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A Review on Potential Pharmacological Uses of Carthamus tinctorius L.



Carthamus tinctorius L. (Safflower) of family Asteraceae is a medicinal plant with great potential. Its extract and oil has many therapeutic uses and having great pharmacological importance. Plant is mainly cultivated for its seeds, oil and flowers. It is to cure many day to day ailment, and has proved importance as purgative, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, antipyretic, menstrual problems, post-partum hemorrhage, osteoporosis, diabetes, hepatoprotection, cancer, fibrosis and antioxidant. Carthamine, hydroxyl safflower yellow-A, carthamidine, luteolin are the main phytoactive principles of this plant. This review highlights the pharmacological aspects of Carthamus tinctorius.
*Corresponding Author Address: Rashmi Dehariya, Department of Botany, Guru Ghasidas Central University, Bilaspur, Koni, C.G India
World Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
ISSN (Print): 2321-3310; ISSN (Online): 2321-3086
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Review Article
A Review on Potential Pharmacological Uses of Carthamus tinctorius L.
Rashmi Dehariya *and Ashwini Kumar Dixit
Department of Botany, Guru Ghasidas Central University, Bilaspur, Koni, C.G India 495009
Received: 27-06-2015 / Revised: 31-07-2015 / Accepted: 01-08-2015
Carthamus tinctorius L. (Safflower) of family Asteraceae is a medicinal plant with great potential. Its extract
and oil has many therapeutic uses and having great pharmacological importance. Plant is mainly cultivated for
its seeds, oil and flowers. It is to cure many day to day ailment, and has proved importance as purgative,
analgesic, anti-inflammatory, antipyretic, menstrual problems, post-partum hemorrhage, osteoporosis, diabetes,
hepatoprotection, cancer, fibrosis and antioxidant. Carthamine, hydroxyl safflower yellow-A, carthamidine,
luteolin are the main phytoactive principles of this plant. This review highlights the pharmacological aspects of
Carthamus tinctorius.
Keywords- Carthamus tinctorius, Safflower, Pharmacology, future drug.
Carthamus tintorius L. safflower rather false
saffron, belongs to family Asteraceae or
compositae in the order Asterales, native of Egypt.
Safflower planted and cultivated in places with dry
hot climate and moderate rainfall. It is a thistle like
annual, bushy, herbaceous plant with profuse
branching attains height up to 1 meter. Leaves are
stalk less, lanceolate, half-clasping 4 to 10.5
centimeter long, 1 to 2.8 centimeter wide narrow
towards the top, toothed spiny margin and have
numerous spines all around. Flowers are bright
yellow orange or red in color, large and surrounded
by a cluster of leafy bracts which forms involucre 3
centimeter across. The fruits are achenes, obovoid
in shape 4 ribbed deformed and truncate at the top.
Seeds are with and without hair having thick
pericarp. This plant is also suitable for rain
cropping system because its deep tap root system
helps to take water and nutrient from the depth of
the soil.
Cultivated in various parts of the world mainly for
its seeds oil and carthamin dye from flowers.
Flower dye is used as substitute for the saffron. In
China young shoots eaten at the time of scarcity. In
Chhattishgarh, India, its tender leaves has been
used as leafy vegetable. India, United State and
Mexico are the leading producer along with
Ethiopia, Kazakhstan, China, Argentina and
Australia as emerging countries. Vernacular names
of safflower are as follows Arabic: Asfur, Asfoor,
Usfur; Croatian: Bojadisarski Bodalj, Šafranika;
Czech: Azafrán, Světlice Barvířská; Danish:
Farvetidsel, Safflor; Dutch: Carthamusbloem,
Saffloer, Saffloer-Bloem; Finnish: Värisaflori;
French: Carthame Des Teinturiers, Fleur De
Carthame, Graine De Carthame, Safran Bâtard;
German: Färberdistel, Färbersaflor, Falscher
Safran, Saflor; Greek: Knikos; Hindi: Kusum;
Hungarian: Magyar Pirosító, Pórsáfrány, Sáfrányos
Szeklice, Szaflór, Szeklice; Italian: Cartamo, Falso
Zafferano; Japanese: BeniBana; Korean: Hong
Hwa; Persian: Gulrang; Portuguese: Açafrão-
Bastardo, Cártamo, Falso-Açafrão; Russian: Saflor,
Saflor Krasil'nyi; Slovenian: Barvilni Rumenik,
Barvilni Žafran, Žafranika; Slovakian: Požlt
Farbiarska; Spanish: Alazor, Alazor Bastardo,
Azafrán Bastardo, Cártamo; Swedish: Färgtistel,
Safflor; Tamil: Kusumb; Turkish: Safran Yalancı,
Yalancı Safran; Urdu: Gul Rang; Vietnamese:
CâyRum, Hng Hoa.
