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FACTORS THAT CAN LEAD TO THE DEVELOPMENT OF SKELETAL DEFORMITIES IN FISHES: A REVIEW

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Skeletal deformities are a major factor that downgrade hatcheries’ production and affects the production cost. Scoliosis, kyphosis, lordosis, jaw malformations and deformities of the branchial arches are some of them. Skeletal deformities in fishes are not well understood. Many factors may be related with the development of these deformities in fishes. This review aims to highlight the main of these factors.
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ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Review Article
FACTORS THAT CAN LEAD TO THE DEVELOPMENT OF SKELETAL
DEFORMITIES IN FISHES: A REVIEW
Panagiotis Berillis*
Department of Ichthyology and Aquatic Environment, School of Agricultural Sciences, University of Thessaly, Fytoko Street, 38 445, Nea Ionia
Magnesia, Greece.
Received: 26.01.2015 / Accepted: 14.05.2015 / Published online: 18.05.2015
*
Correspondence to: Panagiotis Berillis, Department of Ichthyology and Aquatic Environment, School of Agricultural
Sciences, University of Thessaly, Fytoko Street, 38 445, Nea Ionia Magnesia, Greece.
E-mail: pveril@apae.uth.gr Tel: +30 2651 097595
Abstract: Skeletal deformities are a major factor that downgrade hatcheries’ production and affects the production cost. Scoliosis,
kyphosis, lordosis, jaw malformations and deformities of the branchial arches are some of them. Skeletal deformities in shes
are not well understood. Many factors may be related with the development of these deformities in shes. This review aims to
highlight the main of these factors.
Keywords: Skeletal deformities, Fish, Nutritional deciency, Water temperature, Current velocity, Gene mutations.
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bBerillis P, 9(3): 017-023 (2015)
Introduction
Fish bones mainly consist of calcium-phosphor hydroxyapatite salts
(inorganic part, about 65% of bone’s dry mass) embedded in a matrix of
type I collagen bers (organic part) (Mahamid et al., 2008). Collagen
represents more than 90% of the organic bone matrix and confers
resistance to the structure and establishes the biomechanical properties
of the tissue (Moro et al., 2000). The relationship between collagen and
hydroxyapatite is crucial for bone toughness and stiffness. The collagen
bril diameter has been regarded as the most important factor related to
biomechanical strength of tissues (Ottani et al., 1998). Regarding the
bone mineral content, it is generally accepted that its measurement is
an appropriate estimate of bone strength. The main constitutes of sh
vertebra include calcium, phosphate and carbonate with small amounts
of magnesium, sodium, strontium, lead, citrate, uoride, hydroxide and
sulfate (Lall, 2002).
Skeletal deformities is a major factor that affects the production cost,
the external morphology of the sh as well as its survival and growth.
These deformities downgrade hatcheries' production, even in the case
of well-studied species (Dicentrarchus labrax and Sparus aurata).
Deformities are a complex mixture of different bone disorders including
vertebral and spinal malformations such as kyphosis, lordosis, scoliosis,
platyspondyly and vertebrae fusion. Other deformities include neck-bend,
compressed snout, bent jaw, harelip or front and downwards protuberance
of jaw; reduction of lower jaw, short operculum, reduced or asymmetric
ns, etc. In marine hatcheries skeletal deformities can affect 7–20% on
average of the produced juveniles, whereas occasionally this incidence
has been shown to elevate at 45–100% (Georgakopoulou et al., 2010).
The development of the skeletal deformities is not well understood
and related with nutritional, environmental and genetic factors (Fernadez
et al. 2008). They are induced during the embryonic and post-embryonic
periods of life. Many researchers have proposed a variety of abiotic and
nutritional factors (Takeuchi et al., 1998; Kihara et al., 2002; Haga et
al., 2003; Sfakianakis et al., 2006; Cobcroft and Battaglene, 2009;
Georgakopoulou et al. 2010) as signicant in the development of skeletal
deformities. Generally it is accepted that skeletal deformities can be
environmentally induced in two ways: a) by neuromuscular effects, which
can lead to vertebral column deformities without changing its chemical
composition and b) by altering the necessary biological processes for
maintaining the biochemical integrity of bone (Divanach et al., 1996).
This review aims to highlight the main of these factors.
