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Comparative Investigation Using GaAs(950nm), GaAIAs (940nm) and InGaAsP (1450nm) Sensors for Development of Non-Invasive Optical Blood Glucose Measurement System

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Previously, many researches had been done on non-invasive using near-infrared sensing. Sia had investigated near-infrared sensing using signal penetrating finger method. However, by using finger penetration, there are no results obtained. He only obtained signal using glucose concentration. Therefore the objectives of this research are to investigate the performance of three different wavelength of sensors; infrared 940nm and 950nm and also near-infrared 1450nm. Sensor that gave the best output had been chosen to design a non-invasive optical blood glucose measurement device. Generally, the overall system consists of three parts including sensor part, signal conditioning circuit, and also numerical display. The initial design tested by considering initial voltage 1.616V to 1.68V which referred to previous research by Sia as the output of the sensor. Then proceed by using test tube which contains various percentage of glucose concentration. The same methods had been used to the human samples fingers instead of test tube. From the experiment, output graph of the 950nm shows more consistent pattern compared to the 940nm. 950nm also has a larger range scale for voltage which from 5.016V to 5.4633V compare to the 940nm voltage range scale which from 5.0327V to 5.4201V. Further test on human finger had been done by using 950nm infrared but the output voltages were too small. The performance of the measurement can be improved by controlling the surrounding condition and fixed the path length between transmitter and receiver. Test using test tube showed that the near infrared and infrared were capable to predict different glucose concentration. By using circuit designed, it can be seen that the voltage reading became higher compared to before meal. Therefore, it can be concluded that the circuit design functions accordingly and also the non-invasive. During human sample test, increment pattern can be seen from fasting to non-fasting condition but the main effect is all samples have different fingers' diameter which each of user needs to be calibrated.
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Proc. of the IEEE International Conference on Smart Instrumentation, Measurement and Applications (ICSIMA)
25-27 November 2014, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
978-1-4799-0841-3/14/$31.00 ©2014 IEEE
Comparative Investigation Using GaAs(950nm),
GaAIAs (940nm) and InGaAsP (1450nm) Sensors for
Development of Non-Invasive Optical Blood Glucose
Measurement System
Nina Korlina Madzhi, Sarah Addyani Shamsuddin, Mohd Firdaus Abdullah
Faculty of Electrical Engineering
Universiti Teknologi Mara
40450 Shah Alam, Selangor, Malaysia
nina6875@yahoo.com
sarah.addyani@gmail.com
Abstract—Previously, many researches had been done on
non-invasive using near-infrared sensing. Sia [1] had
investigated near-infrared sensing using signal penetrating
finger method. However, by using finger penetration, there
are no results obtained. He only obtained signal using
glucose concentration. Therefore the objectives of this
research are to investigate the performance of three
different wavelength of sensors; infrared 940nm and
950nm and also near-infrared 1450nm. Sensor that gave
the best output had been chosen to design a non-invasive
optical blood glucose measurement device. Generally, the
overall system consists of three parts including sensor
part, signal conditioning circuit, and also numerical
display. The initial design tested by considering initial
voltage 1.616V to 1.68V which referred to previous
research by Sia [1] as the output of the sensor. Then
proceed by using test tube which contains various
percentage of glucose concentration. The same methods
had been used to the human samples fingers instead of test
tube. From the experiment, output graph of the 950nm
shows more consistent pattern compared to the 940nm.
950nm also has a larger range scale for voltage which
from 5.016V to 5.4633V compare to the 940nm voltage
range scale which from 5.0327V to 5.4201V. Further test
on human finger had been done by using 950nm infrared
but the output voltages were too small. The performance
of the measurement can be improved by controlling the
surrounding condition and fixed the path length between
transmitter and receiver. Test using test tube showed that
the near infrared and infrared were capable to predict
different glucose concentration. By using circuit designed,
it can be seen that the voltage reading became higher
compared to before meal. Therefore, it can be concluded
that the circuit design functions accordingly and also the
non-invasive. During human sample test, increment
pattern can be seen from fasting to non-fasting condition
but the main effect is all samples have different fingers’
diameter which each of user needs to be calibrated.
Index Terms—Infrared, Near-infrared, Non-invasive, Blood
Glucose.
