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Abstract

Islam is the most complete religion, which presents the elasticity to respond new technologies and a complete way for living. In Islam, ethical teachings of biomedical ethics are linked with Holy Quran and Prophet Muhammad (PBUH).The present study is a part of check list of medicinal plants and their uses enlisted in Holy Quran. Approximately 19 Plant species belongs to 18 families were reported, having unique medicinal properties, chemical constitution, and their distribution pattern in the world. This study also described a wide range of plants mentioned in the Holy Quran to symbolize holy plants such as fig, olive, date palm, and pomegranate or aroma plant such as zinger, basil and camphor or nutritious plant such as onion garlic and lentils. This study can be accepted to document the medicinal use of plants for the human welfare.
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PLANTS IN THE HOLY QURAN: A LOOK
Darakhsa Kauser Sheikh and Ashwini Kumar Dixit*
Department of Botany, Guru Ghasidas Central University, Koni, Bilaspur CG India-495009.
ABSTRACT
Islam is the most complete religion, which presents the elasticity to
respond new technologies and a complete way for living. In Islam,
ethical teachings of biomedical ethics are linked with Holy Quran and
Prophet Muhammad (PBUH).The present study is a part of check list
of medicinal plants and their uses enlisted in Holy Quran.
Approximately 19 Plant species belongs to 18 families were reported,
having unique medicinal properties, chemical constitution, and their
distribution pattern in the world. This study also described a wide
range of plants mentioned in the Holy Quran to symbolize holy plants
such as fig, olive, date palm, and pomegranate or aroma plant such as
zinger, basil and camphor or nutritious plant such as onion garlic and lentils. This study can
be accepted to document the medicinal use of plants for the human welfare.
KEYWORDS: Quran, Medicinal properties, Chemical constituents.
INTRODUCTION
1400 years old, the holy Quran is the word of God as transmitted by the angel Gabrielle, in
the Arabic language through Prophet Mohammed. The religious book is actually available in
many languages and divided into 114 surahs, or chapters and the surahs are conventionally
assigned to two broad categories: those revealed at Mecca or Madina. All the surahs are
divided into ayahs or verses. The surahs themselves vary in length, ranging from the longest
surah 2, with 282 verses, to the three shortest (surahs 103,108 and 110) each of which has
only three verses. With some exceptions, the surahs are arranged in the Quran in descending
order of length, with the longest at the beginning and the shortest at the end. The Quran as a
whole is divided into thirty parts, which in turn are divided into short divisions of nearly
equal length, to facilitate study and memorization.
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Article Received on
17 May 2015,
Revised on 10 June 2015,
Accepted on 02 July 2015
*Correspondence for
Author
Ashwini Kumar Dixit
Department of Botany,
Guru Ghasdas Central
University, Koni, Bilaspur
CG India-490059.
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The Quran reveals the secrets of critical scientific issues such as the big bang model of the
origin of the universe, the theory of the expansion of the universe, gaseous state of the
universe, celestial bodies tied to orbits, the existence of sun’s orbit, the rounded shape of the
earth, the reduction of matter from the earth’s edages, the fact that the earth and the moon are
moving each in its own path, the fact that the light from the moon is a mere reflection of the
light from the sun, the critical positioning of the stars, the fact that the mountains are
considered as a wedge for the Earth, human exploration of space, the protection of the earth
by the atmosphere from bombardment by meteorites, various aspects of embryology
(including the development of babies in a mother’s womb and that the amnion consists of
three layers), gender determination, existence of pairs in all creations (Buacaille, 1987).
In Islam diseases are cured in two ways, first the cure of soul through prayers and second the
cure of ailments through medicines. Islamic medicine initiated from Hazrat Adam (Alaihe
Salaam.) and was completed at Hazrat Muhammad (Sallallaho Alaihe Wasallaam) but
explore and compiling of these medicine is still continued after the death of Holy Prophet
Muhammad (Sallallaho Alaihe Wasallaam) throughout the world (Ahmad et al. 2009; Yari et
al. 2011). Al-Quran is one of the best reference books describing the importance of plants in
different Surahs as in Al-Momeenoon, Al-Rehman, Al-Bakra and Al-Inaam. Our Holy
Prophet (Sallallaho Alaihe Wasilla) used and recommended medicinal plants for various
diseases and food (Naser 1976).
Plants are an essential component of the universe. Human beings have used plants as
medicines from the very beginning of time. Plants have always been an exemplary source of
drugs and many of the currently available drugs have been derived directly or indirectly from
them (Al-Quran, 2008). This encouraged us to check list of medicinal flora and their uses
enlisted in Holy Quran.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
The present research work was performed by reviewing the Holy Quran. Comprehensive and
detailed information about plants were collected from the Ayat and Suras of Holy Quran.
Plants species were arranged in systematic order of botanical names in alphabetic order
followed by Arabic name, English name, Hindi name, Family, Distribution, Part used,
Chemical constituents, Medicinal properties and references cited from Holy Quran.