Phytochemistry of Carthamus tinctorius
Meselhy et al. 1993, reported quinochalcone C-
glycosides, tinctormine yellow pigments from
Carthamus tictorius and studied calcium
antagonistic activity of tictormine [1]
Triterpene alcohol constituents, Heliaol, α-amyrin,
β-amyrin, lupeol, cycloartenol, 24-
methylenecycloartanol, tirucalla-7,24-dienol and
dammaradienol isolated from the Carthamus
Rashmi and Kumar, World J Pharm Sci 2015; 3(8): 1741-1746
flowers act as anti-inflammatory agents reported by
Akishia et al, 1996[2]. Akisia et al. 1997, recorded
11 novel secondary alkane-1,3-diols from the dried
flower petals of C. tinctorius[3]. Zhang et al. 1997
isolated Seven antioxidative compounds from
safflower oil cake most of which were serotonin
derivatives, N-[2-(5-hydroxy-1H-indol-3-yl)ethyl]-
ferulamide, N-[2-(5-ydroxy-1H-indol-3-yl)ethyl]-
1H-indol-3,3'-yl) diethyl]-di-pcomaramide, N-
[[3'[2-(p-comaramido) ethyl]-5, 5'-dihydroxy-4,4'-
bi-1H-indol-3-yl]ethyl] ferulamide, N,N'-[2,2'-
p-comatamide and N-[2-[5-(beta-D-lucosyloxy)-
1H-indol-3-yl]-ethyl] ferumaramide[4].
Kim et al. 2000 studied the properties of chemical
composition of Carthamus tinctorius seeds and
reported that crude protein ranged from 14.9% to
17%, total sugar from 3.2% to 9.2% and extractable
lipids from 25% to 40%. Oil content of the seeds is
similar to that of olive and includes linoleic acid
(63%72%), oleic acid (16%25%) and linolenic
acid (1%6%).[5] Serotomide (trans-N-
caffeoylserotonin) and safflomide (trans-N-
caffeoyltryptamine) belonging to serotonin-derived
phenyl propenoid amides modulate forskolin
stimulated cAMP formation via 5-HT1receptor
have been reported by Park, [6]2008 in C.
tinctorius.Lee et al. 2002, while studying anti
oxidative flavonoids of Carthamus leaves isolated
Luteolin and its glucopyranosides[7].The essential
oils from flowers of safflower contains chalcones
including hydroxysafflor yellow A, safflor yellow
A, safflamin C and safflamin A, and safflomin-A
has been reported by Jiang and Wang,
2005[8]Huang et al. 2007 reported Nicotiflorin, a
natural flavonoid extracted from coronal of C.
tinctorius and its protectivesffects on reducing
memory dysfuntion, energy metabolism failure and
oxidative stress in rats [9]. Systematic screening
and characterization of flavonoid glycosides in
Carthamus tinctorius was carried out by Jin et al.
2008 [10]. Zhau and Zhao, 2009 reported some 200
compounds from C. tinctorius and the commonly
known ones are flavonoids, phenylethanoid
glycosides, coumarins, fatty acids, steroids and
polysaccharides[11].A new coumaroyl spermidine
elucidated as N(1),N(5)-(Z)-N(10)-(E)-tri-p-
coumaroyl spermidine with serotonin transporter
inhibition from safflower was identified by Zhao et
al., 2010[12]. Shao et al. 2011, studied daily
variations in essential oil composition of flower of
different accessions from Carthamus flower and
identified Caryophyllene, p-allyl toluene, 1-
acetoxytetralin and heneicosane as the major
constituents [13].
Phytochemistry, pharmacology and medicinal
properties of Carthmus tinctorius was reviewed by
Asgarpanah and Kazemivash, 2013[14].
Pharmacological Properties of Carthamus
Anti-inflammatory activity: A substance with its
property to reduce the swelling is known as anti-
inflammatory substance.Ho-1 is a potent anti-
inflammatory agents. Methanolic extract of
Carthamus tinctorius is proved to induce the
expression of ho-1 via translocation of Nrf -2.
Methanolic extract of Carthamus triggers the
inhibition of nf-kB activity, nf-кB is a transcription
factor for the inflammation [15].Vascular adhesion
molecule is unable to express by the inhibition of
TNF–α in the presence of ethanolic extract of
Carthamus tinctorius whose expression causes
chronic inflammatory disorders.
The methanolic extract of Carthamus tinctorius is
also induces the expression of HO-1 which is an
anti inflammatory agent via Nrf2 translocation
pathway [16]. Flavones luteolin and its
glucopyranoside luteolin 7-O-beta-D-
glucopyranoside and luteolin-7-O-(6”-O-acetyl)-
beta-D-glucopyranosideare the reported anti-
inflammatory substances from Carthamus
tinctorius [16]. Helianol sterols and alkane-6,8
diols, ψ-taraxasterol and taraxasterol are the anti-
inflammatory substances isolated from the flower
having anti-inflammatory response against 12-O-
Tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate- induced
Analgesic properties: Analgesics are commercially
available drugs or group of drug used to achieve
relief from pain, which acts in various ways on
central and peripheral nervous system. Carthamus
flower is reported to be a potent of analgesic
isolated from the seeds of Carthamus tinctorius. In
one such study a dose of 100ul causes a marked
reduction in nociceptive and proprioceptive
activity. Anti-oxidative activity of flower also has
analgesic effect. Serotonin conjugates are also
reported from the flower inhibits the tyrosinase
action and this inhibition in tyrosinase causes
increase in serotonin content and ultimately
serotonin is a common agent use to provide relief
against sciatic pain. Carthamus oil is a rich source
of unsaturated linoleic acid, unsaturated linoleic
acid triggers the inhibition of tyrosinase enzyme.
Proteolytic degradation of tyrosinase is responsible
for the inhibition of monoaminergic
neurotransmitter (a pain signal transmitter).
