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Integrating Africa - Perspectives on Regional Integration and Development

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Abstract

The book explores how regional integration in today’s globalized world can strengthen development and security in Africa as well as the continent's participation in the global economy. Contributions include speeches and presentations made at the 2002 Africa Day Symposium on “Integrating Africa,” organized by UNU in collaboration with the African Diplomatic Corps, Tokyo, as well as articles by researchers and experts on African development. Together, the contributions deal with many different aspects and varieties of regional integration in Africa, and examine their role in African development.
... Kahnert (1969) defines regional integration as "the process of removing progressively those discriminations which occur at national borders" (Udoh, 2015:31). Ginkel, Court, & Langenhove (2003) refers to it as the intensification of interactions among countries in a region in respect to economic, political, security and socio-cultural issues. From the definitions of Balassa (1961) and Kahnert (1969), regional integration is economic which involves the elimination of discriminatory measures among countries that consider themselves as a region or are aspiring for regional integration. ...
... From the definitions of Balassa (1961) and Kahnert (1969), regional integration is economic which involves the elimination of discriminatory measures among countries that consider themselves as a region or are aspiring for regional integration. It involves the removal of national barriers to trade, capital movements, migration and the exchange of information such as tariffs, quotas, Visa etc. (Ginkel, Court, & Langenhove, 2003). It should be noted that regional integration also involves the promotion of cultural ties and heritage, eliminating social and cultural exclusiveness by promoting equal opportunities irrespective of cultural differences, among others (Ginkel, Court, & Langenhove, 2003). ...
... It involves the removal of national barriers to trade, capital movements, migration and the exchange of information such as tariffs, quotas, Visa etc. (Ginkel, Court, & Langenhove, 2003). It should be noted that regional integration also involves the promotion of cultural ties and heritage, eliminating social and cultural exclusiveness by promoting equal opportunities irrespective of cultural differences, among others (Ginkel, Court, & Langenhove, 2003). ...
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This study interrogates regional integration in Africa with emphasis on the challenges. Data was obtained from secondary sources such as academic journals, books and official reports. Content analysis method was also adopted for the research. It was explained from the prism of the Regional Integration Theory. The study concludes that regional integration in Africa will serve as a vehicle for Africa's socioeconomic development. However, poor human development (human capital), poor infrastructure and the overlapping membership of Regional Economic Communities (RECs) in Africa are the challenges of regional integration in Africa. In order to realize the potentials of regional integration in Africa, this work recommend that, the African Union (AU) countries should ensure counterpart funding on education, health and informal economy should be encouraged among nation-states of AU. The establishment of joint border patrol between and among member states of RECs to curb the incidence of trans-border criminal activities; the deepening of internal democracy within AU member states so as to make citizens to be civil in their dealings, imbue in leaders and security agencies greater respect for people's rights and freedoms. The construction of power plant for energy; good roads and railroads among states of Africa should be encouraged. Counterpart funding among AU member states should be institutionalised. The member states of the AU should rationalise their relations with states in Africa and others. This is to allow synergy in terms of policies for the common development of Africa.
... Definitions of region, regionalism, regionalisation and regionness abound, each focusing on one or more predominant factors, whether geographical proximity, economic unification, political stability, cultural identity or security interdependence (Buzan & Waever 2003;Cantori & Spiegel, 1970), all provoke the study of regional alternatives either as regionness or regionhood (Hettne and Söderbaum 2006;Van Langenhove 2003). This article sees regionalism as statebased macro-regions (three or more states), as opposed to micro-regions, or territorial areas smaller than states. ...
... Such efforts can take on different forms: regional cooperation, market integration, and development integration. Which the AU agrees that economic integration and cooperation is the only engine through which Africa's development could be achieved (Ginkel, Court, & Van Langenhove, 2003). ...
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Achievable and viable peace and security efforts in Southern Africa Development Community (SADC) have been limited by an over dependence on foreign and international peacekeeping. The aim of this article is to unpack financial imperatives and constraints towards funding the SADC standby force (SADCSF). Through this the article hopes to provide lessons towards a suitable and sustainable funding mechanism aimed at addressing the financial challenges confronting African standby forces in peace operations. In particular, this article focuses on the SADCSF since its establishment in 2007. This article uses information from existing statistical and research data to first, identify existing funding models in international (regional and continental) peace operation and stand-by forces across the globe. Second, using four critical analytical frames (financial viability, the nature of regionalism, fiscal sustainability and economic landscape), the article highlights various implications of a lack of funding mechanism for regional peace and security in Africa. Third, the article shows that the following are critical to find a sustainable funding mechanism for the SADCSF: the financially demanding variable geometric nature of regional integration in Africa; the proliferation of security agencies; the complex nature of terrorism and interventions; the cost of skill acquisition and training of the multidisciplinary personnel; payment of wounded soldiers and contingents and member state tight budget. Based on international experiences and local realities expounded, this article suggests lessons towards building a suitable and sustainable funding mechanism for African peace and security in general, and regional standby forces in particular.