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RESULTS
Below mentioned the plants description with their chemical constituents and medicinal uses
of plants listed in Quran
1. Alhagi Maurorum Medik.
Arabic name-Turanjabin, Kazanjbin
English name-Caspian manna, Persian Manna plant
Hindi name-Kshiri
Family- Fabaceae
Distribution-Cultivated in India, Afghanistan, Azerbaijan, northwest China, Iran, Iraq, Israel,
Jordan, Kazakhstan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Pakistan Syria and Russia.
Part used - Flowers, leaves and roots.
Chemical constituent-Flavonoids, fatty acids, coumarins, sterols, vitamins, alkaloids,
carbohydrates, tannins, unsaturated sterols, triterpenes, flavanone and glycosides.
Medicinal uses - Used in rheumatic pains‚ bilharzias‚ liver and urinary tract inflammation
and also used for various types of gastrointestinal discomforts. These plant are proved to
have antidiarrhoeal activity and induce relaxation of the smooth muscle and antinociceptive
effect. Its flowers are used to treat piles, migraine, and warts. Oil from the leaves is used in
the treatment of rheumatism. Locally, water extracts of its roots are used to enlarge the ureter
and to remove kidney stones.
References from Quran
Surah 2. Al-Baqara, Ayah 57
And We shaded you with clouds and sent down on you Al- Manna and the quails, (saying):
“Eat of the good lawful things We have provided for you,” (but they rebelled). And they did
not wrong Us but they wronged themselves.
Surah 7. Al-A'raf, Ayah 160
And We divided them into twelve tribes (as distinct) when his people asked him for water
(saying): “Strike the stone with your stick”, and there gushed forth out of it twelve springs,
each group knew its own place for water. We shaded them with the clouds and sent down
upon them Al-Manna and the quails (saying): Eat of the good things with which provided
you.” They harmed Us not but they used to harm themselves
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Surah 20.Ta-ha, Ayah 80.
O children of Israel! We delivered you from your enemy, and We made a covenant with you
on the right side of the Mount, and We sent down to you Al-Manna and quails.
2. Allium cepaL.
Arabic name - Basal
English name - Onion
Hindi name - Pyaj
Family - Liliaceae
Distribution - India, Pakistan, China, Russia, America and Europe
Part used - Rhizome, leaves and seeds.
Chemical constituent - Bulbs contain volatile oil with sulphurous constituents, including
allylpropydisulphide, allicin, allin, flavonoids, phenolic acids, sterols, diphenylamine,
protein, carbohydrates, calcium, iron and vitamins A,B,C.
Medicinal uses Plant used in Pungent, antimicrobial, inflammation, fattening, aphrodisiac
dental carries baldness, feckless, eczema, moles, urinary discharges, acrid, sweet aromatic,
emollient, emmenagogue, expectorant, carminative, diuretic, anodyne, tonic, stomatitis,
appetizer, anti-ageing rejuvenate, flatulence, bronchitis, spleenomegaly, heptomegaly,
pneumopathy, opthalmia, vomiting, otalagia, phyringodynia, malaria, lumbago, epilepsy,
tumors, wounds, paralysis, arthralgia and leukoderma.
References from Holy Quran
Surah 2.Al-Baqara, Ayah 61.
And (remember) when you said, “O Musa (Moses)! We cannot endure one kind of food. So
invoke your lord for us to bring forth for us of what the earth grows, its herbs, its cucumbers.
Its fum (wheat or garlic), its lentils and its onion.” He said, "Would you exchange that which
is better for that which is lower? Go you down to any town and you shall find what you
want!” And they were covered with humiliation and misery, and they drew on themselves the
Wrath of Allah That was because they used to disbelieve the Ayat (proofs, evidences, verses,
lessons, signs, revelations etc.) of Allah and killed the Prophets wrongfully. That was because
they disobeyed and used to transgress the bounds (in their disobedience to Allah, i.e. commit
crimes and sins).
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3. Allium sativum L.
Arabic name - Soom
English name - Garlic
Hindi name - Lahson
Family - Alliaceae
Distribution - Cultivated throughout Egypt, Italy, France, India, Pakistan, China and USA.
Part used Bulb
Chemical constituent- Cordinine A and B, saponins, allicin, allylprophyldisulphide,
glucosides of kaempferol and quercitin, sterols and hydrocarbons. It also contain starch
mucillagenous matter, albumin, calcium, iron, and vitamin C. it also contain some volatile
oil.
Medicinal uses Used in anthelmintic, hypertension, stimulant, gastritis, antiseptic,
antimicrobial.
References from Holy Quran
Surah 2.Al-Baqara, Ayah 61.
And (remember) when you said, “O Musa (Moses)! We cannot endure one kind of food. So
invoke your lord for us to bring forth for us of what the earth grows, its herbs, its cucumbers.