I. INTRODUCTION
Based on the data by International Diabetics Federation
(IDF) [2] in year 2010, there were 284.6 millions of diabetes
patients globally. IDF estimated that the total of people around
the world with diabetes, will doubled with increment of 54% in
year 2030. The number is very large and people should be
aware of this matter. Figure 1.1 below has shown the global
projections for number of people with diabetes in year 2010
and 2030 in whole wide world. Moreover, having diabetes also
can lead one to blindness, kidney failure, heart attack, stroke
and amputation. Yearly, there are four million people died
because of diabetes.
Figure 1.1 IDF Regions and Global Projections for Number of People with
Diabetes (20-79 years), 2010-2030 (Picture courtesy of IDF Diabetes Atlas [2]
To date, people in the entire world mostly live in
unhealthy daily routines and lifestyles which can lead to
illnesses. Based on research by M. Mafauzy, Z. Hussein and
S. P. Chan [3], quality of life evaluation showed that about
one third of diabetis patients in Malaysia have poor quality of
life. For example, dietary is one of the caused that can
increase people’s blood glucose reading which also known as
diabetes. Dietary including eating time, type and amount of
the food especially carbohydrates which give large effect to
the blood glucose level. However, glucose is also important
since it is the main carrier of energy in the human organism
[4-6]. The most important factor is that the amount of food
that we take should be suitable with our daily activities.
Besides, lack of exercise and physical activities plus stress can
also increase the level of glucose. It is better if people can
check their blood glucose level once in a while because
knowing their health condition can make people appreciate
more with their lives. People also can make adjustment to
improve their lifestyle and control meals they eat. For diabetes
patients, it is important for them to regularly test and record
the result to see the improvement of their health by changing
their lifestyle. Hence, the existence of the portable blood
glucose self check device is very helpful to the patients.
II. METHODOLOGY
Figure 2.1 Flow chart of the overall process in construct this project.
Figure 2.1 shows the flow chart of the overall
process required in this project. Starting by doing detail
research and literature review related to this topic. From the
literature review, the findings of each research had been
analyzed which lead to research problems. Besides that,
advantages and disadvantages of the method used in each
research had been identified. With the research and literature
that had been done, the focus in the topic can be smaller and
more specific and objectives of the project then were created.
As the next step, circuit had been designed. Designing started
by theoretical calculation. Generally, the system need three
parts which are sensing part, signal conditioning circuit and
Programmable Integrated Circuit (PIC) as the display.
Theoretically, the circuit had been designed and voltage
output for each step had been calculated and considered. From
that, all the components required can be listed.After that, the
simulation for the preliminary designed circuit had been done.
The output voltage for each stage of signal conditioning
circuit had been tested to make sure that the results are
according to the expected results as in the calculation.With the
circuit design, process had been preceded with the assembly
on the breadboard. Troubleshoot had been done to make sure
that the output results were similar to the results in the
simulation. Then the data from the simulation had been
collected. PCB for overall of the system had been designed
and fabricated. The system had been tested in two main tests
which are by varying concentration of glucose solution and
also with the human finger as samples. To verify and support
the output result, the human samples also had been tested with
commercial finger-prick method. The output results had been
compared as the verification. Programming for the PIC had
been developed as the numerical output display of the system.
The program had been done to make sure that the output can
display the status of the output reading if either with low,
medium and high blood sugar. All the experiments had been
done by testing with both by varying concentrations of
glucose solution and also by testing on the real human finger
as samples in the experiments. All data had been collected and
then analysed. Lastly, by completing all the steps and all the
data had been analysed, the report was written and
documentation had been done.
III. RESULT AND DISCUSSION
TABLE I Result of experiment using test tube
Glucose
Concentration (%)
Vo Photodiode
(V) (1450nm)
Vo Photodiode
(V) (940nm)
100
0.938
0.4831
90
0.937
0.4745
80
0.935
0.4668
70
0.934
0.4458
60
0.933
0.4499
50
0.933
0.4515
40
0.933
0.4477
30
0.933
0.4544
20
0.933
0.4541
10
0.4367
Figure 3.1 Comparison between LED 1450nm and LED 940nm output
Since the output readings of both transmitters are not
affected by different percentage of glucose concentration,
circuit design had been adjusted from the initial design. These
show that the output voltage from the photodiode too small
compared to the initial input voltage that had been considered
while designing the circuit. The stage of amplification had
been amplified higher to make sure that the voltage readings
are much higher than the previous output. Linearization part
had been adjusted as suitable to the output reading as long as
the final output voltage are not exceed than 5V.