Nutritional factors
Phosphorus
In addition to calcium deciency, which is not common in shes,
phosphorus deciency can lead to skeletal abnormalities. Ogino and
Takeda (1976) reported cephalic deformities in the frontal bones of the
common carp fed low phoshorus diets. Signs of P deciency were observed
in haddock juveniles (Melanogrammus aeglenus) fed a diet at a level
of 0.42% P (Roy and Lall, 2003). Gross examination showed curvature
of vertebrae, particularly near the caudal region. Bone deformities were
apparent in the spine and the lower part of the vertebrae. According to
the same authors excess P not only causes excessive excretion of this
element but it also has a negative effect on bone mineralization. Similar
bone deformities have been also reported in salmon (Watanabe et al.,
1980), carp and rainbow trout (Ogino and Takeda, 1976, 1978; Ogino et
al., 1979) fed low phoshorus diets. In rapidly growing post-smolt Atlantic
salmon the phosphorus deciency, leads shes to develop soft bones and
skeletal deformities (Baeverfjord et al., 1998).
Vitamin C
Dietary factors and certain nutrients play a very important role to the
formation of the skeletal abnormalities. The gross ndings of kyphosis,
scoliosis, and lordosis are consistent with dietary vitamin C deciency.
According to Madsen and Dalsgaard (1999) farmed rainbow trout
(Oncorhynchus mykiss) can develop more severe skeletal abnormalities
to the cranial, medial, and caudal part of the vertebral column when they
fed with a diet with a low vitamin C concentration. A signicant period of
time, 15 or 20 weeks, is the most times required for the signs of vitamin
C deciency to become present (Sato et al., 1982). Lordosis is a common
deformity in the mid-hemal region of the vertebral column in scorbutic
rainbow trout and Japanese ounder (Madsen and Dalsgaard, 1999; Wang
et al., 2002) while the pearl cichlid forms lordosis to the caudal region.
(Wimberger, 1993). In a study of vitamin C deciency in channel catsh
(Ictalurus punctatus), the ndings included spinal kyphosis, scoliosis and
lordosis (Lim and Lowell, 1978).
Vitamin A
Nutritional vitamin A imbalance implied the appearance of vertebral
deformities. Vitamin A overdose might induce vertebral deformities in
gilthead sea bream juveniles through an advanced bone mineralization,
their consequent higher mechanical load at vertebral end-plates and
its down-stream bone remodelling process (Fernández et al., 2012).
Hypervitaminosis A accelerates the development of the vertebral column
through precocious mineralization (Vasan and Lash, 1975) and may
cause skeletal deformities like vertebral curvatures (Hilton, 1983; Dedi
et al., 1997), vertebral compression (Dedi et al., 1997; Takeuchi et al.,
1998), vertebral fusion (Dedi et al., 1997; Takeuchi et al., 1995) and jaw
deformities (Haga et al., 2003). According to Fernández et al (2008)
gilthead sea bream larvae are very sensitive to dietary levels of vitamin
A. Higher levels of dietary vitamin A than those included in a commercial
emulsion for rotifer enrichment led to different levels and typologies of
skeletal deformities.
Vitamin K
Vitamin K has been known to regulate bone formation through
osteocalcin synthesis by osteoblasts, which is important for mineralization
and bone structure. According to Roy and Lall (2007) vitamin K
deciency in haddock (Melanogrammus aeglenus L) is responsible for
decreased bone mineralization, decreased bone mass and can enhances
bone deformities. Udagawa (2001) reported that in mummichog
Fundulus heteroclitus abnormalities such as vertebral fusion, vertebral
deformity and vertebral row irregularity were signicantly higher in sh
fed a vitamin K-free diet.
Abnormal Swimbladder
Lordosis has been correlated with the absence of a functional
swimbladder. Chatain (1982) proposed that juvenile red sea breams
without a functional swimbladder have difculties to stay at the surface
or in the water column because of the negative buoyancy. An aberrant
swimming behavior with a slanted, nervous and jerky movement is
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Berillis P, 9(3): 017-023 (2015)
adopted by these shes, resulting a gradually deforming axial skeleton.
Tesseyre (1979) reported a correlation of nonfunctional swimbladder and
lordosis in Dicentrarchus labrax. A correlation between the appearance
of lordosis in 0.7-4 g juvenile Dicentrarchus labrax and Sparus aurata
and the lack of functional swimbladders was found in larval forms of
both species (Chatain, 1994). Spinal curvatures were mainly in the area
of vertebrae 14-15, the area where muscle pressure is highest during
swimming. Late swimbladder ination did not reduce spinal curvatures
in sh with chronic lordosis starting at the larval phase (Chatain, 1994)
(Figure 1).
