Towards a new classification of Salvia s.l.: (re)establishing the genus Pleudia Raf

ArticleinTurkish Journal of Botany 39(4):693-707 · July 2015with 122 Reads
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Abstract
Salvia L. in its traditional circumscription is the largest genus within the mint family. To date, the magnitude of the task has rendered it difficult to provide a genus-wide revision based on morphological data. Current molecular investigations based on a dense taxon sampling representing the whole phenotypic diversity and distribution range of Salvia confirmed that the genus is polyphyletic. Salvia species fall in 4 distinct clades, although all of them, except Clade IV, also include non-Salvia genera. A taxonomic revision is thus urgently needed with two different approaches that have to be considered: (1) to include the 5 morphologically distinct non-Salvia genera in Salvia or (2) to split Salvia s.l. into Salvia s.s. and several additional genera. Since Salvia is already highly heterogeneous in species distribution, morphology, and chromosome number, we prefer to split the genus into molecularly well-supported clades. This new concept may facilitate monographic studies and more focused analyses of character evolution within or between the clades. Species representing Salvia sect. Eremosphace Bunge (subclade III-A) were chosen exemplarily to provide arguments for elevating this particular group to the level of genus (Pleudia Raf.).

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    Full-text available
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  • Article
    Introgression was studied in Salvia apiana and S. mellifera in two respects. First, a geographical survey was made to determine characteristic parameters of variation and the nature and extent of hybridization. Secondly, published and unpublished introgression data collected over a timespan of 30 years were analyzed to determine the stability of an introgressed population. Environmental data were assayed to assist in the interpretation of morphological variation in flower structure. Pollen viability was investigated for both species and their hybrids and found to be high in both parental and introgressed individuals. Computer analyses were used to test relationships between characters, to calculate descriptive statistics, and to identify any time-related changes. Results of the geographical studies in S. mellifera showed no statistically significant variation due to environmental or geographical factors, whereas populations of S. apiana showed statistically significant variation, indicating a topocline. Data from this study of introgression were compared to Anderson and Anderson's original data of 1952. Progressive gene infiltration (introgression) and long term maintenance of introgression was documented. Further, it was demonstrated that at three different sites introgressed populations persist in the absence of one of the parental species, S. apiana in each case.
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    This paper describes aspects of the leaf anatomy of two Salvia taxa, Salvia nemorosa L. subsp. tesquicola (Klokov et Pobed.) Soó and Salvia nutans L., as well as their hybrid, Salvia ×dobrogensis Negrean, aiming to highlight common anatomical characteristics and superiority of the hybrid, compared with its parental taxa, less subject to these plants raised in the literature. Differences were found both in the structure of petiole and blade. For the petiole, differences arise concerning the degree of development of the external (collenchyma and chlorenchyma) and inner cortex. The vascular system in all considered taxa, comprises a great number of vascular bundles, with different levels of development of the conductive tissues. The mesophyll is heterogeneous, bifacial in S. nemorosa subsp. tesquicola and the hybrid, and equifacial in S. nutans. The presence and anatomy of numerous glandular and non-glandular trichomes (hairs), different in structure, shape and size, were investigated and evaluated. Stomata are present on both upper and lower epidermis of the blade having diacytic type, impressing, as well, an amphistomatic character. The vascular system of the midrib of the studied Salvia taxa is well developed, in particular those of the hybrid species. The analysis of petiole and blade anatomy of two Salvia taxa and their hybrid reveals common and specific features from which we could conclude that although the hybrid leaf is more developed anatomically than its parental taxa, the petiole has many features similar to that of Salvia nutans and the blade is almost similar to that of Salvia nemorosa species.