Carthamus flower can be used in Korean
pharmacopuncture. In another study it was found
Rashmi and Kumar, World J Pharm Sci 2015; 3(8): 1741-1746
that 50-100 mg/kg dose of carthamus flower
sustained analgesic activity [17].
Antioxidant Activity: Energy is a first requirement
for the survival of all living organism which is
obtained from the food Oxygen is a prerequisite for
the metabolism and for the use of dietary nutrient.
Oxygen mediates many reactions and metabolize
fat, protein, carbohydrates .Oxygen is also a part of
life damaging molecule called free radical. Free
radicals neutralize themselves by capturing other
substances their formation is controlled by
antioxidants. Flavonoids are the phenolic
compounds found in many plants as a major
phytochemical work as an antioxidant.
Antioxidants help in the prevention of diseases like
atherosclerosis, heart disease, Parkinson’s,
ischemic Alzheimer’s, and aging [18,19]. Ethanol
ethyl acetate extract of safflower defatted seeds
reported to have phenolic compounds and serotonin
derivatives which are effective against
atherosclerosis [20]. The serotonin are the unique
phenolic constituent of safflower defatted seeds
[21]. 0.4 % of serotonin derivatives dose results in
a lesion reduction with the inhibition of V 70 and
Cu 2+ induced oxidation this marked inhibition is
due to the presence of derivative N-pcoumaryl
serotonin and N-feruloylserotonine [21]. DPPH
scavenging assay is widely used to determine
antioxidant activity .Carthamus tinctorius shows
scavenging effect on the DPPH and reduction of
ferric [22]. Carthamus tinctorius flowers aqueous
extract shows 99.65% DPPH scavenging activity.
Ferric reduction determined was 1,140umol/g at
50% concentration value [22]. Methanolic and
aqueous extract reported to have phenolic content
2.12 and 1.32g/100g respectively [23]. Phenolic
compound in a plant is associated with its anti-
oxidative activity [24].
Antidiabetic effect: High blood sugar levels over a
prolonged period result in a metabolic disorder
called Diabetes mellitus in this major endocrine
disorder pancreas do not produce sufficient insulin.
Associated common symptoms are frequent
urination, increased thrust, and increased urination.
The process like glycogenolysis, glycogenesis and
gluconeogenesis takes place in a vital organ liver
[25]. It has been reported, after alloxan injection
increase in alanine and aspartate transferase occurs
[26]. The oil obtained from the seeds of Carthamus
tinctorius is rich source of mono and
polyunsaturated fatty acid regulate insulin secretion
response and glucose homeostasis. The higher
activity of enzymes like glutamic pyruvic
transaminase, serum glutamic transaminase and
ALP shows that diabetes associated with the liver
dysfunction. It has been observed that 28 days
doses of Carthamus tinctorius oil recovers the
activities of the above enzymes in the alloxan
induced diabetic rats [26]. Protein breakdown and
glycogenesis process restores after Carthamus
tinctorius flower extract administration. N-P-
coumaryl and N-feruloyl are the active alpha
glucosidase inhibitors isolated from the seeds of C.
tinctorius their IC 50 value were calculated as 47.2
umol/L and 99.8 u mol/L while that of the
reference drug as 907.5 umol/L and 278.0 umol/L
for the drugs ascarbose and 1- deoxy-nojirimycin
respectively [27] With the Carthamus tinctorius
supplementation renal abnormalities like
glycosylated protein tissue levels, heamodynamics
changes within the kidney tissue and increased
oxidative stress, high plasma urea, uric acid and
creatinine level glucose simultaneously glucose
level are also regulated in streptocin induced
diabetic rats.
Increase in the insulin level simultaneously
lowering in the level of cholesterol, LDL-C,
VLDL-C observed in a male wistar rats treated
with Carthamus tinctorius hydroalcoholic extract
[28]. The increase in the size of islets of Langerhan
cell with the Carthamus tintorius administration
also reported [28].
As anticoagulant: Coagulation or clotting is a
process in which blood changes from a liquid to a
gel. It results into hemostasis. Anticoagulants are
the class of drugs that work to prevent the
coagulation of blood. Ischemia induced damages
occurs in brain followed by thrombotic block.
cerebral ischemia is result of hypercoagulation and
hyper viscosity in blood circulation more prone to
thrombosis [29]. Studies demonstrated the
therapeutic effect of hydroxyl safflor yellow A on
focal cerebral ischemia injury in rats, HYSA dose
dependently improve the neurological defect and
reduced the cerebral infract area HYSA shows its
inhibitory action on ADP-induced platelets
aggregation in a dose dependent manner. With the
maximum inhibitory aggregation rate
41.8%.HYSA suppress the production of TXA2
without significant effect on plasma PGI2. Blood
rheological parameter were improved after HYSA
dose such as whole blood viscosity ,plasma
viscosity, deformability and aggregation of
erythrocyte but no effect on hematocrit was found.
HYSA has a potential to treat cerebral ischemia
and underlying mechanisms might be involved the
inhibitory effects on thrombosis formation and
platelet aggregation [29].
Carthamine yellow (CY) obtained from the
Carthamus tinctorius used for coloring food is also
proved to be effective in hemorological disorders
of blood stasis in rats. CY administration decreases
the whole blood viscosity, plasma viscosity and
Rashmi and Kumar, World J Pharm Sci 2015; 3(8): 1741-1746
erythrocyte aggregation index in a stasis rat.