Heavy metal pollution
Many chemicals are known to induce neuromuscular damages and
result in skeletal deformities. Lead (Pb) is one of the most toxic elements
found in many industrial efuents. It can cause skeletal deformities by
impairing developmental processes and bone formation. According to
Davies et al. (1976) chronic exposure to Pb produce scoliosis and caudal
atrophy to the rainbow trout. Nile tilapias after 30 days of exposure to Pb-
acetate toxicity (146.8 mg/L) developed slight dorsal spinal curvature with
widening of the intervertebral space (Hassanain et al, 2012). Holcombe
et al. (1976) observed scoliosis in newly hatched Salvelinus fontinalis
larvae after incubation in Pb solutions. The percentage of deformed larvae
was related with the Pb concentration reaching respectively 21% and 58%
at 235 and 473 μg dm−3 of Pb. In the control only 1% of larvae developed
scoliosis. Newsome and Piron (1982) pointed a relationship between the
Pb content of the diet and the incidence of skeletal deformities in the
Zebra Danio (Brachydanio rerio).
Malformations caused by cadmium (Cd), have been described
in relation to vertebral anomalies in shes (Fujimagari et al., 1975;
Muramoto, 1979). When Cyprinus carpio exposed to Cd the Ca/P
ratio in the deformed sh was signicantly lower in the vertebrae: 1.71
as compared with 2.05 in the control (Muramoto, 1981). Prolonged
exposure to Cd induces abnormal bone metabolism, loss of calcium,
bone weakening, cavitation, shortening and assimilation of cartilage.
The spinal column is used as a fulcrum and the action of the caudal
musculature leads to vertebral curvature (Muramoto, 1981).
Exposure to toxic concentrations of zinc (Zn) can lead to vertebral
fractures and to the development of internal hemorrhage in minnow
Phoxinus phoxinus (Bengtsson, 1974). Somasundaram et al. (1984)
reported that Clupea harengus larvae from the eggs incubated in 6.0
and 12.0 mg dm−3 of Zn were signicantly shorter than the controls
and had malformation in the eye, the otic capsules, and deformities
of the jaw and branchial arches. In mercury (Hg) contaminated water
Oryzias latipes larvae developed C-shaped tails (curved downwards)
and were unable to move the caudal ns (Heisinger and Green, 1975).
Devlin (2006) reported that exposure of fathead minnow hatchlings to
Hg resulted in spinal exures. Jaw underdevelopment, spinal and cranial
malformations were developed in Cyprinus carpio larvae after exposure
during embryonic development to copper (Cu) at pH 6.3 (Stouthart
et al., 1996), while Sarnowski (1998) observed spinal malformations,
head enlargement and edema in Ctenopharyngodon idella larvae after
exposure to Cu during embryonic life.
Water temperature
The water temperature seems to be another factor that can lead to
the formation of skeletal deformities. Georgakopoulou et al. (2010)
showed that in Sparus aurata there is a signicant effect of water
temperature on the development of inside folded gill-cover (when 16
°C water temperature was applied during the autotrophic and exotrophic
larval periods), haemal lordosis (uctuating response against water
temperature), as well as of mild deformities of the caudal (was elevated
when 16 °C temperature was applied during the exotrophic larval
period) and dorsal n (were favoured when 22 °C temperature was
applied during the autotrophic and exotrophic phases). Sfakianakis et
al. (2006) tested the effect of water-temperature (15 or 20 °C) during
the larval phase on sea bass sensitivity to current-induced lordosis. At
the end of the pregrowing phase, lordosis was more frequent in sh that
developed at 20 °C. There is also a correlation between ascorbic acid-
decient diets and water temperature. Sato (1983) showed that after 20
weeks in ascorbic decient rainbow trout, the deformity in the decient
groups maintained at 16°C, 20°C, and 16 to 20°C was 10, 28, and 57
percent, respectively.
Velocity of water current
The role of the currents on the appearance of skeletal malformations
is very strong. Divanach (1997) showed that when sea basses reared
without current there was no externally visible malformation, and only
7% could be characterised as very slightly or slightly deformed through
radiography. In contrast the population reared with high current, 47% of
the individuala showed some slight or very slight deformation through
radiography, and 20% were so heavily deformed that the externally
visible anomaly made them unmarketable. Carps Cyprinus carpio
reared in strong-water stream showed a lordosis deformation (Backiel
et al., 1984). Juvenile red sea breams, Pagrus major, developed lordosis
(21–25%) when they swam at in water with current velocity of 10 cm
s−1. Fish exposed to 5 cm s−1 current velocity did not exhibit a cuneiform
centrum (Kihara, 2002).