TABLE II Glucose Reading for 940nm and 950nm
%
Infrared Wavelength
940nm
950nm
100
5.4201
5.4633
90
5.3396
5.2812
80
5.2489
5.2225
70
5.2045
5.2138
60
5.276
5.2064
50
5.1891
5.182
40
5.1625
5.147
30
5.151
5.128
20
5.1345
5.087
10
5.0771
5.053
0
5.0327
5.016
Figure 3.2 Graph Output Voltage of 940nm and 950nm versus Glucose
Concentration.
Figure 3.2 shows, the different voltage output
reading from two IR wavelengths which 940nm and 950nm.
From the graph, the 950nm looks more consistent compare to
the 940nm. 950nm also has a larger range scale for voltage
which from 5.016V to 5.4633V compare to the 940nm voltage
range scale which from 5.0327V to 5.4201V. The percentage
increase between 940nm and 950nm is 5.99%.Based on test of
varying percentage of glucose concentration, it shows that the
950nm infrared give better and more stable output, further test
on human finger had been done by using 950nm infrared as
the transmitter of the device. The test had been done using
human finger as the sample. The finger is placed between
phototransistor and photodiode. The output reading is
measured by using multimeter at the last stage of the signal
conditioning circuit.
TABLE III Human Sample Reading
No.
Weight
(kg)
Height
(cm)
Fasting
(V)
Non-
Fasting
(V)
Percentage
Difference
(%)
1
96
171
0.13096
0.1710
23.42
2
91
175
0.1340
0.1590
15.72
3
55
160
0.2014
0.3056
34.10
4
73
174
0.1004
0.1300
22.77
5
67.6
173
0.1027
0.1202
14.55
6
64.5
170
0.1820
0.1940
6.19
7
56
163
0.1460
0.2080
29.81
8
57
158
0.1335
0.1815
26.45
9
63
169
0.2360
0.2560
7.81
Figure 3.3 Fasting versus Non-Fasting
From TABLE III and Figure 3.3 above shows that
there are increments in voltage reading after having meal
compared to during fasting. Even though the output voltage is
small values, but then the pattern of increments still can be
seen. The pattern of effect after taking meals also can be
accepted since after having meals, the blood glucose reading
for each volunteer are increasing.
A. COMPARISON ANALYSIS BETWEEN INFRARED AND
NEAR INFRARED SENSOR TESTING
Light emitting diode, LED is a complex
semiconductor coverts electrical signal into corresponding
light signal. The advantages of using LED are small in size,
high radiance which emit lots of light in a small area, high in
reliability and can be modulated (turned on and off) at high
speed [7].Based on the application that needs to be used, there
are several LEDs’ performance characteristics that can be
determined such as peak wavelength, spectral width, emission
pattern, power and speed. The peak wavelength is the
wavelength where the source emits most power. Spectral
width is the range of wavelength that light is emitted in
practise which also known as spectral width of the source [7].
There are two types of LED structures which are edge emitters
and surface emitters. The differences of these two types are
edge emitter LED is more complex and expensive. The
emitting spot also small resulting high output power. While
surface emitter LED have simple structure and comparatively
inexpensive. It offers low to moderate output power levels and
low to moderate operating speed [7].LED optical output is
approximately proportional to drive current. Temperature is
one of the factors that affect the optical output. Figure 3.4
shows the detail of the typical behaviour of LED.
Figure 3.4 Optical Outputs vs. Current in LED (Picture courtesy from fiber-
optics.info [53]).
LEDs have voltage drop about 1.1 to 1.5 Volts.
Shorter wavelength diodes have largest voltage drops [7] of
the LED. For all LEDs used in this work, voltage drop of LED
940nm is 1.35V, LED 950nm is 1.3V while LED1450nm is
1.2V. From that, the pattern can be seen where as the
wavelength increases, the voltage drop decreases. This is due
to the bandgap energy, Eg which higher wavelength have
smaller energy gap and resulting smaller voltage drop.
Eg = hc/l = 1240eV-nm/l …(1)
Where:
h = Plank’s constant = 4.13 x 10-15 eV.s
c = speed of light = 2.998 x 108 m/s
l = wavelength in nm
From equation above, the energy gap of LED based
on its emission wavelength had been predicted as in TABLE
IV.
TABLE IV Common Light Emitter Materials and Characteristics.