Hematocrit and platelet aggregation were reduced
while prothrombin time was delayed after the
administration of CY dose. BY increasing blood
fluidity CY decreases the plasma visosity [31].
Effect on Osteoporosis: Osteoporosis is a
progressive bone disease characterized by a
decrease in bone mass and density which can lead
to the increased risk of fracture. The disease
classified as primary type -1, primary type 2 or
secondary. Women are commonly suffered from
primary type- 2 disease. Aging, post menopause
calcium loss, general calcium deficiency,
immobilization, lack of nutrition, and
endocrinology changes are the causes of
osteoporosis. Osteoporosis associated with the
estrogen deficiency occurs after the menopause in
women. Estrogen deficiency and calcium
deficiency are the reason behind the genesis of this
diseases [31].
High mineral content such as Ca, K, P are reported
from the methanolic extract of Safflor extract used
in Korea as a folk medicine and these osteoblast
markers increases. In Sprague Dowley rat after the
administration of methanolic extract of safflower
seed Osteoblast content, bone specific alkaline
phosphatase, insulin like growth factor-I are
reported to increases . Simultaneous enhancement
in the growth parameter like length of tibia and
femur are also observed as well as MESS
cytotoxicity are absent under the experimental
conditions .
Bone resorption is an osteoclast mediated
breakdown of bones. In bone resorption calcium
transfers from bone fluid to the blood due to the
released of minerals mediated by Tyrosine kinase,
cyclooxygenase and prostaglandin. Carthamus
tinctorius called Honghwain (HHI) in Korean
medicine. Synergy between IL-B, TNF-a, IL-6 on
PGE2 production is due to enhanced COX 2
expression HHI is a possible Src family kinase
inhibitor may be useful for the treatment of
diseases associated with bone loss [32]. Safflower
seed contains high linoleic acid helps in its anti-
inflammatory activity by decreasing prostanoid
formation and recover bone loss due to over recto-
my and increasing calcium uptake [31]. Estrogen
deficiency causes bone loss, safflower seeds are the
rich source phytoestrogens shows the protective
effect against the bone loss by estrogen deficiency
without substantial effect on uterus [33].
Hepatoprotective Activity: Many major functions
of human body are associated with liver,
hepatocytes are the specialized tissues regulate
many biochemical functions including regulation of
glycogen storage, decomposition of red blood cells,
plasma protein synthesis, hormone production and
detoxification produces bile a compound aids in
digestion via emulsification of lipids. Carthamus
red is a reported hepatoprotective compound from
the Carthamus tinctorius effective against liver
damages induced by CCl4 [34]. Trichloromethylene
radical, oxidized macromolecules and lipids
oxidative stress inducer. Carthamus red treatment
lowered serum levels of ALT, AST, ALP and total
protein liver damage in a rat model. It was also
reported to induce the Nrf2, GsTα and NQO1
expression [34]. Safflower seed ethanolic extract
and aqueous extract lowered the plasma cholesterol
and triglycerides contents which are injurious to
hepatocytes. The hepatic 3-hydroxy-3-methyl
glutaryl-coenzyme A reductase activity were high
and hepatic acyclo-enzyme A cholesterol acetyl
transferase activity were low by the administration
of safflor seeds extract as well as atherogenic risk
factor are also reduces in high cholesterolemic rats.
Dehyroabietylamine is an hepatoprotective
compound isolated from the leaves of Carthamus
tinctorius Carthamus tinctorius induces the P 450
activation, cytochrome free radicles responsible for
the hepatic injuries are hidden in the presence of P
450 [35]. Dichloromethane extract of Carthamus
seeds administration for a week causes decreased
body weight decrease as well as reduction in total
cholesterol/high density lipoprotein cholesterol
observed after the dichloromethane extract doss in
a hypercholestromic rats.
Antifibrosis activity: Fibrosis is a state of excess
deposition of fibrous tissues as well as the
connective tissues deposition in a healing process.
Hydroxy safflor yellow A isolated from safflor is
an antioxidative compound reported to have
preventive effect against oxidative stress mediated
injury. Hepatic stress is a result of oxidative stress.
Carthamus tinctorius shows anti-fibrosis activity by
the activation of anti-oxidative enzymes, up
regulation of the expression of PPARy and MMP-2
and by down regulating the activity of TGF-B1 and
TIMP-1and reducing a- SMA level [36].
Anticancer Activity: Increase in a number and
growth of cells is a root of cancer, which is also
invade to other parts of the body. Apoptosis in the
SW 620 cell lines is reported to induced by the
Dichloromethane extract of Carthamus due to its
administration m RNA level of caspases 3,
7,9increases but do not showing its effect against
the proliferation of 3 sub sets of T lymphocytes
[37]. It was reported that TNFα and IL- were
increases by the CT extract pulsed with DC
vaccine. Reduced tumor weight were observed
also observed after the administration of DC
vaccine treated with CT Which is 15.3 % more
Rashmi and Kumar, World J Pharm Sci 2015; 3(8): 1741-1746
than the tumor lysate without CT .ex vivo CT
induced population increment of cytotoxic
lymphocytes were also reported[38]Zhu-Xiang a
compound isolated from the herbal extract of
ginseng and Carthamus tinctorius is proved to be a
potent against the MAD-MB-231 breast cancer cell
and in normal memory gland cell lines of human it
induces the apoptosis of cell due to which cell
proliferation is stopped [39]. Two polysaccharides
obtained from the safflower petals stimulated the
synthesis of various cytokines by peritoneal
macrophages. Safflower polysaccharides proved to
be activate the NF-Кβ signaling via toll like
receptor 4[40].