Its fum (wheat or garlic), its lentils and its onion.” He said, "Would you exchange that which
is better for that which is lower? Go you down to any town and you shall find what you
want!” And they were covered with humiliation and misery, and they drew on themselves the
Wrath of Allah That was because they used to disbelieve the Ayat (proofs, evidences, verses,
lessons, signs, revelations etc.) of Allah and killed the Prophets wrongfully. That was because
they disobeyed and used to transgress the bounds (in their disobedience to Allah, i.e. commit
crimes and sins).
4. Brassica nigra (L.) Koch.
Arabic name - Khardal
English name - Black mustard
Hindi name- Rai
Family- Brassicaceae
Distribution- Cultivated throughout india.
Part used - Leaves, seeds.
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Chemical constituent - Seed contains: glucoside, singirin, sinapine and A volatile
Isothiocyanate and essential oil.
Medicinal uses -Anthemitic, appetizer, cough, enlargement of spleen, itching, skin disease,
tumors, rheumatism.
References from Quran
Surah 21. Al-Anbiyaa, Ayah 47
And We shall set up balances of justice on the Day of Resurrection, then none will be dealt
with unjustly in anything. And if there be the weight of a mustard seed, We will bring it. And
Sufficient are We to take account.
Surah 31. Luqman, Ayah 16.
“O my son! If it be (anything) equal to the weight of a grain of mustard seed, and though it be
in a rock, or in the heavens or in the earth, Allah will bring it forth. Verily, Allah is Subtle (in
bringing out that grain), Well-Aware (of its place).
5. Cinnamomum comphora (L.) presl
Arabic name-Kafoor
English name- Camphor tree
Hindi name- Kapur
Family- Lauraceae
Distribution- Cultivated in India, Srilanka, Japan and china.
Part used- Leaves and branches.
Chemical constitution - Essential oil sesquiterpenes, comphorenone,compherenol
Roots contain: Alkaloids, laurolistsine, reticuline.
Leaves contain: palmitone.
Heartwood contain: cyclopentenone.
Medicinal uses -Used in bronchial asthma, hysteria, satyriasis, nocturnal emission,
spermatorrhea, scorpion strings, colic, diarrhea, dysentery, nausea, vomiting.
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References from Quran
Surah 76. Ad-Dahr, Ayah 5-6.
5. Verily, the Abrar (the pious and righteous), shall drink of a cup (of wine) mixed with
(water from a spring in paradise called) Kafur.
6. A spring wherefrom the salves of Allah will drink, causing it to gush forth abundantly.
6. Cucumis sativus L.
Arabic name - Qissa, Khiarun
English name - Cucumber
Hindi name - Khira kakari
Family - Cucurbitaceae
Distribution - Cultivated throughout the tropical and sub-tropical countries of the world.
Part used- Fruits
Chemical constituent - Fruit contain rutin.
Seeds contain glucosides including cucurbitaside.
Leaves contain free cucurbitasides B and C, ferrodoxin, alpha-apinasterol.
Flowers contain free and bound sterols, also proteolic enzymes, ascorbic acid oxidase, and
succinic and malic dehydrogenase.
Medicinal uses Plant used in the treatmentof haemostatic, diuretic, purgative, refrigerant,
nutritive antipyretic, Bronchitis , burning sensation, fever, general debility, haemorrhages,
insomnia, jaundice, strangury, constipation, renal calculus.
Quranic References
Surah 2.Al-Baqara, Ayah 61.
And (remember) when you said, “O Musa (Moses)! We cannot endure one kind of food. So
invoke your lord for us to bring forth for us of what the earth grows, its herbs, its cucumbers.
Its fum (wheat or garlic), its lentils and its onion.” He said, "Would you exchange that which
is better for that which is lower? Go you down to any town and you shall find what you
want!” And they were covered with humiliation and misery, and they drew on themselves the
Wrath of Allah That was because they used to disbelieve the Ayat (proofs, evidences, verses,
lessons, signs, revelations etc.) of Allah and killed the Prophets wrongfully. That was because
they disobeyed and used to transgress the bounds (in their disobedience to Allah, i.e. commit
crimes and sins).
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7. Ficus carica L.
Arabic name- Teen
English name - Fig
Hindi name - Anjeera
Family - Moraceae
Distribution- Mediterranean Region and S.W.Asia: Afghanistan, Pakistan and India.
Part used - leaves, root and fruits
Chemical constituent - Fig contain 43- 62 % fruit sugar, manily invert sugar, flavonoids,
vitamins A,,B,C and D ,iron, phosphorous, calcium, ficin, and enzymes.
