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Critical Technology: A Social Theory of Personal Computing

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... In sociological research, the relationship between technology and the individual has been given considerable attention. Generally speaking, models of thinking vary from the emancipatory/transformational power of technology (Berzin et al., 2015;Castells, 1996;Habermas, 1989;Sassen, 2002) to viewing it as a process of communication that leads to ritualization and routinization that can be socially cohesive and liberating or a tool for management and control (Kirkpatrick, 2017;Luhmann, 2000;Schroeder and Ling, 2014). Arguably, the debate is far more nuanced where technology and the digital space it affords is 'embedded in the larger societal, cultural, subjective, economic, imaginary structurations of lived experience and the systems within which we exist and operate' (Sassen, 2002: 368-369). ...
... Thus, it is too simplistic to adhere to the assumption that technology is either distributive, democratising and emancipatory or inherently dystopian in nature. Scholars have also commented on the way in which the digital and the material are imbricated, that is, the ways in which they overlap and are inter-related and intersectional rather than disparate entities (Kirkpatrick, 2017;Sassen, 2002). Arguably, it is crucial to acknowledge these imbrications to explore how the use of technology could influence direct practice to achieve positive outcomes in youth justice. ...
... Arguably, it is crucial to acknowledge these imbrications to explore how the use of technology could influence direct practice to achieve positive outcomes in youth justice. Thus, while technology has the potential to be liberating and empowering, how its development and use is negatively impacted by social conditions and prevailing power structures is of the utmost concern (Kirkpatrick, 2017). Active interventions to enhance digital skills and counter digital exclusion remains an important goal (Eynon and Geniets, 2016). ...
Article
This article draws on original, empirical research that focused on the use of an experimental mobile application developed by the authors and used in the domain of youth justice in England. Against a backdrop of the theory of the paradox of technology with ideas of the networked self and child rights, the article explores the use of social technology with vulnerable/marginalised young people. Given the dearth in knowledge and understanding, in this area of social technology and young people in conflict with the law, the article focuses on an important, original and fast-developing issue in contemporary youth justice. Principally, the article explores the experiences and views of practitioners to promote a better understanding of the opportunities and challenges in the adoption of social technology in working with marginalised young people. Practitioner perceptions on the use of social technology in their own practice and its associated risks and benefits are also revealed. Study findings indicate that digital opportunities and challenges are embedded in organisational and cultural structures and practices. The article discusses implications for youth justice and ultimately for young people in conflict with the law who are caught up in the system. The article raises important issues about the likely increasing use of technology as a tool in rehabilitation and desistance; and its key messages will be of considerable interest to practitioners, managers and policy-makers who will have little option, as time goes on, to enter this controversial field.
... However, many of these actions are totally acceptable from the perspective of the owners of capital, citing operational efficiencies, the importance of the work task, impending deadlines and other economic arguments as justification for these violations. 54,55 This, in turn, leads to a very important question. Aspects such as respect for people's health (both physiological and psychological), the right to self-determination and non-domination, the respect for people's free-time and leisure time are basic personal freedoms that ought to be respected. ...
Article
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Although technological proliferation is a reality in a 4IR world, and has immense potential to increase the efficiency and quality of work, it is accompanied by workplace practices that there is no benchmark for. These practices have the potential to unsettle traditional work routines, traditional work/non-work boundaries, and to disturb peoples’ work life balance irreparably. Against this backdrop, this paper explores the parameters of morally acceptable organisational practices in terms of usage and expectations of ICT’s. Through adopting a Critical scholarly stance, this paper dialectically investigates the nature of work and the importance people associate with it, the ways in which technology impacts work and peoples’ lives, and uncovers how technology enables control over labour in a capitalist society. The effect the current technological explosion has been far reaching and is effecting every sphere of life. As we try to make sense of 4IR, we are also redefining our different contexts and the role technology and ICT play in each of these. We are noticing a definite blurring of spaces that, not too long ago, had distinct parameters.
... Facebook, Twitter ile beraber Çin'de yasaklı siteler arasında olması bunun en büyük sebebidir (Erbaşlar, 2013). Facebook Dünya üzerinde Google'dan sonra en çok ziyaret edilen web sitesi olmuştur (Kirkpatrick, 2017). İlk kurulduğu zaman yalnızca belli bir öğrenci grubuna hizmet eden Facebook, zamanla gelişerek, milyarlarca insanın günde en az birkaç kez kontrol ettikleri, zamanlarının çoğunu harcadıkları, arkadaşlarını takip ettikleri ve yeni ve güncel haberleri öğrendikleri bir konuma sahip olmuştur (Power, 2014). ...