Present review reveals that Carthamus tinctorius
seeds and flowers has great pharmacological
importance as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory,
analgesic, antidiabetic, hepatoprotective,
antihyperlipedemic agent. The phytochemical
active principles and their derivatives has a
remarkable pharmacological importance and prove
to be useful in curing many diseases. The tender
leaves of Carthamus tinctorius were consumed as
very popular, nutritive, curative, restorative, vigor
full leafy vegetable in Chhattishgarh, India, Its
leaves were neglected in research which will prove
to have great potential as medicine and alternate to
mal nutrition. Flavonoid derivatives and
Furanocoumarins is a target for inflammatory,
antimicrobial, anticancer, antidiarrheal drugs.
Much research is required to employ this plant as a
new wonderful multipurpose broad spectrum drug.
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macrophages.International. pharmacology 2002; 2:1155-1162.
... It is cultivated in various parts of the world mainly form seeds and flowers. Its flower dye is used as substitute for the Saffron (Rashmi & Ashwini 2015). Safflower plant can be described as a bushy, herbaceous annual possessing several branches. ...
... Triterpene alcohol constituents, Heliaol, α-amyrin, β-amyrin, lupeol, cycloartenol, 24-methylenecycloartanol, tirucalla-7,24-dienol and dammaradienol isolated from the Carthamus flowers. Carthamine, hydroxyl Safflower yellow-A, carthamidine, luteolin are the main phytoactive principles of this plant (Rashmi & Ashwini 2015). ...
... Pharmacological actions: Tonic, diuretic, expectorant, purgative, carminative, aphrodisiac, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, antipyretic, cancer, fibrosis, antioxidant, antidiabetic, hepatoprotective, antihyperlipidemic effect (Rashmi & Ashwini 2015;Kirtikar & Basu, 1998). ...
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Saffron is the name of dried stigmas of Crocus sativus L. flower whose dried stigmas which are a popular spice and food condiment renowned for its color, aroma, and flavor. It is used generally in the Unani system of medicine as a single and in compound drugs due to comprehensive pharmacological properties. The main bioactive constituents of saffron are carotenoids such as crocetin esters (or crocin), crocetin, and terpenoids like picrocrocin and safranal. Due to the high cost of saffron, adulteration occurs in local markets. For saffron adulteration, normally inexpensive and available plants, less important parts of the saffron plant, minerals, artificial colorant, weight agents, animal substances, and artificial substances are used. In this paper, we communicate a comprehensive review on comparative assessment of various adulterants of Saffron.
... In addition to cartamine, safflower colorants are cartamidine [56,57] and Safflor Yellow A [51]. Studies [58,59] have shown the high biological activity of cartamine and cartamidine and the prospects for their pharmacological application. ...
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Pigments are the main components of cosmetics, which determine both toxicity and consumer color characteristics. Zn-Al layered double hydroxides intercalated with anionic food dyes are promising pigments. The best sources of dyes for intercalation are natural ones. The most promising are spices. Natural dyes from spices are often biologically active substances. The parameters of samples of Zn-Al (Zn:Al=3:1) hydroxides intercalated with natural food dyes, synthesized in the medium of aqueous tinctures of saffron and safflower, were studied. The crystal structure of the samples was studied by X-ray phase analysis; color characteristics were studied by spectroscopy and calculation of parameters in the CIE L*a*b system. The possibility of synthesizing Zn-Al colored layered double hydroxides intercalated with natural dyes in the medium of saffron and safflower tinctures was shown. X-ray phase analysis showed that both pigment samples were layered double hydroxides with the α-Zn(OH)2 structure. For the pigment intercalated with saffron dye, the phenomenon of partial decomposition of Zn-Al LDH to ZnO during synthesis was revealed. The color characteristics of the samples were studied. Zn-Al LDH pigment synthesized in a saffron tincture had a bright yellow color determined by intercalated saffron carotenoids (crocin and crocetin). It was suggested that safflower dye flavonoids were partially hydrolyzed (red ones - cartamine and cartamidine, and yellow - Safflor Yellow A), which led to the formation of a dark orange-brown color of the sample. The prospects of using Zn-Al LDH intercalated with saffron food dyes as a cosmetic pigment were shown
... This plant is used in many herbal remedies. The leaves of the plant have been used in Chinese medicine as a diuretic, appetizer and treatment of urinary tract infection [6]. The planting distance between plants is one of the important agricultural factors that affect the growth and development of crops, as the change in the distance between plants leads to a change in the plant density per unit area, which determines the degree of light interception for each plant, the intensity of competition for water and nutrients, and the size of the spread of the root system in the soil. ...