Medicinal uses -The root is tonic, useful in leucoderma and ringworm. The fruit is sweet,
antipyretic, tonic, purgative useful in inflammation, weakness, paralysis, thirst Vatta
diseases” of head, diseases of liver and spleen, pain in chest, cures piles, stimulate growth of
hair. The milky juice is expectorant, diuretic, and dangerous for eye. Fig latex is used as an
anthelmintic.The Ficus carica leaf has been reported hypoglycaemic, hepatoprotective and
latex reported the anthelmintic activity, anti-inflammatory, antipyretic activity.
References from Quran
Surah 95. At-Tin, Ayah 1-8.
1. By the fig, and the olive.
2. By Mount Sinai.
3. By this city of security (Makkah).
4. Verily, We created man in the best stature (mould).
5. Then We reduced him to the lowest of the low, shall have a reward without end
(Paradise).
6. Save those who believe (in Islamic Monotheism) and do righteous deeds. Then they
7. Then what (or who) causes you (O disbelivers) to deny the Recompense (i.e. the Day
of Resurrection)?
8. Is not Allah the Best Of judges?
8. Lagenaria siceraria(Mol.) Standely.
Arabic name- Yakteen, Daba
English name - Bitter bottle gourd
Hindi name- Kadvilauki
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Family name - Cucurbitaceae
Distribution- Found all over the world.
Part used- Seed, leaves, flower, roots, fruits,
Chemical constitution - Fruits pectin, cucurbitacins, triterpenoides.
Seeds - Rhamnose, glucose, fructose, galactose, sucrose, raffinose, stachyose.
Seed oil - saponin, fatty oil, palmitic, palmitoliec, oleic, stearic & linoleic acids.
Medicinal properties - Anti-inflammatory, emetic, purgative, anodyne, depurative,
expectorant, febrifuge, refrigerant, diuretic, acrid, Brain tonic,Piles, dental carries, cracked
heel, retained placenta, jaundice.
References from Holy Quran
Surah 37. As-Saaffat, Ayah 146.
146. And We caused a plant of gourd to grove over him.
9. Lens culinaris Med.
Arabic name - Adas
English name - Lentil
Hindi name - Masur
Family - Papilionaceae
Distribution - Cultivated throughout the colder parts of India
Part used Seeds
Chemical constituents -Seeds contain proteins, vitamin-B, tricetin, luteolin, kaempferol,
glycoside, 3,4,7 trihydroxyflavone, proanthocyanidines, diglycosylphinidine.
Medicinal uses - Used in astringent, constipating, diuretic, antibacterial, Diarrhea, dysentery,
tumors, used for skin disease and general debility.
References from Holy Quran
Surah Al Baqra Aayat, 61
And (remember) when you said, “O Musa (Moses)! We cannot endure one kind of food. So
invoke your lord for us to bring forth for us of what the earth grows, its herbs, its cucumbers.
Its fum (wheat or garlic), its lentils and its onion.” He said, "Would you exchange that which
is better for that which is lower? Go you down to any town and you shall find what you
want!” And they were covered with humiliation and misery, and they drew on themselves the
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Wrath of Allah That was because they used to disbelieve the Ayat (proofs, evidences, verses,
lessons, signs, revelations etc.) of Allah and killed the Prophets wrongfully. That was because
they disobeyed and used to transgress the bounds (in their disobedience to Allah, i.e. commit
crimes and sins).
10. Musa paradisiaca L.
Arabic name - Mauz
English name - Banana
Hindi name - Kelaa
Family- Musaceae
Distribution - Cultivated throughout India. Srilanka, China.
Part used- Roots, leaves, fruits and stem.
Chemical constituent - Bananas are a good source of vitamins A, B, and C, and they also
have a high content of carbohydrates and potassium. The principal proteins of the banana are
albumin and a globulin, glutein, prolamines, and a proteoses, cystin, lysine, histidin, arginine,
serine, glucine, aspartic acid, threonine, glutamic acid, alanine, y-aminobyteric acid, tyrosine,
methionine, valine, phenylanine, leucine and isoleucine. Serotonin & norepinephrine,
dopamine, and an unidentified catecholamine are also obtain
Medicinal properties - Helimenthiasis, leprosy, scabies, skin disease, blisters, burns,
scabies, inflammation, bronchitis, pruritus, diabetes, dropsy, dysentery.
References from Quran
Surah 56. Al-Waqi'a, Ayah 27-35
27. And those on the right Hand-how (fortunate) will be those on the right Hand?
28. (They will be) among thorn less lote-trees,
29. And among Talh (banana-trees) with fruits piled one above another,
30. And in shade long-extended,
31. And by water flowing constantly,
32. And fruit in plenty,
33. Whose supply is not cut off (by change of season), nor are they out of reach,
34. And on couches or thrones, raised high.
35. Verily, We have created them (maidens) of special creation.
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11. Ocimum basillicum L.
Arabic name- Rehan
English name - Sweet Basil or Basil
Hindi name- Ramtulsi
Family - Lamiaceae
Distribution - Cultivated extensively in Southern, Central and Eastern Europe, North Africa,
and in the USA, particularly California
Part used - Leaves, seeds and flowers.