Genetic factors
Schilling et al. (1996) working on Danio rerio described the
phenotypes of arch mutants. They isolated 109 mutations that disrupt
pharyngeal arch development in the zebrash. Among them, 59 most
severely affect the posterior arches, including the hyoid and ve
branchial segments that support the gills. According to Piotrowski et al.
Figure 1: A. X-ray of Sparus aurata with skeletal deformities.
Lordosis and vertebral compression are two of the main
deformities of the vertebral column and sometimes coexist. B.
Sparus aurata without skeletal deformities. In both cases there
is a functional swimbladder. (Berillis unpublished).
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Berillis P, 9(3): 017-023 (2015)
(1996) mutations in ve genes (sucker, schmerle, hoover, sturgeon, gaping
mouth) of Danio rerio cause reductions in the anterior arch elements but
leave posterior ones mostly unaffected. In contrast to the ‘hammerhead-
like’ mutants, the morphology of the chondrocytes appears normal, which
suggests that differentiation is not affected. Fisher et al. (2003) isolated
chihuahua, a dominant mutation causing a general defect in bone growth.
Mapping and molecular characterization of the chihuahua mutation
indicated that the defect resides in the gene encoding the collagen I(α1)
chain. The characterization of the chi molecular defect conrms the
similarity of the collagen assembly process and the importance of type
I collagen in bone formation in zebrash. In gilthead Sparus aurata a
consecutive repetition of lordosis, scoliosis and kyphosis (LSK) from the
head to the caudal n was described and statistically associated with the
family structure (Afonso, 2000).
Possible role of bacteria and parasites
A possible role of the bacterium Flavobacterium psychrophilum
to the formation of vertebral column deformities (cranial, medial, and
caudal part of the vertebral column) has been reported by Madsen and
Dalsgaard (1998). Kent et al. (2004) associated the high prevalence
of vertebral deformities seen in shes from the Willamette River near
Portland, Oregon with parasites. More than 90% of the deformities
seen in chiselmouths (Acrocheilus alutaceus) can be attributed to
metacercariae (probably A. donicus). Combining observations from
histology and cleared sh, proved that Myxobolus sp. and metacercariae
were equally responsible for the deformities seen in northern pikeminnow
(Ptychocheilus oregonensisare). In Leuciscus cephalus lordosis
and compression of the caudal region associated with destruction of
cartilagenous tissue by masses of Myxobolus ellipsoides spores (Bucke
and Andrews, 1985) (Figure 2).
Other factors
According to Cobcroft et al. (2008) there is a positive correlation
between walling behaviour (which was induced by tank colour) and
jaw malformation in larval striped trumpeter Latris lineata. The highest
proportion of severely malformed jaws at 44 days post-hatching occurred
in red tanks, followed by green, white, blue, black and marble. Vertebra
damage may also result from electrical shock of the electroshing. Adult
rainbow trout Salmo gairdneri captured by electroshing were analyzed
by Sharber and Carothers (1988) for spinal injury. Of the 209 captured
shes, 50% of them suffered spinal injuries involving an average of eight
vertebrae that were dislocated, splintered, or both. One-quarter-sine wave
pulses injured the 67 % of shes and exponential pulses or square wave
pulses the 44% of them. Quarter-sine waves also damaged signicantly
more vertebrae per sh. Low dissolved oxygen and radiation are factors
that can also lead to skeletal deformities (Bengtsson et al., 1895).
Conclusion
Skeletal deformities is an important factor that downgrade hatcheries’
production and have a high economic affect to the producers. Fishes
with skeletal deformities live less than the normal ones and are not
preferred by the consumers. Deformities are a complex mixture of
different bone disorders and are not well understood. Nutritional
factors such as phosphorus deciency, vitamin C deciency, vitamin K
deciency and hypervitaminosis A can lead to twisted neural and hemal
spines, development of soft bones, decreased bone mass, vertebral
fusion, lordosis, kyphosis and scoliosis. Environmental factors are also
important. Current velocity, water temperature and heavy metal pollution
are some of them resulting, among other malformations, reduction of the
vertebrae Ca/P ratio, shortening and assimilation of cartilage, eye and
otic capsules malformations, head enlargement and bone weakening.
Lack of functional swimbladder, gene mutations, bacteria and parasites
infections, electroshing, low dissolved oxygen, radiation and walling
behavior induced by the color of the tanks are referred to the literature as
possible factors that can lead to skeletal deformities.