Thesis
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Bu araştırmada üniversite öğrencilerinde üç boyutlu bağlanma stilleri ve koşullu öz-değerin sosyal medya bağımlılığı düzeyi ile olan ilişkisi incelenmiştir. Dijitalleşme çağının bireyin yaşamını etkisi altına almasıyla teknolojinin olumsuz yanları yaygınlaşmıştır. Sosyal medyanın aşırı kullanımı da bağımlılığa yol açarak bireyin işlevselliğinin bozulmasına sebep olmaktadır. Bireyin yaşamını çok çeşitli alanlarda etkileyen sosyal medya bağımlılığı depresyon, yalnızlık, kaygı bozuklukları gibi psikolojik rahatsızlıkların yanı sıra aile, arkadaşlık ilişkileri ve akademik yaşamın da zarar görmesi gibi birçok sonuçları ortaya çıkarmaktadır. Sosyal medya bağımlılığının altında yatan çeşitli sebepler vardır. Bu sebepler; sosyal çevre ve öğrenme kaynaklı olabileceği gibi gelişimsel kaynaklı da olabilmektedir. Özellikle de bebeklik sürecinde oluşan bağlanma stili ile ergenlik dönemiyle beraber şekillenmeye başlayan koşullu öz-değer alanları bireyin gelişiminde kritik öneme sahiptir. Doğumdan itibaren ilk iki yıl anne ile bebek arasındaki ilişki ve iletişimin niteliğinden kaynaklanan bağlanma stili bireyin kendisine ve diğerlerine karşı olan güven duygusunu oluşturmakta ve yaşamı boyunca etkili olmaktadır. Bireyin kendisine verdiği önemin ve değerin bazı koşullara göre değişmesi öz-değerin yapılandırıldığı alana göre farklılaşarak duygu, düşünce ve davranışlara yön vermektedir. Dolayısıyla bu araştırmada üniversite öğrencilerinde bebeklik döneminde oluşan bağlanma stilleri ile çocukluktan itibaren oluşan koşullu öz-değerin sosyal medya bağımlılığı ile olan ilişkisi incelenmiştir. Araştırmanın örneklemini Orta Karadeniz’de bir devlet üniversitesinde öğrenim gören 817 üniversite öğrencisi oluşturmaktadır. Veri toplama aracı olarak Üç Boyutlu Bağlanma Stilleri Ölçeği, Koşullu Öz-Değer Ölçeği ve Sosyal Medya Bağımlılığı Ölçeği kullanılmıştır. Veri analizinde, bağımsız örneklemler için t testi, korelasyon analizi ve bootstrap tekniğine dayalı aracılık rolü yöntemi kullanılmıştır. Üniversite öğrencilerinde koşullu öz-değer alanları ile sosyal medya bağımlılığı düzeyi arasında ilişki vardır. Bunun yanı sıra üniversite öğrencilerinde bağlanma stilleri ve koşullu öz-değer alanları cinsiyet değişkenine göre anlamlı farklılaşma göstermektedir. Son olarak yapılan bootstrap analizinde bağlanma stillerinden kaygılı/kararsız bağlanma ile sosyal medya bağımlılığı düzeyi arasındaki ilişkide koşullu öz-değer alanlarından fiziksel görünüm ve onay almanın aracı rolde etkisi olduğu ortaya çıkmıştır.
... Bogost & Montfort, 2007;Apperley & Jayemane, 2012;Apperley & Parikka, 2018;etc) we have begun to see focused examinations of such individual games consoles and their technologicaland cultural, social and economicdimensions, such as the work of Montfort & Bogost (2009), Gazzard (2016) and Arsenault (2017), which interrogate the affordances and capabilities of these machines, and how gaming experiences are subsequently shaped. In turn, video game culture is often assumed to share a natural and strong connection with geek or computer enthusiast culture (Simon, 2007;McArthur, 2009), with concepts of technological competence and comfort being central to both (Kirkpatrick, 2004;Taylor, 2009). This remains a mainstay of the popular imagination surrounding digital game players. ...