Chemical constituent- essential oil monoterpenes derivates such as camphor, limonene,
thymol, citral, geraniol.linalool, methyl chavicol, eugenol, methyl eugenol, geraniol, geranial
and neral Phenolic deivatives such as eugenol, methyl chavicol, methyl cinnamate.
Allyphenolic derivative
Medicinal usesUsed in Insect repelling, toxic activity,Cold, cough, bronchitis, burn and also
used in skin disease.
References from Holy Quran
Surah 55. Ar-Rahman, Ayah 10-13
10. And the earth: He has put down (laid) for the creatures.
11. Therein are fruits and date-palms producing sheathed fruit-stalks (enclosing dates).
12. And also corn, with (its) leaves and stalks for fodder, and sweet-scented plants.
13. Then which of the Blessing of your Lord will you both (jinn and men) deny.
12. Olea europea L.
Arabic name - Zaiytoon
English name- Olive
Hindi name - Jaitun
Family- Oleaceae
Distribution - Found in Central Asian countries
Part used - Fruit and oil.
Chemical constituent - Rutin, luteolin 7-O-glucoside, luteolin 7-O-rutinoside, luteolin 40-O-
glucoside, apigenin, 7-O-glucoside and apigenin 7-O-rutinoside, tyrosol, caffeic acid,
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verbascoside, oleuropein, luteolin, 7-O-glucoside, rutin, apigenin 7-O-rutinoside, luteolin,
apigenin and diosmetin.
Medicinal properties -Plant used as Anti-oxidant, anti-hypertension, anti-atherogenic, anti-
inflammatory, antiallergic, anti-carcinogenic, hypoglycemic and hypocholesterolemic, anti-
bacterial and anti-fungal, Spasmolytic, anti-arrhytmic, anti-septic and diuretic capacities.
References from Holy Quran
Surah 6. Al-An'am, Ayah 99
It is He Who sends down water (rain) from the sky, and with it We bring Forth vegetation of
all kinds, and out of it We bring forth green stalks, from which We bring forth thick clustered
grain. And out of the date-palm and its spate come forth clusters of dates hanging low and
near, and gardens of grapes, olives and pomegranates each similar (in kind ) yet different (in
variety and taste). Look at their fruits when they begin to bear and the ripeness there of
Verily ! in things there are signs for people who believe.
Surah 16. An-Nahl, Ayah 11
With it He causes to grow for you the crops, the olives, the date-palms, the grapes, and every
kind of fruit. Verily! In this is indeed an evident proof and a manifest sign for people who
give thought.
Surah 6. Al-An'am, Ayah 141;
And it is He Who produces gardens trellised and untrellised, and date-palms, and crops of
different shapes and taste (their fruits and their seeds) and olives, and pomegranates, similar
(in kind) and different (in taste). Eat of their fruit when they ripen, but pay the due thereof (its
Zakat, according to Allah’s Orders 1/10th or 1/20th) on the day of its harvest, and waste not by
extravagance Verily, He likes not Al-Musrifun (those who waste by extravagance),
Surah 23. Al-Muminun, Ayah 19-20;
20. And a tree (olive) that springs forth from Mount Sinai, that grows (produces) oil, and (it is
a)relish for the eaters.
Surah 24. An-Nur, Ayah 35;
Allah is the Light of the heavens and the earth. The parable of His Light is as (if there were) a
niche and within it a lamp: the lamp is in a glass, the glass as it were a brilliant star, lit from a
blessed tree, an olive, neither of the east (i.e. neither it gets sun-rays only in the morning) nor
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of the west (i.e. nor it gets sun-rays only in the afternoon, but it is exposed to the sun all day
long). Whose oil would almost glow forth (of itself), though no fire touched it. Light upon
Light! Allah guides to His Light whom He wills And Allah sets forth parables for mankind,
and Allah is All-Knower of everything.
Surah 80. Abasa, Ayah 24-32
24. Then let man look at his food:
25. We pour forth water in abundance.
26. And We split the earth in clefts.
27. And We cause therein the grain to grow,
28. And grapes and clover plants (I.E. green fodder for the cattle),
29. And olives and date-palms,
30. And gardens dense with many trees,
31. And fruits and herbage
32. (To be) a provision and benefit for you and your cattle.
Surah 95. At-Tin, Ayah 1-8.
1. By the fig, and the olive.
2. By Mount Sinai.
3. By this city of security (Makkah).
4. Verily, We created man in the best stature (mould).
5. Then We reduced him to the lowest of the low, shall have a reward without end
(Paradise).
6. Save those who believe (in Islamic Monotheism) and do righteous deeds. Then they
7. Then what (or who) causes you (O disbelievers) to deny the Recompense (i.e. the Day
of Resurrection)?