... A search on Google generates over 3 million hits, and Google Scholar (for academic publications) reveals around 120,000 individual documents with the term (as of April 2015). Despite its widespread use there is no fixed definition, but it can be broadly understood as "the process by which states within a particular region increase their level of interaction with regard to economic, security, political, and also social and cultural issues" (Van Ginkel and Van Langenhove 2003). This is the definition adopted in this book because its scope encompasses many of the regional initiatives in Asia, it treats integration as a dynamic process that increases interaction between states regardless of current level, and underscores its multi-dimensional, multiobjective nature. ...
... This suggest regional integration as the process of eliminating discriminatory measures among countries that consider themselves as a region or are aspiring for regional integration. It involves the removal of national barriers to trade, capital movements, migration and the exchange of information such as tariffs, quotas, Visa etc. (Ginkel, Court, & Langenhove, 2003). ...
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This study interrogates the African Union (AU) Single Passport framework for the free movement of people, goods and services within the African continent and its challenges. The research relied on data obtained from secondary sources such as academic journals, books and official reports. Documentary research techniques was also utilized for analysis. It was explained from the context of the Regional Economic Integration Theory that the Single Passport was aimed at deepening Africa's Integration by creating a single market. The study established that AU Single Passport has potentials to boast intra-trade relations among African countries which would serve as a vehicle for Africa's socioeconomic development. However, this work confirms the challenge of political instability and insecurity like the evolving complexities of hybrid and asymmetric threats like terrorism, transnational organised crime, drug trafficking, human trafficking, money laundering and piracy, small arms proliferation, illicit mineral extraction and wildlife poaching, oil and counterfeit goods, advanced fee and internet fraud, illegal manufacture of firearms, armed robbery, and theft. To realize the potentials of the AU Passport, the paper recommended that, the AU countries should ensure joint border patrol; deepening of internal democracy; increasing public funding for rapid infrastructural development.
... In this sense, regional integration and strong RECs in general may pay substantial dividends in the region, especially in the context of identifying and resolving common challenges that are beyond the borders of individual states (Chingono & Nakana 2009;Ginkel et al. 2003;Ndaguba & Okonkwo 2017). This may include but is not limited to transnational crimination, piracy, human rights abuses and diverse threats to peace in the region: terror groups, insurgency, xenophobia and a host of others . ...
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The viability and operability of the Southern African Development Community Standby Force (SADCSF) is threatened by two principal factors: overdependence on foreign peacekeeping operations and inability of the SADCSF to fund its operations. The objective of this article is to explore the challenges and prospects that create a conducive environment in which the SADCSF in Southern Africa is able to intervene in peace operations and become financially viable. The methodology for gathering and analysing data for this study was based on secondary data sources, namely narrative analysis, systematic quantitative literature review, social constructivism and interpretivist approach, triangulation and thematic analysis. The findings of the article revealed that the SADCSF does not have a financial model for funding peace operations in the region. It also demonstrated financial inadequacies have consequently led to the inability of the Force to intervene in peace missions in Southern Africa. From the foregoing, it is evident that much still needs to be achieved for the SADCSF to possibly be operational, thus the identification of several indicators. The analyses from the article portray that, while much has been achieved, much more is yet to be realised in terms of fiscal viability, sustainability, responsibility and integration. It is recommended that an adequate monitoring group be established. It is also recommended that a planning commission be established for the SADCSF and that an adequate funding method be built based on each individual country’s ability to pay. Finally, a separate budget for funding peace operation should be established.
... In this sense, regional integration and strong RECs in general may pay substantial dividends in the region, especially in the context of identifying and resolving common challenges that are beyond the borders of individual states (Chingono & Nakana 2009;Ginkel et al. 2003;Ndaguba & Okonkwo 2017). This may include but is not limited to transnational crimination, piracy, human rights abuses and diverse threats to peace in the region: terror groups, insurgency, xenophobia and a host of others (Ndaguba et al. 2018). ...