Article
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This article explores how video game players talk about the technological hardware they use to play games. The games industry is known for deploying often confusing and unclear ‘tech-speak’ terminology to convey the supposed value of new gaming hardware, drawing on tropes of numerical objectivity, ‘upgrade culture’ and the implicit obsolescence of previous technological iterations. However, we show a divide between supposedly objective tech-speak penned by the industry and the subjective experiences of users. Gamers rarely understand their gaming hardware through these marketing and advertising discourses despite their high visibility, instead framing the technology they engage with in intimately tactile, and more broadly contextual, terms. This highlights a significant disjuncture between the industrial and their perception of their audience, with implications for our understanding of ‘tech-speak’, its limitations, the video games sector and the consumers who purchase its products.
... The arena that encircles play, and in which play finds itself both physically and psychologically, is widely known as a "magic circle" (Huizinga, 2014;Juul, 2008;Salen & Zimmerman, 2004). By stepping into this circle (Montola, 2009b;Stenros, 2014), one abandons reality or, strictly speaking, nonplay (Kirkpatrick, 2004). As we all know, the practices of everyday life, work, leisure, and family duties threaten to obstruct the existence of the magic circle, but a set of unique rules exists within the codified domain of play. ...
Article
The goal of the article is to present a new theory of the concept of gameplay, a term everybody uses without ample definitions and with little consistency. The aim is to provide an understanding of gameplay outlining the inherent complexities and convoluted layers of play and game which exist in the playing of a game. The theory is inspired by phenomenology and Martin Heidegger's concept of Dasein. We do not intent to resolve the paradox that games are both objects and activities. Instead, we offer an analytical and methodological guide to the ontology of gameplay resting on an oscillating relationship between a double-layered structure of "here" and "there" in playing and gaming.
Chapter
Humans can interact via the user interfaces is an information system. Traditional student-centered learning software often has a similar user interface via which the student can engage with the software, and the information is provided in a consistently identical manner to all users, regardless of personality type or learning style. The effectiveness of applications relies on the end user’s acceptance. This study investigates the viability of incorporating human personality types in user interface designs in order to have systems that are more usable by all personality types of people. The primary research question concerns whether a user interface designed for a given personality type provides for better learning engagement. This study uses the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator to classify students’ personality types, then links these personality types to specific user interface features to see if a user interface tailored to their learning preferences improves learning. The general concept of this study is that the experimental group is given a set of user interfaces tailored to their personality types. In the control group, participants are provided with a general user interface. A semi-structured interview was conducted, and the promising results show that the engagement and acceptance of the designed user interfaces for the respective human personality groups.
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In an attempt to curtail and prevent the spread of Covid-19 infection, social distancing has been adopted globally as a precautionary measure. Statistics shows that 75% of appointments most especially in the health sector are being handled by telephone since the outbreak of the Covid-19 pandemic. Currently most patients access health care services in real time from any part of the World through the use of Mobile devices. With an exponential growth of mobile applications and cloud computing the concept of mobile cloud computing is becoming a future platform for different forms of services for smartphones hence the challenges of low battery life, storage space, mobility, scalability, bandwidth, protection and privacy on mobile devices has being improved by combining mobile devices and cloud computing which rely on wireless networks to create a new concept and infrastructure called Mobile Cloud Computing (MCC). The introduction of Mobile cloud computing (MCC) has been identified as a promising approach to enhance healthcare services, with the advent of cloud computing, computing as a utility has become a reality thus a patient only pays for what he uses. This paper, presents a systematic review on the concept of cloud computing in mobile Environment; Mobile Payments and Mobile Healthcare Solutions in various healthcare applications, it describes the principles, challenges and opportunity this concept proffers to the health sector to determine how it can be harnessed is also discussed.
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Four performance artists who have used computer games in their work were interviewed for their reflections on aspects of that process, including the decision to make use of games; difficulties and challenges entailed by that choice, and aesthetic values realized in implementing it. Their reflections are related to foundational questions of computer game studies, especially the question of what computer gameness consists in. The main argument draws on Adorno’s writing on theatre, specifically his suggestion that audience participation might carry utopian potential. The idea of ‘ludic form’ is put forward as an attempt to grasp positive fulfilments of this in contemporary performance, especially the performance of space. The aesthetics of ludic form turn on use of a succession of mild shocks to stimulate and guide the audience through that process, rather than creation of an immersive or ‘gamified’ audience experience.
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