8. Is not Allah the Best Of judges?
13. Phoenix dactiylifera Roxb.
Arabicname - Nahal, Balah, Tammar, Rutab
English name- Date palm
Hindiname- Kharjur
Family- Areaceae
Distribution- A native of North America,Egypt & Arabic; now cultivated in Sindh & Punjab.
Part used- Leaves, flowers, fruits, seeds.
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Chemical constituents -Vitamin A,B,D Arabinose, galactose, xylose, rhamnose, uronic
acid.
Medicinal properties- Aphrodisiac, expectorant, febrifuge, purgative, aphrodisiac, cooling,
diuretic, appetizing, digestive, intoxicating.
References from Holy Quran
Surah 13.Ar-Ra'd, Ayah 4
And in the earth are neighboring tracts, and gardens of vines, and green crops (fields), and
date-palms, growing into two or three from a single stem root, or otherwise (one stem root for
every palm), watered with the same water; yet some of them We make more excellent than
others to eat. Verily, in these things there are Ayat (proofs, evidences, lessons, signs) for the
people who understand.
Surah 16. An-Nahl, Ayah 11
With it He causes to grow for you the crops, the olives, the date-palms, the grapes, and every
kind of fruit. Verily! In this is indeed an evident proof and a manifest sign for people who
give thought.
Surah 16. An-Nahl, Ayah 67
And from the fruits of date-palms and grapes, you derive strong drink and a goodly provision.
Verily, therein is indeed a sign for people who have wisdom.
Surah 23. Al-Muminun, Ayah 19-20
19. Then We brought forth for you therewith gardens of date-palms and grapes, wherein is
much fruit for you, and whereof you eat. 20. And a tree (olive) that springs forth from Mount
Sinai, that grows (produces) oil, and (it is a)relish for the eaters.
Surah 36.Ya-Sin, Ayah 34-35
34. And we have made therein gardens of date-palms and grapes, and We have caused
springs of water to gush forth therein.
35. So that they may eat of the fruit thereof and their hands made it not. Will they not, then,
give thanks?
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14. Punica granatumL.
Arabic name- Rumman
English name - Pomegranate
Hindi name - Anar
Family- Punicaceae
Distribution- cultivated throughout India
Part used- Bark, root, flower, fruit.
Chemical constituents - Bark contain alkaloids
Root: alkaloids, pseudo-palletierine, palletierine, isopalletierine, methyl palletierine.
Flower: sitosterol, tanins punicalagin & punicalin.
Fruits: Mannose, Galactose, rhamnose, arabinose, glucose, galactouronic acid.
Medicinal properties:- Anthelmintic, astringnent, cooling, styptic,Aphrodisac, diuretic,
laxative, stomachic.
References from Holy Quran
Surah 6. Al-An'am, Ayah 99
It is He Who sends down water (rain) from the sky, and with it We bring Forth vegetation of
all kinds, and out of it We bring forth green stalks, from which We bring forth thick clustered
grain. And out of the date-palm and its spate come forth clusters of dates hanging low and
near, and gardens of grapes, olives and pomegranates each similar (in kind ) yet different (in
variety and taste). Look at their fruits when they begin to bear and the ripeness there of Verily
! in things there are signs for people who believe.
Surah 6. Al-An'am, Ayah 141
And it is He Who produces gardens trellised and untrellised, and date-palms, and crops of
different shapes and taste (their fruits and their seeds) and olives, and pomegranates, similar
(in kind) and different (in taste). Eat of their fruit when they ripen, but pay the due thereof (its
Zakat, according to Allah’s Orders 1/10th or 1/20th) on the day of its harvest, and waste not by
extravagance Verily, He likes not Al-Musrifun (those who waste by extravagance),
Surah 55.Ar-Rahman, Ayah 68.
In them (both) will be fruits, and date-palms and pomegranates.
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15. Salvadora persica L.Var. wightiana [planch ex thw.] Verdc.
Arabic name - Arak
English name- Tooth brush tree
Hindi name- Jhak
Family- Salvadoraceae
Distribution - Desert plant which grows from north-western India to Africa.
Part used - Leaves, shoots, fruits, bark.
Chemical constituent - Seed contains : alkaloid - trymethylamine, β-sitosterol,
gluctropaeolin, monoclinic sulphar.
Root - urea alkaloids, sulphur, organic sulphur compounds, sitosterol, ascorbic acid,
saponins, lignan glycosides
Stem - β-sitosterol, octacosanol, salvadoside, siringin .
Leaves salvadoricine
Medicinal properties- anthelmintic , antiscorbutic, astringent, diuretic, expectorant, anti-
inflammatory, antisyphilitic, antiulcer activity, acrid, alexeteric, aphrodisiac, emollient,
purgative, stomachic, thermogenic.
References from Quran
Surah 37. As-Saffat, Ayah 16.
“When we are dead and have become dust and bones, shall we (then) verily be resurrected?