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... Skeletal deformities are an important factor that downgrade fishery production and have a high economic impact due to the fact that abnormal fishes are not preferred by the consumers (Panagiotis 2015). Deformities are a complex mixture of different bone disorders, and among them nutritional factors such as phosphorus deficiency, vitamin C deficiency, vitamin K deficiency and hypervitaminosis, such unfavourable parameters play an important role in fish farming (Silverstone & Hammell 2002), but a bit less in the wild where the role environmental factors cannot be ruled out such as current velocity, water temperature and large exposure to pollutants (Panagiotis 2015). ...
... Skeletal deformities are an important factor that downgrade fishery production and have a high economic impact due to the fact that abnormal fishes are not preferred by the consumers (Panagiotis 2015). Deformities are a complex mixture of different bone disorders, and among them nutritional factors such as phosphorus deficiency, vitamin C deficiency, vitamin K deficiency and hypervitaminosis, such unfavourable parameters play an important role in fish farming (Silverstone & Hammell 2002), but a bit less in the wild where the role environmental factors cannot be ruled out such as current velocity, water temperature and large exposure to pollutants (Panagiotis 2015). Diop et al. (2012) and Bonnin et al. (2016) reported that the coast of Senegal, especially around the touristic area of Dakar is facing to pollutants which is locally increasing since some decades and their impact on the local biodiversity cannot be totally ruled out, the present studied cases remain good instances. ...
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The capture of four abnormal specimens of the Striped panray, Zanobatus schoenleinii was reported from shallow coastal waters surrounding the touristic area of Dakar, Republic of Senegal, and among them, some specimens displaying morphological deformities. A specimen exhibited a pectoral non-adherent to the head, a second was tailless, and two specimens displayed scoliosis at level of truncal vertebrae and tail. The abnormalities are described and their causes and consequences herein considered.
... Skeletal deformities are an important factor that downgrade fishery production and have a high economic impact due to the fact that abnormal fishes are not preferred by the consumers (Panagiotis 2015). Deformities are a complex mixture of different bone disorders, and among them nutritional factors such as phosphorus deficiency, vitamin C deficiency, vitamin K deficiency and hypervitaminosis, such unfavourable parameters play an important role in fish farming (Silverstone & Hammell 2002), but a bit less in the wild where the role environmental factors cannot be ruled out such as current velocity, water temperature and large exposure to pollutants (Panagiotis 2015). ...
... Skeletal deformities are an important factor that downgrade fishery production and have a high economic impact due to the fact that abnormal fishes are not preferred by the consumers (Panagiotis 2015). Deformities are a complex mixture of different bone disorders, and among them nutritional factors such as phosphorus deficiency, vitamin C deficiency, vitamin K deficiency and hypervitaminosis, such unfavourable parameters play an important role in fish farming (Silverstone & Hammell 2002), but a bit less in the wild where the role environmental factors cannot be ruled out such as current velocity, water temperature and large exposure to pollutants (Panagiotis 2015). Diop et al. (2012) and Bonnin et al. (2016) reported that the coast of Senegal, especially around the touristic area of Dakar is facing to pollutants which is locally increasing since some decades and their impact on the local biodiversity cannot be totally ruled out, the present studied cases remain good instances. ...
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The capture of four abnormal specimens of the Striped panray, Zanobatus schoenleiniii was reported from shallow coastal waters surrounding the touristic area of Dakar, Republic of Senegal, and among them, some specimens displaying morphological deformities. A specimen exhibited a pectoral non-adherent to the head, a second was tailless, and two specimens displayed scoliosis at level of trunchal vertebrae and tail. The abnormalities are described and their causes and consequences herein considered.
... Skeletal malformations can be defined as kyphosis, the deviation of the spine projecting the head to one side. Lordosis is the increase in the lumbar curvature towards the abdomen and scoliosis, which is the lateral deviation of the spine in a C or S shape (Berillis 2015). ...
... Skeletal anomalies such as kyphosis, lordosis, scoliosis, and spine fusion are pathologies related to bone reabsorption and remodeling that can also occur in response to a mechanical force (Boglione et al. 2013, Berillis 2015. Lordosis was attributed to the swimming effort of sea bass Dicentrarchus labrax juveniles ) and red sea bream Pagrus major with inflated swimbladder (Kihara et al. 2002). ...
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The production of fingerlings on a large scale is one of the biggest challenges for grouper aquaculture development. Groupers may be more susceptible to skeletal anomalies due to their complex skeleton formation ontogenesis. Such anomalies are normally associated with inadequate larviculture protocols for marine fish. The present study aimed to record the occurrence of skeletal anomalies in dusky grouper Epinephelus marginatus. Different degrees of kyphosis, lordosis, and scoliosis were identified. After the larviculture period (60 days), 42% of the dusky grouper presented skeletal anomalies. Therefore, we have concluded that the current protocol for the dusky grouper larviculture must be re-examined, especially to determine a more appropriate water flow in the tanks.