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    Works on the chromosomes of the genus Salvia in relation to karyotypes and chromosome morphology are very little. Whatever has been done is limited to chromosome counts only. Many authors (Sheel 1931, Yakovleva 1933, Stewart 1939, Felfoldy 1947, Delestaing 1954, Epling et al. 1962, Raman and Kesavin 1963, Faverger and Huynh 1965, Gadella et al. 1966, Harvey 1966, Lee 1967, Mehra and Gill 1968b, Bjorkqvist et al. 1969, Afzal 1971, 1972; Von Bothmer 1970, Sz. Borsos 1971, Chuksanova and Kaplanbekova 1971, Bhattacharya et al. 1971, Van Loon et al. 1971, Gill 1971, Markova and Ivanova 1971, 1974; Bhat et al. 1972, Markova and Thi Thu 1974, Vij and Kashyap 1976) have mentioned the chromosome numbers of different species of Salvia. However, no detailed work on the karyotype of any species is available. This may be due to the very small size of the chromosomes. In some species they are too small to be seen clearly (Wu and Hunag 1975). Owing to their very small size it is very difficult to distinguish the different pairs of chromosomes, especially when a large number is present, as not even the centromeres are discernible (Hruby 1948). Present paper deals with a greater detail the karyotypic studies, as well as studies on the morphology of the chromosomes of the genus Salvia as a whole. The purpose of this study was to elucidate the inter-specific relationships as well as evolution among them. © 1980, Japan Mendel Society, International Society of Cytology. All rights reserved.
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    Minuartia is one of the larger genera of Caryophyllaceae with about 175 species distributed mainly in the Northern Hemisphere. The taxonomy of the genus has been studied by several authors, resulting in the recognition of numerous infrageneric groups. Previous phylogenies of the Caryophyllaceae showed that Minuartia is polyphyletic, but included only a limited sample of the genus. We here provide a molecular phylogeny of Minuartia including all infrageneric groups recognized in the last revision of the genus. We reconstructed the phylogeny of the genus using DNA sequences of nrITS and plastid matK from 160 ingroup and 105 outgroup samples. The evolution of the morphological character relevant for the delimitation of Minuartia (three styles plus three capsule valves/teeth) was reconstructed. Minuartiahas been defined with a plesiomorphic character and is highly polyphyletic. All four subgenera fall into different lineages containing other genera of the family, and M. subg. Minuartia, as by far the largest subgenus, falls into seven clades, which together do not form a monophylum. These clades are closely related to several other genera, e.g., Sagina, Colobanthus and Scleranthus. In several cases taxonomic groups below subgeneric rank are monophyletic. The type of Minuartia, M. dichotoma, is part of a clade containing M. sect. Plurinerviae and sect. Minuartia. We propose to retain this clade as Minuartia s.str. and to transfer the other species of Minuartia to the genera Cherleria, Eremogone, Facchinia, Mcneillia, Minuartiella, Mononeuria, Pseudocherleria, Rhodalsine, Sabulina and Triplateia.
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    Background and aims: Salvia is the largest genus in Lamiaceae and it has recently been found to be non-monophyletic. Molecular data on Old World Salvia are largely lacking. In this study, we present data concerning Salvia in Africa. The focus is on the colonization of the continent, character evolution and the switch of pollination systems in the genus. Methods: Maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference were used for phylogenetic reconstruction. Analyses were based on two nuclear markers [internal transcribed spacer (ITS) and external transcribed spacer (ETS)] and one plastid marker (rpl32-trnL). Sequence data were generated for 41 of the 62 African taxa (66 %). Mesquite was used to reconstruct ancestral character states for distribution, life form, calyx shape, stamen type and pollination syndrome. Key results: Salvia in Africa is non-monophyletic. Each of the five major regions in Africa, except Madagascar, was colonized at least twice, and floristic links between North African, south-west Asian and European species are strongly supported. The large radiation in Sub-Saharan Africa (23 species) can be traced back to dispersal from North Africa via East Africa to the Cape Region. Adaptation to bird pollination in southern Africa and Madagascar reflects parallel evolution. Conclusions: The phenotypic diversity in African Salvia is associated with repeated introductions to the continent. Many important evolutionary processes, such as colonization, adaptation, parallelism and character transformation, are reflected in this comparatively small group. The data presented in this study can help to understand the evolution of Salvia sensu lato and other large genera.
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    Salvia is a genus with surprisingly diverse chromosome numbers. In this paper six species were cytologi- cally studied from Hengduanshan Mountains region, where is one of two diversification centers of the genus. S. prze- walskii var. przewalskii is a tetraploid with the chromosome number of 2n=4x=32, other five species are the diploids with chromosome numbers of 2n=2x=16. The basic chromosome number x=8 was inferred for all species studied, which was different from x=7, 11 and 16 reported for species of the genus distributed in other regions. Several recent cytological studies on different groups from Hengduanshan Mountains region showed that only few polyploids in- fers that variation of karyotype structure at the diploid level seems to play a leading role and sympatric speciation via hybridization and polyploidization has played a minor role in speciation of some groups in Hengduanshan Moun- tains region.
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