16. Tamarix aphylla (L.) Karst.
Arabic name - Abal, Tarfaa, Ghaz, Athel
English name - Tamarisk
Hindi name - Farash
Family Tamaracaceae
Distribution - Africa (Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia, Libya, Egypt, Senegal, Sudan, Abyssinia,
Eriterea, Somalia and Kenya), Middle East (Israel, Jordan, Saudi Arabia, Yemen, Iraq,
Kuwait, Iran), Pakistan, India and Afghanistan.
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Part used - Bark, leaves and twigs.
Chemical constituent - flavonoids, cardiac glycosides, steroids, terpenoids, tanins,
anthraquinones, reducing sugar.
Medicinal uses - It has been used to treat diarrhea and dysentery, to staunch the flow of
blood from wounds and speed up the healing process, and as a laxative. It also has
antimicrobial properties, so is good for cleaning wounds. Extracts have been found to have a
positive effect on the liver’s functioning. It has been used externally to bring relief from the
pains and swellings of rheumatism.
References from Quran
Surah 34. Saba, Ayah 16.
But they turned away (from the obedience of Allah), so We sent against them Sail Al-‘Arim
(flood released from the dam), and We converted their two gardens producing bitter bad fruit,
and tamarisks, and some few lote-trees.
17. Vitis vinifera Dunal.
Arabic name - Inab
English name - Grape
Hindi name - Angura
Family - Vitaceae
Distribution - Cultivated throughout India
Part used - Fruits, leaves.
Chemical constituents - Fruit contain: Gum, tannin, grape-sugar, citric, racemic, malic
acids, chlorides of potassium & sodium, sulphate of potash, tartarate of lime, magnesia, alum
and iron.
Medicinal uses - Anaemia, asthma, blood pressure, cough, fever, bronchitis, burning
sensation, flatulence, general debility, jaundice, kidney disease, leprosy, liver disease, skin
disease and vertilago.
References from Holy Quran
Surah 2. Al-Baqara, Ayah 266
Would any of you wish to have a garden with date-palms and vines, with rivers flowing
underneath, and all kinds of fruits for him therein, while he is stricken with old age, and his
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children are weak (not able to look after themselves), then it is struck with a fiery whirlwind,
so that it is burnt? Thus does Allah make clear His Ayat (proofs, evidences, verses) to you
that you may give thought.
Surah 6. Al-An'am, Ayah 99
It is He Who sends down water (rain) from the sky, and with it We bring Forth vegetation of
all kinds, and out of it We bring forth green stalks, from which We bring forth thick clustered
grain. And out of the date-palm and its spate come forth clusters of dates hanging low and
near, and gardens of grapes, olives and pomegranates each similar (in kind ) yet different (in
variety and taste). Look at their fruits when they begin to bear and the ripeness there of Verily
! in things there are signs for people who believe.
Surah 13. Ar-Ra'd, Ayah 4
And in the earth are neighboring tracts, and gardens of vines, and green crops (fields), and
date-palms, growing into two or three from a single stem root, or otherwise (one stem root for
every palm), watered with the same water; yet some of them We make more excellent than
others to eat. Verily, in these things there are Ayat (proofs, evidences, lessons, signs) for the
people who understand.
Surah 16. An-Nahl, Ayah 11
With it He causes to grow for you the crops, the olives, the date-palms, the grapes, and every
kind of fruit. Verily! In this are indeed an evident proof and a manifest sign for people who
give thought.
Surah 16. An-Nahl, Ayah 67
And from the fruits of date-palms and grapes, you derive strong drink and a goodly provision.
Verily, therein is indeed a sign for people who have wisdom.
Surah 17. Al-Israa, Ayah 90-91
90. And they say; “We shall not believe in you (O Muhammad SAW), until you cause a
spring to gush forth from the earth for us;
91. “Or you have a garden of date-palms and grapes, and causes rivers to gush forth in their
midst abundantly;
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Surah 18. Al-Kahf, Ayah 32
32. And put forward to them the example of two men: unto one of them We had given two
gardens of grapes, and We had surrounded both with date-palms; and had put between them
green crops (cultivated fields).
33. Each of those two gardens brought forth its produce,and failed not in the least therein, and
We caused a river to gush forth in the midst of them.
Surah 23. Al-Muminun, Ayah 19-20
Then We brought forth for you therewith gardens of date-palms and grapes, wherein is much
fruit for you, and whereof you eat.
20. and a tre (olive) that springs forth from mount sinai, that grows (produces)oil, and (it is a)
relish for the eaters.
Surah 36. Ya-Sin, Ayah 34-35
And We have made therein gardens of date-palms and grapes, and We have caused springs of
water to gush forth therein.
35. So that they may eat of the fruit thereof- and their hands made it not. Will they not, then,
give thanks?