Material
Formula
Energy Gap
Wavelength
Gallium
Phosphide
GaP
2.24 eV 550
nm
Aluminum
Arsenide
AIAs
2.09 eV 590
nm
Gallium
Arsenide
GaAs
1.42 eV 870
nm
Indium
Phosphide
InP
1.33 Ev
930
nm
Aluminum-
Gallium
Arsenide
AIGaAs
1.42-1.61 Ev
770
-
870 nm
Indium-
Gallium-
Arsenide-
Phosphide
InGaAsP
0.74-1.13 Ev
1100-
1670nm
From TABLE IV, shows that there are variation of
material used in LED. In this work, three variation of
materials had been used which are GaAlAs (940nm), GaAs
(950nm) and InGaAsP (1450nm). Voltage drop which also
called as forward voltage is indicated the energy gap that
corresponds to the energy of the emitted photons. LED current
can be calculated from the known voltage drop and saturation
voltage of the transistor. Equation below shows the general
form of the calculation [7].
ILED = VPOWER – VLED – VSAT/R3 …(2)
Where:
VPOWER = DC power supply voltage
VLED = forward voltage drop of the LED
VSAT = drive transistor saturation voltage
R3 = series LED current limiting resistor
ILED = peak LED current
Experiment and testing had been done in controlled
environment since LED is sensitive to ambient light condition
[7]. All experiments had been done in same laboratory with
fixed position of devices in the experiment setup.
B. REFINEMENT OF NEAR- INFRARED TESTING
As the same signal conditioning circuit used with the
near-infrared, the result of output voltage during human finger
test shows no changes. The circuit was redesigned for the
near-infrared testing. And did the re-test to test either the
sensor can give better output or not. The linearization circuit
had been removed from the design since output from low pass
filter was not exceeding 5V.
1) Test Tube Experimental
Experiment had been done using the difference of
glucose concentration and the output readings from the test are
as below:
TABLE V Output Voltage of 1450nm Vary Glucose Concentration
Test
Glucose
Percentage
(%)
Glucose
Concentration
(mg/dL)
Output
Voltage
(V)
100
200
3.4174
90
180
3.2009
80
160
2.9830
70
140
2.8120
60
120
2.4763
50
100
2.2880
40
80
2.1062
30
60
1.5711
20
40
1.1660
10
20
0.8730
0
0
0.6000
Figure 3.5 shows the output pattern of the output
voltage from the test of different glucose concentrations.
Graph shows that the voltage is nearly direct proportional to
the percentage of glucose concentrations. From the pattern, it
shows that when the percentage of glucose concentration is
high, voltage output also high and vice versa.
Figure 3.5 Graph of Output Voltage vs. Percentage of Glucose Concentration
Based on Diabetes Research and Wellness
Foundation [8] shows that random blood sugar in normal
reading is from 80 to 139mg/dL and one will consider have
diabetes when the glucose reading is 200mg/dL and above.
From the data that had been collected, by comparing output
voltage with the glucose concentration, the results are
successful in getting the relationship between the output
voltage readings with the output display of PIC.
2) Human Sample Final Testing
As all the test and experiments had been done
previously, the most suitable sensing part of the system is
using LED1450E pairing with photodiode FGA01FC. In
previous test also try and error of the signal condition circuit
had been done in order to give the best and most accurate
output results. After the finalized all the components and
circuit construction, the actual testing had been done with 17
volunteer as the human sample. In this test, another factor also
had been taken. The test consists of body mass index, blood
pressure and also their heart beat. These elements had been
observed to see if there are any effects to the output
reading.Test also had been done using the present design.
Reading had been taken twice to make sure the repeatability of
the system. Lastly, volunteer also had to do the blood glucose
test using commercial meter with the finger pricking method
as verification. The commercial reading had been taken to test
the performance of the present designed. Test of both blood
glucose meters had been done in two different conditions
which are during fasting and non-fasting. Volunteer had been
asked to fast for at least eight hours. At 10 am, the first test
had been done and the data obtained considered as during
fasting. After that, they had their breakfast which the meals
also had been controlled. All of them had been given same
meals which each of them had one wrapped nasi lemak and
250ml of sugar added fruit juice. After two hours, second
reading had been taken as the non-fasting condition.Results
obtained had been taken and as in Table 25. From the data that
had been collected, by comparing output voltage with the
glucose concentration, the results are successful in getting the
relationship between the output voltage reading to the output
display of PIC where had been programmed.
TABLE VI Overall Results of Near-Infrared Human Testing.