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A field experiment was carried out at winter season of 2020-2021 in Babylon Governorate, region of Bernon, at 8 km north-east of Hilla town between 44.27 ° north and 36.32 ° east latitude, to study the effect of planting distance and Humic acid on growth, yield and antioxidant activity of petals and seeds of the safflower, the treatments were distributed in a factorial experiment with randomized completely block design (RCBD) with three replicates, the first factor was the distance between plants (10, 15 and 20 cm) and second was spraying Humic acid at concentrations (0, 125, 250 and 500 mg.l-1), data were collected and means were tested according to least significant difference test (LSD) at probability level 0.05. The results showed superiority significant of planting distance at 20 cm and spraying humic acid at concentration 500 mg.L-1 on growth and yield parameters, while plants distance at 10 cm excelled on plant height and content of petals and seeds of antioxidant activities. The results showed superiority significant at interaction treat 20 cm × 500 mg.L-1, it produced the highest rates in most considered qualities and yield of dry petals and seed yields were 79.658 and 2197.5 kg. ha-1, while interference treat 10 cm x 500 mg.L-1 produced the highest means on total phenolic compounds and total oxidative activity and scavenging free radicals reached 41.47, 212.7, 58.07, 38.72 and 33.59 mg.g-1 DW, 67.7 and 47.0% in petals and seeds respectively.
... Blumea lacera has been used in traditional medicine for relieving pain and swelling which could be substantiated by its analgesic and anti-inflammatory properties as reported by (Khair et al. 2014). Carthamus tinctorius, used by all tribes of the state for treating jaundice was reported to have hepatoprotective activity (Dehariya & Dixit 2015). Chromolaena odorata was commonly used by different tribes for a wide variety of disorders as a diuretic, pain reliever, headache, fever, blood coagulation and gonorrhoea. ...
The Asteraceae family is one of the largest family of flowering plants and have been used by mankind for a variety of purposes including food, medicine, cooking oils, sweeteners and tea infusions. In India, Asteraceae is the fourth largest family of angiosperms and ranked third dominant families of angiosperms in Arunachal Pradesh. The indigenous communities of Arunachal Pradesh possess a rich knowledge on utilization of the plant resources around them for food, fodder, medicine and other purposes. Due to the remoteness and inaccessibility, the indigenous communities have been utilizing their traditional medicines using plant resources around them for treating minor and major ailments. The effectiveness of these plants in traditional medicine has also been confirmed after isolation of the bioactive compounds responsible for their pharmacological activities. The present study is a review on ethnomedicinal plants belonging to Asteraceae family that are being used by different tribes of the state. The tribal communities have been using 36 medicinal plant species from this family as recorded from published literature and field study. Maximum number of species have been found to exhibit antimicrobial, antioxidant, antihelminthic, analgesic and anti-malarial properties. Among the recorded species, Ageratum conyzoides, Spilanthes acmella, Artemisia nilagirica, A. maritima, Blumea balsamifera, B. lacera, Eclipta prostrata, Vernonia cinerea and Chrysanthemum indicum were already in use in Ayurveda, Unani, Siddha, Homeopathy, Folk and Sowa-Rigpa systems of Indian Medicine. Therefore, the study highlighted the importance of Asteraceae family as a source of potential medicinal plants with their pharmacological activities and provide the opportunities for future drug discovery.
... Carthamus tinctorius is a member of Asteraceae or Compositae family. The antioxidative activity of the different parts of plant like seeds and flowers of Carthamus tinctorius has been already reported [9]. Present work deals with the antioxidative capacity of Carthamus tinctorius leaves extract. ...
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Carthamus tinctorius leaves were extracted with methanol and distilled water. The extracts were evaluated for their potential free radical scavenging capacity using four different in vitro methods (DPPH, metal chelation, radical removal and hydrogen peroxide scavenging methods). The total phenolic content obtained for aqueous (112. 2±1.708 GAE mg/g) and for methanolic extract (89.66±2.00 GAE mg/g). In DPPH, IC50 values was found to be 176.66±2.08 and 278.33±1.52 and 310.33±1.52 for the ascorbic acid, aqueous and methanolic extract respectively. In superoxide radical scavenging IC50 values are 381.27±1.43, 544.42±2 and 606.78±3.02 µg/ml for the ascorbic acid, aqueous and methanolic extract respectively. In the metal chelating activity, IC50 values are 385.94±3.00, 337±1 and 487±0.984 µg/ml for the EDTA, aqueous extract and methanolic extract respectively. In hydrogen peroxide scavenging, IC50 values were 261±1, 278±3.52 and 370±1 µg/ml for the ascorbic acid, aqueous extract and methanolic leaf extract of Carthamus tinctorius respectively. The correlation suggests that phenolic compounds are responsible for the antioxidant activities of leaves.
... The biosensor applications often used oxidoreductases, Because of their electron transferring [31,77,23]. Evaluation of antioxidant is Important applications of biosensors, it is also monitoring of superoxide (O2•) radical, nitric oxide, and monitoring of various phenolic compounds like glutathione, uric acid ascorbic acid [82, LD et al., 2007). ...
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In this review paper represented of the mechanism of action and various methods for measurement of oxidative scavenging capacity and also tries to presenting of different type of molecules delectation technique and most of important advantages and shortcoming of each method. Antioxidant is reacting with oxidative agent; this antioxidant reaction is able to inhibit the oxidation processes. In this present study provides diverse rationales for developing standardized method for antioxidant scavenging capacity for the food, pharmaceuticals and nutritional industries. In organism defense mechanism for the oxidative agent is antioxidant and this is also played against the harmful agent, those mechanisms are associated with the free radicals, various plants oxidative scavenging capacity was are responsible of plant-derived antioxidant.