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Background: The viability and operability of the Southern African Development Community Standby Force (SADCSF) is threatened by two principal factors: overdependence on foreign peacekeeping operations and inability of the SADCSF to fund its operations. Aim: The objective of this paper is to explore the challenges and prospects that create a conducive environment in which the SADCSF in Southern Africa is able to intervene in peace operations and become financially viable. Method: The methodology for gathering and analysing data for this study was based on secondary data sources, namely, narrative analysis, systematic quantitative literature review, social constructivism and interpretivist approach, triangulation and thematic analysis. Findings: The findings of the paper revealed that the SADCSF does not have a financial model for funding peace operations in the region. It also demonstrated financial inadequacies have consequently led to the inability of the Force to intervene in peace missions in Southern Africa. Conclusion: From the foregoing, it is evident that much still needs to be achieved for the SADCSF to possibly be operational, thus the identification of several indicators. The analyses from the paper portray that, while much as been achieved, much more is yet to be realised in terms of fiscal viability, sustainability, responsibility and integration. Recommendations: It is recommended that an adequate monitoring group be established. It is also recommended that a planning commission be established for the SADCSF and that an adequate funding method be built based on each individual country’s ability to pay. Finally, a separate budget for funding peace operation should be established.
... But how can this be of use for the rethinking of Human Security in Africa ? To answer that question, it is necessary to have a look at how regional integration manifestates itself in Africa (van Ginkel et al., 2003). ...
... The success of EU experiment has given rise to an interesting debate regarding the value of regional integra- tion as a laboratory for the development of a world economy 5 . This discourse has become increasingly popular as the world turns its attention to emerging economies, for instance, the development of a new African economic agenda set in part by South Africa and the renewed role that India and China have played among smaller Asian economies ( [17] [18]). These perspectives draw upon a common inquiry: what is the stitching that binds econo- mies together and how does that help in understanding the evolution of the global economy? ...
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In 1997, 10 Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) member states envisaged an ASEAN Economic Community (AEC) with free flows of goods, services and investments, and freer flows of capital features. In contrast to the process of establishing economic integration in the European Union, the process in ASEAN has never directly engaged the public. This study aims to gauge public opinion on the AEC through a survey research conducted in 11 major cities in Indonesia, Malaysia and Singapore. It investigates the extent of public attitudes and aspirations in four dimensions—support, commitment, perceived benefits and aspiration—among the public in the three countries. Survey results show that the attitudes of the public were positive, but there were differences in the extent of support, commitment and perceived benefits. The study also finds that they seem to aspire for a different kind of integration from the European format of regional integration. In addition, comparison statistics showed that the Malaysian and Indonesian public exhibited more positive attitude and higher aspiration for economic integration. The finding implies that the ASEAN Secretariat—together with national governments—needs to formulate effective strategies to maintain positive attitudes and support for the integration initiatives. It further suggests that ASEAN should continuously monitor public opinion on the region's economic integration and develop strategies for fostering and maintaining good support from the public for further deepening the economic integration process.
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L'aide internationale demeure au centre du développement en Afrique. Depuis 1960, l'Afrique a reçu l'aide étrangère dont le montant avoisine trois mille milliards de dollars américains. Cependant, en dépit de cette importante aide, la pauvreté reste élevée et le sous-développement n'a cessé de croitre. Il s'agit d'une claire indication de l'échec de l'aide internationale. Jusque-là, peu d'études ont été menées sur les alternatives pour le développement de l'Afrique en dehors des mécanismes de l'aide internationale. Cet article s'interroge sur ces diverses alternatives et en a retenu quatre en priorité. Les auteurs affirment que pour que l'Afrique puisse se développer et pour que l'aide internationale contribue au développement plutôt qu'au sous-développement de l'Afrique, les options viables incluent la promotion de l'intégration régionale, l'accroissement du commerce et de la production, la transformation des matières premières et la création d'un cadre propice au développement. L'article recourt à une approche qualitative pour réfléchir sur les rapports entre l'aide internationale et le développement ou le sous-développement ainsi que sur l'avenir de l'Afrique. Abstract Donor aid remains the centerpiece for development in Africa. Since the 1960s, Africa has received foreign aid amounting to over a trillion US dollars. However, despite the huge aid inflows poverty remains rife and underdevelopment is on exacerbation. This is a clear reflection of the failure of donor aid. Hitherto, few studies have discussed alternatives for Africa to develop beyond donor aid trappings. This article is premised on seeking alternatives, but the authors selected key four strategies that should be prioritized. They contend that for Africa to develop and for donor aid to contribute to development rather than underdevelopment, viable options include promoting regional integration, boosting trade and production, beneficiation of mineral resources and creating a conducive framework for development. The article uses a qualitative approach to interrogate donor aid and Africa's development or underdevelopment and the future of the continent.