Blood Glucose Reading
Before Meal
After Meal
Commercial
Meter
(mmol/L)
Present
Designed (V)
Commercial
Meter
(mmol/L)
Present
Designed (V)
5.8
1.7111
1.7069
7.1
1.7283
1.7191
5.6
1.6412
1.6352
5.0
1.6571
1.6790
5.5
1.6407
1.6547
5.9
1.6510
1.6549
5.4
1.6521
1.6466
6.3
1.6760
1.6677
5.4
1.6659
1.6493
5.2
1.6615
1.6570
4.9
1.7056
1.6776
5.7
1.6509
1.6596
4.9
1.6622
1.6570
5.5
1.7238
1.6583
4.8
1.3762
1.6644
5.4
1.7123
1.6929
4.7
1.6712
1.6573
6.7
1.6436
1.6522
4.7
1.6754
1.6893
5.8
1.6828
1.6900
4.6
1.6827
1.6976
6.0
1.7107
1.6970
4.6
1.6596
1.6421
5.4
1.6496
1.3501
4.6
1.6696
1.6419
6.1
1.6973
1.3669
4.5
1.6620
1.6544
4.3
1.6634
1.3524
4.3
1.6843
1.6988
5.0
1.7025
1.3833
4.3
1.6888
1.6717
4.7
1.7345
1.7266
3.9
1.6848
1.6907
5.2
1.7239
1.7819
From TABLE VI, it can be seen that all the human
samples taken are in normal range of blood glucose reading.
This is due to the fact that the samples are taken from healthy
students at the age of 23 years old with no diabetic condition.
The testing is only to prove that the circuit designed
functioning well with verification using commercial glucose
meter. However, from the observation of the output readings,
the output voltages are not consistent compared to the
commercial meter. This may occurred because of the different
finger diameter size of each person that effected the signal
penetration through different person. But then, increment
pattern still can be seen from fasting to non-fasting condition
for every sample. The obvious effect is all samples have
different fingers’ diameter which each of user needs to be
calibrated.
C. PIC OUTPUT DISPLAY
When the development of sensory part is complete,
several experiment is conducted to determine whether the
instrument that have been develop was able to process the
electrical signal given by photodiode and display it on LCD.
The experiment was implementing by using led with
wavelength 1450nm as transmitter and InGaAs photodiode as
receiver to measure glucose concentration. The suitable
voltage range needed to interface with microcontroller is
between 0V to 5V. Therefore the photodiode output voltage
was linearized into the suitable range. By using the same
configuration of linearization and summing amplifier that has
been discussed in previous chapter, the photodiode output
voltage are able to converted into a suitable range to operate
with microcontroller. Figure 3.6 show the result from display
panel that display the result from the experiment after be
processed by signal conditioning circuit.
0
5
020406080100
Output Voltage (V
Percentage of Glucose Concentrations (%)
Output Voltage vs. Percentage of
Glucose Concentration
Figure 3.6 Output Reading Display.
IV. CONCLUSION
The first objective had been achieved by comparing
the performance of infrared and near-infrared as the sensing
device of non-invasive blood glucose. The instrument based
on self-monitoring glucose level was developed as and the
experimental processes had been done well. Signal conditional
circuit was able to filter noise produced by near infrared
sensor by blocking high frequency. The benefit from noise
filtering is better glucose signal can be measured and accurate
reading can be obtain. Besides that, signal conditioning circuit
was able to amplify the input voltage from near infrared
sensor into suitable value to be observed. The output from
signal conditioning circuit are also successful be linearize
from 0V to 5V. From that voltage range, the signal
conditioning circuit was able to interface with microcontroller.
The input from signal conditioning circuit was able to be
converted to digital value. By displaying the digital value on
display panel, people will be able to determine their glucose
level which leading them to better lifestyle.It can be concluded
that the circuit design can functions accordingly and also non-
invasive. During human sample test, increment pattern can be
seen from fasting to non-fasting condition but the main effect
is all samples have different fingers’ diameter which each of
user needs to be calibrated. The calibration also may due to
different people have varying amounts of protein, fats and
water. Besides, doing measurement on the skin tissues, the
absorbance spectra can be affected by other elements
contained in blood such as water, albumin, globulin and also
environmental factors. However environmental lighting,
temperature and humidification had been controlled by doing
all the experimental process in the same room.
V. RECOMMENDATION FOR FUTURE WORK
From the observation of the output readings, the
output voltages are not consistent compared to the commercial
meter. It shows that there are errors occur in the system. This
may occurred because of the different diameter size of each
person that makes different penetration trough the different
person. But then, increment pattern still can be seen from
fasting to non-fasting condition for every sample. The obvious
effect is all samples have different fingers’ diameter which
each of user needs to be calibrated. So it suggested in future
work to add calibration knob or reset button so that for every
testing with different patient as sample, the reading will starts
at ‘0’.