... The entire malformed and fragile hatchlings under the treatment died within 24 h. Nutritional variables, defective swim bladders, infections, genetic factors, water current and water quality may all have contribute to the malformation of embryo hatchlings and larvae in hatcheries (Chanu et al., 2010;Berillis, 2015). ...
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Fungal infection on fish eggs leading to low hatching rate and production of larvae is a common problem encountered in fish hatcheries. Various disinfectants are applied on eggs for control of infection and improving larval survival of the aquacultured species. In this study, the doseresponse of methylene blue (MB) and hydrogen peroxide (HP) on the fungal infection and hatching success of eggs of Melon barb was studied. Fungal infection on eggs were observed during the incubation. Higher dosages of both MB and HP have resulted in significantly higher egg mortality and hatchling deformity (p<0.05). The MB dosage of 1.5 ppm has prevented the fungal growth on eggs along with improving the hatching rate and hatchling survival rate. HP dosage of 9.5 ppm has prevented fungal growth in the main study. Application of these disinfectants had increased 7-9% hatchling production than without using any disinfectant (control treatment).
... After treatment, approximately 50% of the water should be replaced or the dose given for 3-5 days or as recommended [48,49]. Vertebral axial deviation can be cured by multivitamin supplemented feed [50] among them vitamin-C plays an important role in curing this disease [26]. Salted water can cure the swim bladder disease in catfish, but these species are sensitive to salt. ...
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... We found that the serious deformities kyphosis, lordosis, and scoliosis directly affecting larval survival and life activities had no remarkable differences in frequency between treatments. Skeletal deformity in teleost species may be related to many factors such as a lack of vitamins, contamination by heavy metals, and temperature (Berillis 2015). However, the mode of action of salinity on skeleton deformities is still poorly understood. ...
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... Body and skeletal malformations have been reviewed in many publications and they are related to multiple physiological, environmental, xenobiotic, nutritional and genetic factors (Slooff, 1982;Wells & Cowan, 1982;Toften, 1996;Gjerde, Pante & Baeverfjord, 2005;Jagiełło et al., 2017;Madsen, Arnbjerg & Dalsgaard, 2001). Environmental factors have been linked to vertebral anomalies in Salmo solar (Fraser et al., 2015;Ytteborg et al., 2010) and Solea senegalensis (Pimentel et al., 2014), whereas chemical substances were responsible for craniofacial deformities in Sebastiscus marmoratus (Zhang et al., 2012) and Danio rerio (Baker, Peterson & Heideman, 2013), and nutritional conditions covered a variety of deformities reported in finfish farming (Berillis, 2015;Eissa et al., 2021). Although genetic factors are usually considered marginal (reviewed in Boglione et al., 2013), alteration in extracellular matrix gene transcription in Atlantic salmon (Ytteborg et al., 2010), congenital ocular malformation and skeletal abnormalities in zebrafish (Babcock et al., 2014), deformities in bream (Afonso et al., 2000;Afonso et al., 2009) and intrinsic correlation between lordosis and consanguinity (Izquierdo, Socorro & Roo, 2010) are described in the literature. ...
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Fish populations that reside in completely isolated freshwater ecosystems are rare worldwide. The Vila Velha State Park (VVSP), located in southern Brazil, is recognized for its arenitic formations called sinkholes ( furnas ), which are completely isolated. Fish populations within, such as those of Psalidodon aff. fasciatus , often develop vertebral malformations due to this isolation from other conspecifics and other species. In this study, we analyzed geometric morphology in digital radiographs to identify congenital deformations of Psalidodon aff. fasciatus in Furna 2 of VVSP. We found many fish with spinal deformities, including wide variation in the number of caudal vertebrae and corporal deformations related to a flattened body and spinal curvature. Females were more affected than males. We also demonstrated that these deformations reflect inbreeding and an absence of gene flow in the population. In conclusion, isolated populations such as fish species in furnas are potential models for evo-devo research.
... Whereas in areas polluted with selenium, spine malformation is often noticed [26][27][28][29][30]. A deteriorating effect for bone tissue caused by other higher trace elements concentrations was also reported [82,83], particularly when the contamination was of heavy metal [84,85]. ...