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Le commerce régional et l’intégration monétaire sont les éléments de base des processus d’intégration régionale à travers le monde. Cependant, les défis sont très différents: alors que les États membres de l’Union Européenne (UE) sont économiquement et monétairement unis et traitent les déséquilibres actuels et les risques potentiels de contagion résultant de la crise de la zone Euro, la Communauté Économique des États de l’Afrique de l’Ouest (CEDEAO), de l’autre côté, est face à des faibles niveaux de commerce intra-régional, des dépendances externes et l’objectif d‘établir une monnaie commune à l‘échelle régionale. Inspirée par l’expérience réciproque, l’anthologie IAO-ZEI combine des réflexions de chercheurs bien connus des deux régions, sur trois des questions les plus importantes à cet égard : comment les projets d’intégration régionale peuvent-ils contribuer à améliorer le commerce régional et l’intégration dans l’économie mondiale? Quels peuvent être les effets de l‘intégration monétaire et comment des synergies peuvent-elles être créées? Dans quelle mesure les expériences d‘autres régions peuvent-elles être utiles dans ce processus?
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The paper describes a 3- pronged analysis. The first illustrates agricultural production patterns in the region. The second maps trade flows within SADC and between SADC countries and the rest of the world, and includes a review of trade agreements and the existing trade modelling debate as relevant to the SADC region. Reference is made to the nature and status of South Africa’s trade agreements both regionally and with other parts of the world. The third tracks investment flows within SADC and between SADC countries and the rest of the world.
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A consultative and cooperative perspective on water management is vital in regional sustainability. However, previous approaches often failed to consider the complex trade-offs involved in water resource allocation. This study explores theoretical perspectives on regional integration as a policy goal through the process of water allocation. The main purpose is to explain new areas created by allocation and regional integration with local-scale cases. The connections between post-structuralism, fragmentation, and heterogeneity are explored with five case studies of groundwater zoning: a Xinyuan buried pipe compensation, a Ligang well closure and power shutdown, a Dachaozhou artificial lake, a Wandan hold back well, and a Meinong anti-deep-water wells. Along with the case studies, secondary literature, interviews, and a field investigation were used. The time span of water conflicts was from 1973 to 2019, and the spatial scope is the groundwater distribution area. The study found that regional integration and dynamic balance are each other’s subject and object, which was empirically verified through the water conflicts in agriculture and the semiconductor industry. Regional integration comes through scaled and flexible methods of operation, and is produced through special market agents and post-structural spaces. In the process, the imbalance caused by conflict must also be adjusted and evolved through cooperation, competition, and negotiation to maintain the dynamic balance. This involves internal treatment of the local government, external integration of the central government, and technological evolution within the organization. Accordingly, several suggestions are proposed that may be helpful for sustainable water resource governance. In summary, this study makes up for the shortcomings of water management patterns constructed by simple spatial overlaying of regional integration. Our findings could effectively enhance negotiations and collaboration in water management for regional sustainability.
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The operations of the Southern African Development Community Standby Force (SADCSF) have been hindered as a result of the agency’s inability to fund peace operation (PO) in the region. Premised on this backdrop, this study proposes a funding model through which the SADCSF can generate funds for quick response in crisis areas in the region. In so doing, the study uses thematic reviews, analytical framework and secondary data in proposing the model for PO in the region. It contends that a functional and effective peace in the Southern African region could assist in reducing adverse cases of human right abuse as seen in Zimbabwe, transnational criminality (throughout the region) and maritime piracy among others in the region. That with a functional SADCSF in place issues of Xenophobia can be averted in South Africa as well as the political tension in Lesotho, the war in DR Congo among others. The study proposes both the “way” and “how” through which the SADCSF can generate funds through the Task on Tank model.
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Integrating the East African region through culture has probably not been given much thought or made much of a priority in East Africa and Africa as a whole. Though integration of the East African nations began during the colonial era and passed through challenges in different phases, a space for culture, or visual art in particular, has not been much realised in this case. This paper is based on experience gained from the art tour undertaken by the East Africa Art Biennale Association (EASTAFAB) team to stage art exhibitions in the capitals of the East African states, purposely to further regional integration through culture. The whole idea was to support the vision and mission of the East African community of creating a borderless society of East African people by integrating the East African nations. The EASTAFAB wanted, by using culture, to make a meaningful contact between artists and the people of East Africa and beyond. This study argues that culture has a space conducive to regional integration and uses the EASTAFAB project as a platform for this argument. East African policymakers and art students in higher academic institutions, especially in the East African region, are expected to benefit from this paper.
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Regional integration is increasingly being accepted as essential in facilitating economic and political development. Yet dominant development theories informing policy have yet to integrate 'integration theory' into their models. In Southern Africa, the attempt to achieve regional integration using 'disintegrative' development models has led to paralysis and pain. This paper highlights this contradiction and shows that regional integration presupposes complementary economic policies and productive structures. Economic nationalism and the mono-cultural production of raw materials militate against regional integration and this explains why in Southern Africa there is so much inertia but little progress.
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