suitable
material for the production of biofuels. Once defatted, algae can provide a rich source of
crude protein in poultry diets. Leng et al. (2014) showed no adverse effect of feeding
layers with 7.5% defatted Staurosira spp. when used for partial replacement of soybean
meal. However, higher dietary levels (15%) worsened egg performance, feed intake and
FCR. These authors indicated that such a decrease in performance was likely to be due to
the high ash and sodium chloride concentrations of the algae. The results of a recent
study by Ekmay et al. (2015) demonstrated that defatted Desmodesmus and Staurosira
spp. could be used in laying hen diets at relatively high levels (up to 25% in the diet), as
a source of well-digested dietary protein, without any negative effect on egg production.
Microalgae in poultry nutrition: S. Świątkiewicz et al.
World's Poultry Science Journal, Vol. 71, December 2015 669
A study with Muscovy ducks investigated the effects of diet supplementation with
0.5% microalgae Crypthecodinium cohnii (Schiavone et al., 2007). They demonstrated
the positive effect of this microalgae on the fatty acid prole in breast meat lipids,
without affecting growth performances or slaughter traits, as well as chemical
composition, colour, pH, oxidative stability and sensory characteristics of the breast
meat. An experiment with Japanese quail showed that diet supplementation with
Schizochytrium sp. could be an effective way of bio-fortifying egg LCPUFA n-3
levels, as the yolks of birds fed a diet with 0.5% of this microalgae signicantly
increased DHA concentration, as well decreasing n-6/n-3 PUFA ratio and cholesterol
content in yolk lipids (Gladkowski et al., 2014; Trziszka et al., 2014).
Conclusions
Summarising the literature available, it can be concluded that, although chemical
composition of different microalgal biomasses is diverse, many can safely be added to
poultry diets. Several Spirulina,Chlorella and other microalgae species may be used to
increase the pigmentation and nutritional value of meat and eggs for human consumption,
e.g. to enhance these products with LCPUFA n-3 and carotenoids, as well as to partially
replace conventional protein sources, mainly soybean meal.
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... The European Union (European Commision, 2001;Prestinaci et al., 2015) has decided to ban antibiotics as nutrition growth enhancers of poultry feed. So, numerous biological alternative approaches are under investigation for incorporating antimicrobe devoid of any adverse effects on productivity and health, respectively Swiatkiewicz et al., 2016). ...
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Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is a widely used tool for estimation of environmental footprint of any products, technologies and services, throughout its whole lifecycle from cradle to grave. It is a standardized decision support system, for quantifying the different environmental impact categories and deciding upon the sustainability of each system employed. The use of LCA tools for wastewater treatment and their impact assessment is started very recently. In wastewater treatment the LCA tools compile and evaluate the inputs and the outputs, and consider their potential environmental impacts associated with the operation of the system for all types of wastewater treatment plants either for conventional or algal ponds, throughout its whole process chain. The LCA studies generally follow ISO standards (International Organization for Standardization) with baseline framework consisting of four phases’ viz. goal and scope determination, life cycle inventory analysis (LCI), life cycle impact assessment (LCIA) and interpretation of results. The inventory analysis accumulate the data or the database for analysis, using specific criteria or data quality matrices and the impact assessment is carried out with the help of different type of softwares viz. SimaPro®, Gabi®, OpenLCA®, Umberto® etc. The impact assessment transforms the mathematical data to environmental effect equivalent via the factor multiplication. The LCA studies has validated that the wastewater treatment with microalgae comparing to the conventional, can significantly reduced the negative environmental impacts, as well as the system has the advantage on low cost of operation, the possibility of recycling the nutrients in wastewater to high value products, reducing the emissions by absorption of CO2 present in the flue gases and the discharge of oxygenated effluent into the water body.
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... Present results showed that with increasing levels of lupin meal in the diet of experimental chickens, the levels of n-3 FA also increased. Improvement of n-3 FA content was also reported by Swiatkiewicz et al. (2015), who added microalgae as one of the components to feed mixture for broilers and laying hens. Microalgae are a rich source of n-3 long-chained FAs and with their use as an additive the beneficial effect was achieved, i.e. higher levels of mainly eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acid. ...
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In this experiment, a total of 128 Hy-line W36 hens at 63 weeks of age were used. The hens were put at random into 4 treatment groups (4 replicates and 32 hens per treatment) and were fed four different diets: three diets with different levels of Spirulina (1.5, 2.0 and 2.5%) and one control group based on wheat and soybean meal. All birds were housed in commercial cages, had ad libitum access to water, and were fed 100 g bird-1 per day. Egg production, feed intake, feed conversion ratio, egg weight, yolk index, Haugh unit, shell thickness, shell weight, specific gravity, egg yolk cholesterol, and yolk color were compared with the control group. Egg yolk color was measured by the BASF Ovo-color fan. Our results indicated that these traits did not show any significant changes with the Spirulina addition (P> 0.05), while a significant increase in egg yolk color was observed in the treatments that received the Spirulina (P< 0.0001). Yolk color scores of the control group and different levels of Spirulina (1.5, 2.0 and 2.5%) were 1.5, 10.5, 11.4 and 11.6 in BASF color fan, respectively. There were not significant differences between the treatments with 2.0 and 2.5% of Spirulina. In conclusion, this study can suggest use of 2.0~2.5% of Spirulina in diet to produce an aesthetically pleasing yolk color.
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