... Plants are 30-150 cm length with globular flower heads and brilliant yellow, orange or red flowers [3]. Carthamus tinctorius has biological and pharmacological activities including cardioprotective [4], swelling associated with trauma, antidepressant [5], sedative, antiinflammatory and anti-tumor activities [6][7], neuroprotective [8], inhibition of platelet aggregation, increase of peripheral blood flow, increase in the beating amplitude of cultured myocardial cell sheet and inhibition of tumor promotion in mice [9]. In Korea, Safflower was used for the promotion of bone formation and in the treatment of rheumatism and osteoporosis [10]. ...
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This study was designed to show, the role of Carthamus tinctorius safflower aqueous extract against toxicity of nickel chloride (NiCl2). Twenty male, rabbits were used and divided into four groups (with 5 rabbits in each group); group (control group) received normal diet, group II received orally 100mg/kg NiCl2 for six weeks, group III received 100mg/kg NiCl2 and 100mg/kg extract six weeks, group IV received 100mg/kg NiCl2 and 200mg/ kg extract six weeks. Hematological parameters showed (RBC (Red blood cells), Hb (Hemoglobin), PCV (Packed cells volume) decreased and WBC (White blood cells) increased) significant changes (P < 0.05) compared with control group. Immunological parameters (IgG, IgA and IgM increased) and oxidative stress factors (MDA increased and GSH decreased) show significant changes (P < 0.05) compared with control group. While, safflower aqueous adverse the negative effects of NiCl2 and causing ameliorative effects on all hematological parameters, hematological immunological parameters and oxidative stress factors showed no significant changes (P < 0.05) compared with control group. It was concluded that flower extract of Carthamus tinctorius has been antioxidant role against nickel chloride toxicity in rabbits.
... Many clinical and laboratory studies support the use of the medicine properties of safflower for menstrual problems, cardiovascular disease, pain, antidepressant, sedative, swelling associated with trauma, anti-inflammatory and anti-tumor activities. [10][11][12][13][14] In other hand, Safflower has been used in traditional medicine to treat pain, inflammatory conditions and neuropsychological disorders. Since Safflower has antidepressant, antiinflammatory and nociceptive effects, the aim of present study was to investigate the effect of Safflower ethanolic extract on morphine withdrawal signs in male mice. ...
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Background and aims: Safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.)from Asteraceae family has different biological activities including analgesic, antidepressant, anti-inflammatory, antispasmodic and neuroprotective effects. This study designed to evaluate its effect on naloxone -induced morphine withdrawal signs. Methods: In this experimental study, male NMRI mice (25-30 g) were randomly divided into 5 groups of 8: control groups received morphine and normal saline (10ml/kg) and other groups received fluoxetine (20mg/kg) and different doses of ethanolic extract of Safflower (100,200 and 400mg/kg).Morphine dependency was induced by intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of increasing doses (50-75 mg/kg) of morphine. Withdrawal signs were elicited by naloxone (5mg/kg, i.p.) and number of jumpings and also presence of climbing, writing, wet dog shakes, teeth chattering, diarrhea, grooming and rearing during a 30 min period. Results: The ethanolic extract at all doses (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg, i.p., p
The article presents the results of assessing the productivity of Safflower tinctorial, depending on the agricultural practices of cultivation in the forest-steppe conditions of the Middle Volga region. The studies were carried out in 2019-2021, assessing the seeding rates of safflower and the use of growth regulators. The productivity of safflower, depending on the seeding rate, varied from 1.23 to 1.35 t / ha. The highest seed yield was obtained at seeding rates of 300 and 350 thousand viable seeds per hectare and amounted to 1.35 t / ha. The maximum fat content was observed in the case of sowing with a seeding rate of 200 thousand viable seeds per hectare (29.7%). The use of growth regulators increased the yield of Safflower tinctorial to 1.39-1.46 t / ha, with a yield of 1.37 t / ha in the control variant. The highest yield of safflower seeds was obtained on the variants with the treatment with the regulators Zircon and Humate K / Na, the productivity was 1.46 and 1.43 t / ha with oil content of 30.6 and 31.4%. The weight of 1000 seeds varied from 38.4 g (in the control variant) to 40.1 g (in the variant with Zircon treatment), the increase relative to the control was 0.3-1.7 g. Treatment of Safflower tinctorial seeds with growth regulators increases the sowing quality of safflower seeds. The use of the growth regulator Zircon promoted an increase in the growth force of safflower seeds by 25.3-28.3%, the use of K / Na humate increased the laboratory germination of seeds to 81.5%.
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The therapeutic effect of safflower seed powder on experimental osteoporosis in the rat induced by ovariectomy was evaluated. Thirty Sprague-Dawley rats were ovariectomized at the age of 12 weeks. Seven weeks postovariectomy, rats were divided into two groups: control and safflower seed powder treated group. Five animals from each group were sacrificed at the following time points: 1, 3, and 5 weeks. Scanning electron microscopic observation and morphometric analysis of the tibiae epiphysis showed that the administration of safflower seed powder significantly prevented reduction of cortical bone width and bone volume compared with the control group. In conclusion, safflower seed powder contains something that prevent bone loss due to estrogen deficiency, and was effective in preventing the osteoporotic decrease of bone mass.