Besides, the instrument based on self-monitoring
glucose level still can be enhanced by adding trigged alarm.
Different type of triggered alarm that produces different type
of sound can be used to indicate which glucose level that has
been measured. This method was recommended to overcome
the problem to those have blurred vision especially older
people. The current instrument need to be power up by using
two direct current supplies with needed voltage 18V. As
recommendation, the future instrument can be powered by
using lithium battery so that the instrument can be carry out
easily and can be use anytime and anywhere.
ACKNOWLEDGMENT
The authors would like to express heartily gratitude to project
supervisor for the guidance and enthusiasm given throughout
the progress of this project and to RMI UiTM for their
financial support (grant: 600-RMI/DANA 5/3/RIF
(87/2012))and Faculty of Electrical Engineering for the
facilities provided.
REFERENCES
[1] D. Sia, “Design of a Near-Infrared Device for the Study of
Glucose Concentration Measurements,” B. Eng. Thesis, Dept.
Elect. And Biomedical Eng., McMaster Univ., Hamilton,
Ontario, Canada, 2010.
[2] International Diabetes Federation. (2009). IDF Diabetes Atlas
(4thed.) [Online] Available: http://www.idf.org/diabetesatlas/
[3] M. Fafauzy, Z. Hussein, and S. P. Chan, “The Status of Diabetes
Control in Malaysia: Results of DiabCare 2008”, Med. J.
Malaysia, vol. 66, No. 3, Aug. 2011
[4] Nordqvist. (2013, February 19). What Are Carbohydrates? What
Is Glucose?. Medical News Today [Online]. Available:
http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/161547.
[5] Gwen, “What is Diabetes?,” in Diabetes Research & Wellness
Foundation What is DIABETES?, vol. 3, Hampshire, United
Kingdom, 2013.
[6] C. E. Ferrante do Amaral and B. Wolf, “Current Development
in Non.invasive Glucose Monitoring,” Medical Engineering &
Physics, vol. 30, pp 541-549, 2008.
[7] Emcore Corporation, “Light-emitting Diode (LED),” 2014
[Online]. Available at: http://www.fiber-
optics.info/articles/light-emitting_diode_led.
[8] International Diabetes Federation. (2013). IDF Diabetes Atlas
(6thed.) [Online] Available: http://www.idf.org/diabetesatlas/
... It is well known as Infrared spectroscopy (IR spectroscopy) or vibration spectroscopy where radiation of infrared type are incident on the matter [63], [64]. Various types of IR spectroscopy is shown in Fig. 13. ...
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DiabCare Malaysia 2008 evaluated the current status of diabetes care in Malaysia as a continuation of similar cross-sectional studies conducted previously in 1997, 1998, 2001 and 2003. The current study recruited 1670 patients from general hospitals, diabetes clinics and referral clinics to study current scenario of diabetes management. We report the results of type 2 diabetic population who constituted 92.8% (n = 1549). Results showed deteriorating glycaemic control with mean HbA1c of 8.66 +/- 2.09% with only 22% of the patients achieving ADA target of < 7%. 80.3% of patients were hypertensive and 75% were on anti-hypertensive medication. 46% of patients had LDL levels > 2.6 mmol/L; 19.8% had triglycerides > 2.2 mmol/L; 27.4% had HDL < 1 mmol/L despite 85% of the patients being on lipid lowering agents. Microvascular, macrovascular and severe late complications were reported in 75%, 28.9% and 25.4% patients respectively. The rates of diabetic complications were cataract 27.2%, microalbuminuria 7%, neuropathy symptoms 45.9%, leg amputation 3.8% and history of angina pectoris was 18.4%. Quality of life evaluation showed that about one third of patients have poor quality of life. Also, there was poor adherence to diet, exercise and self testing of blood glucose. In conclusion, majority of the patients were still not satisfactorily controlled. There is an urgent need for effective remedial measures to increase adherence to practice guidelines and to educate both patients and healthcare personnel on importance of achieving clinical targets for metabolic control.
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What Are Carbohydrates? What Is Glucose?. Medical News Today
  • Nordqvist
Nordqvist. (2013, February 19). What Are Carbohydrates? What Is Glucose?. Medical News Today [Online]. Available: http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/161547.
What Are Carbohydrates? What Is Glucose?
  • Nordqvist
Nordqvist. (2013, February 19). What Are Carbohydrates? What Is Glucose?. Medical News Today [Online]. Available: http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/161547.