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Adequate selenium (Se) availability enhances the health and growth of organisms, but overdose of it can be harmful and pathogenic. The study's objective was to analyse the impact of short-term exposure of sea trout fertilised eggs to inorganic selenium (SeO2) at concentrations from 0 to 32 mg Se L-1 to find the optimal and toxic dose of Se on early fish development. Se accumulated in the body, embryos' survival rate, and growth in the first four months of life was examined. Swelling of fertilised eggs in water supplemented with Se at a concentration from 0.5 to 8 mg Se L-1 was associated with a slightly positive impact on the hatching rate. At higher Se concentration, a harmful effect on the survival of the embryo was observed. The survival of fry was similar in all groups, while the fry length and weight correlated positively with Se concentration in its body. Immersion of fertilised eggs in water enriched with Se during egg swelling can constitute a method to supplement the element to non-feeding stages of fish. In selenium-poor areas, this innovative method can be implemented in aquaculture to improve breeding outcomes. Se concentration should be adjusted to the chemical compound, fish species, and Se’s content in the yolk.
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Records about morphological abnormalities in rays of the genus Myliobatis are scarce worldwide. In the present study, three specimens exhibiting different malformations were identified during the monitoring of the reproductive biology of the Chilean eagle ray Myliobatis chilensis, conducted from 2017 to 2018 in the fishing port of Salaverry (northern Peru). The identified specimens included: (i) a female with split pectoral fins, (ii) a male with an unfused-to-the-head pectoral fin, and (iii) a female with a short and thick tail. Here we report and discuss the implications and likely causes of these first three cases of morphological abnormalities in M. chilensis from the western Pacific.
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Asian seabass is an important aquaculture species. Dorsal fin and opercular deformities have been observed in hatcheries of this fish. However, it is unclear what causes these anomalies, and whether they affect growth performance. To quantify the occurrence of these anomalies, analyse their effect on growth, and trace their family origins, 8535 offspring generated from 13 independent mass-crosses were genotyped with 10 microsatellites. Dorsal fin and opercular deformities were recorded. Body weight at 90 dph were measured for each offspring. The occurrence frequencies of dorsal fin and opercular deformities were 2.30% and 2.16% respectively, with the former ranging from 1.38% to 5.16%, and the latter ranging from 1.38% to 4.84% for different batches of fish. These deformities significantly reduced the body weight, indicating that these deformities not only affected the appearance, but also decreased growth performance. Molecular parentage analysis revealed that fish with either dorsal fin or opercular deformities came from most of the families in each mass-cross, rather than from a few families or a few brooders, which suggests that heritabilities of these deformities might be low.
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Two experiments were conducted to find out if the occurrence of color abnormality and malformation in larval Japanese flounder could be prevented when enriching Artemia nauplii with vitamin A (VA) and its precursor. Ten-day-old larval flounder were chosen as the experimental fish and fed different strains of Artemia, Utahstrain in the first experiment and Tien-tsin strain in the second experiment. Growth and VA content of larval flounder were almost the same in both experiments, except those fed Artemia enriched with 100×10³ IU VA in a 10 l medium which showed retarded growth and malformation. No abnormal coloration was observed in thefirst experiment. However, in the second experiment, color abnormality was recognized in all the groups, probably on feeding the Tien-tsin Artemia, and the percentage occurrence was effectively reduced by feeding the Artemia containing about 1, 000 IU VA. However, bone deformity of a higher degree, such as central fusion, abnormalbone formation in caudal fin, and abnormal formation of pterigiophores wasobserved in the fish fedthis level of VA. These results suggest that VA seems to be effective in preventing the abnormal coloration caused by Tien-tsin Artemia, but the excess amount of this vitamin can exert ill effects on normal growth of flounder.
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Two experiments were conducted in order to examine the effect of a high amount of vitamin A (VA) given through Artemia on the vertebral development of larval Japanese flounder Paralichthys olivaceus. Ten-day-old flounder larvae were cultured for 30 days. In Experiment I, larvae were fed on Artemia enriched in a 10-liter medium containing 100mg VA palmitate (1 μg VA palmitate=1 IU VA), starting from different larval stages until metamorphosis, or at a different rearing period. In Experiment II, critical larval periods (three days) of feeding Artemia enriched in a 10-liter culture medium containing 100mg VA palmitate on vertebral development were examined. Enrichment of Artemia with 100mg VA palmitate in a 10-liter culture medium resulted in 1069 and 918 IU VA per g Artemia (dry basis) in Experiments I and II, respectively. Feeding on Artemia containing these high VA concentrations caused the compression of vertebrae in flounder. This vertebral deformity was found to occur when larvae were exposed to these high dosages of VA during the G stage (during day 25-27, about 11mm of total length) in which notochord segmentation tookplace. The effect of high dosage of VA was even more distinct in fish receiving VA for a longer period, a high incidence of deformity being accompanied by retardation of growth.