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Ten water extracts from herbs were prepared by boiling in hot water for 10 min. The herbal extracts were studied for their antioxidant activity and phenolic compound contents. In this study, the extracts of Carthamus tinctorius L., Hibiscus sabdariffa L., Chrysanthemum indicum L., Aegle marmelos L. and Jubliang exhibited strong scavenging activity against DPPH radicals (> 90%), and their ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) value ranged from 1140.5 to 2295.5 µmol/g. The content of phenolic compound in the extracts was determined using the Folin-Ciocalteu reagent and calculated as gallic acid equivalents (GAE). The herbal extracts that gave high phenolic compound contents (GAE > 130 mg/g) were Jubliang, A. marmelos L., C. indicum L., H. sabdariffa L., C. tinctorius L. They are related with ferric ion reduction (FRAP value) and the percentages of scavenging activity from DPPH assay. Afterwards, the seven herbal extracts (i.e. A. marmelos L., Andrographis paniculata Nees, C. indicum L., Cymbopogon citratus Stapf., H. sabdariffa L., Jubliang and Zingiber officinale Rosc.) of different phenolic compound contents and antioxidant activity were selected for antimutagenicity assay using Ames test. At the concentrations of 8.13 - 9.26 mg/plate, the antimutagenicity of Jubliang and A. paniculata Nees was strong (> 60% inhibition) while that of A. marmelos L. and C. indicum L. was moderate (40 - 60% inhibition). The present study has revealed that phenolic contents of herbal drinks, except that of A. paniculata Nees, were correlated with antimutagenic activity. Thus, herbal extracts exhibited good sources of water soluble antioxidants, phenolic compounds and antimutagens.
Recent studies on the isolation of cathartic lignan glycoside1) from Carthamus tinctorius L. prompt us to report our results in a related area. Ethyl acetate extracts from oil-free saf flower meal (3 kg) were chromatographed on silica gel columns to give three new serotonin derivatives 1 (2.22 g), 2 (1.32 g) and 3 (0.55 g), all of which showed positive response for the both Folin-Ciocaltheu's and Ehrlich's reagents. © 1978, Japan Society for Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Agrochemistry. All rights reserved.
Eleven novel secondary alkane-1,3-diols were isolated from a methanol extract of dried flower petals of Carthamus tinctorius. Their structures were determined to be syn (R,S and/or S,R)-C36-alkane-6,8-diol, syn-C28-, C30-, C32, C34,- and C36-alkane-7,9-diols, and syn-C 27, C29-, C31-, C33- and C35-alkane-8,10-diols by spectral methods.
Ethnopharmacological relevance: Carthamus red isolated from safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L., a Chinese traditional medicine) is evaluated for antioxidant and hepatoprotective activity. Materials and methods: Carthamus red was isolated from a Na2CO3 extract of safflower and its analysis was carried out by HPLC/MS. Acute toxicity study was determined and the antioxidant activity was investigated using various established in vitro systems. An in vivo study against CCl4-induced liver injury was also conducted and compared with that of silymarin, a known hepatoprotective drug. Results: Carthamus red did not show any toxicity and mortality up to 2000mg/kg dose, and it showed strong antioxidant ability in vitro. In the in vivo study, carthamus red treatment lowered the serum levels of ALT, AST, ALP and total protein in liver damage rat models. Meanwhile, Nrf2, GSTα and NQO1 expressions were up-regulated at the protein level by carthamus red intervention. Additionally, the activities of antioxidant enzymes and level of GSH were elevated by carthamus red intervention, while the content of TBARS, which is an oxidative stress marker, was lessened. HE stain analysis showed that the condition of liver damage was mitigated. Conclusion: This study demonstrates that carthamus red may serve as a candidate with strong a hepatoprotective effect and antioxidant activity in liver damage.
Oxidative stress caused hepatic fibrosis by activating hepatic stellate cells (HSCs), which were implemented by depressing PPARγ activation. Hydroxysafflor yellow A (HSYA) as a nature active ingredient with antioxidant capacity was able to effectively attenuate oxidative stress mediated injury. So it will be very interesting to study effect of HSYA on HSCs activation and liver fibrosis, and reveal the role of PPARγ·CCl4 and H2O2 were used to mimic oxidative stress mediated hepatic injury in vitro and in vivo respectively. The anti-fibrosis effects of HSYA were evaluated and its mechanisms were disclosed by applying western blot, histopathological analysis, flow cytometry, RT-PCR and ELISA. Our results showed that HSCs activation and proliferation could be induced by oxidative stress, and the expressive levels of TGF-β1 and TIMP-1, the serum levels of ALT, AST, HA, LN, III-C and IV-C were also enhanced by oxidative stress, which is correlated with liver fibrosis (p<0.05 or p<0.01). HSYA was able to effectively inhibit oxidative stress mediated hepatic injury by increasing the activities of antioxidant enzymes, up regulating the expression of PPARγ and MMP-2, and down regulating the expression of TGF-β1 and TIMP-1, and reducing α-SMA level. The protective effect of HSYA can be significantly attenuated by GW9662 via blocking PPARγ (p<0.05 or p<0.01). Taken together, these results demonstrate that HSYA is able to significantly protect the liver from oxidative stress, which requires for HSYA to stimulate PPARγ activity, reduce cell proliferation and suppress ECM synthesis.