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The requirements of rainbow trout for dietary calcium and phosphorus were investigated by feeding them for 6 weeks with purified diets containing different levels of these elements. The rearing water used contained 20 to 23 ppm calcium and 0.002 ppm phosphorus. Dietary phosphorus levels were found to affect greatly the growth, the body composition, and the mineral compositions of the body and the vertebrae. But dietary calcium levels did not influence either the growth or the body composition. The available phosphorus level required to maintain a normal growth of the experimental fish was estimated to be 0.7 to 0.8% of their diet. © 1978, The Japanese Society of Fisheries Science. All rights reserved.
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The availabilitoyf inorganic phosphates and phosphorus contained in several materials of feedingstuffisn cluding fish meal was determined with carp and rainbow trout. The availability of dietary phosphorus was evaluated by growth rate of the fish, chemical analysis of the bones and the whole bodies, gross appearance of the bones and apparent absorption of dietary phosphorus from the digestive tract. Among inorganic compounds, primary calcium phosphate, primary sodium or potassium phosphate was utilizede ffectivelby y these fish speciesa s a dietaryp hosphorus source, wheroas secondary and tertiaryc alcium phosphates were found to be low in availabilityT.h e available phosphorus content of the diet significantlayf fectedg rowth of the fish,m ineral composition and gross appearance of the bones and chemical composition of the fish bodies. In carp, the visceral lipid content was found to increase by the deficiency of available phosphorus in the diet. The availabilitoyf phosphorus contained in fish meals was fairlyl ow in carp compared with that in rainbow trout, thus the supplementation of primary sodium phosphate to the diet containing fish meal resulted in acceleration of the growth response of carp. On the other hand, both carp and rainbow trout effectivelyu tilizedp hosphorus contained in casein and yeast, but the phosphorus in vegetable materialsw as relativelyl ow in availability. © 1979, The Japanese Society of Fisheries Science. All rights reserved.
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Lordosis in reared sea bass was previously related either to the absence of swimbladder, or to bad or late inflation of this organ when damages were irreversible. Our results prove that these explanations are insufficient and that similar deformations may occur frequently in fry with functional swimbladder during the early weaning phase, if currents in tanks are higher than 10 cm s−1.
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Rainbow trout weighing 0.15g on the average were fed with purified diets containing different amounts of L-ascorbic acid for 20 weeks. Dietary ascorbic acid levels did not affect the appetite, growth, and movement of the fish until the appearance of the symptoms of scurvy. The occurrence of vertebral curvature and exophthalmus were recognized only in the fish which received the ascorbic acid-free diet for 15 to 20 weeks. The values for the ratio of hydroxyproline to proline content of collagen fraction ofthe skin and bone were significantly lower in the fish groups receiving low ascorbic acid diets (0 to 2mg ascorbic acid /100g diet) for 11 weeks, whereas this value was not so low in th fish group fed with diet containing 5mg ascorbic acid per 100g diet, when compared with the control fish. The results indicate that an underhydroxylated collagen is formed and accumulated in the tissues of the fish which are fed with ascorbic acid deficient diets. This trend seems to be continued until the ascorbic acid levelof the diet reachs 5mg per 100g deit. The minimum dietary ascorbic acid requirement to maintain a normal collagen formation in the tissues of the experimental fish was estimated to be 5 to 10mg per 100g diet.
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The effect of rearing water temperature on the skeletal deformity in ascorbic acid-deficient rainbow trout, weighing 0.17g on average, was investigated. Three groups of fish were fed a diet at one of three ascorbic acid levels, i.e., 0, 2, and 200mg of L-ascorbic acid per 100g of diet, and were maintained either at 16°C or at 20°C for 20 weeks. Two other groups were given a diet at one of two ascorbic acid levels, i.e., 0 and 200mg of L-ascorbic acid per 100g of diet, and maintained at 16°C for the first 10 weeks and at 20°C for the last 10 weeks. Lower growth was observed in the groups maintained at 20°C irrespective of dietary ascorbic acid levels. The skeletal deformity was observed only in the ascorbic acid-deficient groups. The rate of development of skeletal deformity increased markedly in the group which was maintained initially at 16°C with subsequent rise of water temperature to 20°C. These results indicate that underhydroxylated collagen in the tissues of ascorbic acid-deficient fish is denatured and digested quickly at higher water temperature, resulting in the low collagen content of the connective tissues, and finally developing a fragile bone structure.