Surah 80. Abasa, Ayah 24-32 Surah 111
24. Then let man look at his food:
25. We pour forth water in abundance.
26. And we split the earth in clefts.
27. And We cause therein the grain to grow,
28. And grapes and clover plants (i.e. green fodder for the cattle),
29. And olives and date palms,
30. And gardens dense with many trees,
31. And fruits and herbage
32. (To be) a provision and benefit for you and your cattle.
SURAH 111
1. Perish the two hands of Abu Lahab (an uncle of the Prophet) and parish he!
2. His wealth and his children will not benefit him!
3. He will be burnt in a Fire of blazing flames!
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4. And his wife, too, who carries wood (throns of sadan which she used to put on the
way of the prophet SAW, or use to salander him).
5. In her neck is a twisted rope of Masad (palm fiber).
Surah 78. An-Nabaa, Ayah 31-36
31. Verily, for the Muttaqun, there will be a success (paradise);
32. Gardens and vineyards,
33. And young full-breasted (mature) maidens of equal age,
34. And a full cup (of wine).
17. Zizyphus mauritiana Lam
Arabic name - Nabaq, Sidar
English name - Indian jujube
Hindi name-Ber, Beri
Distribution -India, Pakistan, Afghanistan, China, Ceylon, Australia, Tropical Africa
Family - Rhamnaceae
Parts used - Fruit, leaves, wood.
Chemical constituent- Tanins, Saponins, Alkaloids, Flavonoids, Glycosides, Phenol,
Alcoholic Extractive. Saponins , ∣∣, ∣∣∣ jujuboside A, B, P coumarylates of alphitolic acid
betulinic acid, leucocyandin, mauritines A-F, Amphibines A-F, frangufolin,
lecuopelargonidine, ceanothic acid, carotene, thiamine, riboflavin, niacin, vitamin C, citric
acid, malic acid, oxalic acid, oleic acid, linoleic acid, protopine, berberine(mauritiana).
Medicinal usesUsed in diarrhea, cough, chest troubles, vomiting, bleeding, digestive.
The roots of Zizyphus mauritiana are beloved to promote menstruation and in Nepal the juice
is given for menstruation disorders. The seeds are used to treat abdominal pain during
pregnancy (mauritiana).
Surah 34. Saba, Ayah 16
But they turned away (from the obedience of Allah), so We sent against them Sail Al- Arim
(flood released from the dam), and We converted their two gardens into gardens producing
bitter bad fruit, and tamarisks, and some few lote- trees.
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Surah 53. An-Najm, Ayah 12-15
12.Will you then dispute with him (Muhammad SAW) about what he saw [during the Miraj:
(Ascent of the Prophet SAW to the seven heavens)]
9. And indeed he (Muhammed SAW) saw him [Jibril (Gabriel)] at a second descent (i.e.
another time).
10. Near Sidrat-ul-Muntaha (a lote-tree of the utmost boundary over the seventh haven
beyond which none can pass).
11. Near it is the Paradise of Abode.
Surah 53. An-Najm, Ayah 16-18
16.When that covered the lote-tree which did cover it!
18. The sight (of Prophet Muhammad (SAW) turned not aside (right or left), nor it
transgressed beyond the limit (ordained for it).
18. Zingiber officinale Roscoe.
Arabic name- Zanjabil
English name -Ginger
Hindi name - Adrak
Family - Zingiberaceae
Part used Fruit
Distribution - Bangladesh, Yaman, Oman, Seralone, India and Pakistan
Chemical constituent - Carotenoids, flavonoids, cinnamic acids, benzoic
acids, folic acid, ascorbic acid, tocopherols, tocotrienols, Beta-carotene, ascorbic acid, alpha
tocopherols, terpenoids, alkaloids, polyphenols, flavones glycosides, rutin,
Medicinal uses - Z. officinale use in nausea, respiratory disorders, cardiovascular health and
rheumatic disorders. Z. officinale also has immunomodulatory properties and is reported to
inhibit various inflammatory mediators such as prostaglandins and proinflammatory
cytokines. Ginger has an anti-inflammatory property.
References from Holy Quran
Surah 76. Ad-Dahr, Ayah 11-18.
11. So Allah saved them from the evil of that Day, and gave them Nadrah (a light of beauty)
and joy.
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12. And their recompense shall be paradise, and silken garments, because they were patient.
13. Reclining therein on raised thrones, they will see their neither the excessive heat of the
sun, nor the excessive bitter cold, (as in paradise there is no sun and no moon).
14. And the shade thereof is close upon them, and the bunches of fruit thereof will hang low
within their reach.
15. And amongst them will be passed round vessels of silver and cups of crystal.
16. Crystal-clear, made of silver. They will determine the measures thereof (according to
their wishes).
17. And they will be given to drink there of a cup (of wine) mixed with Zanjabil(ginger),
18. A spring there,called Salsabil.
DISCUSSION
Close looks at checklist of medicinal flora tell us that these plants are not of Arabic origin but
the holy prophet (SAW) gave the references of such plants that are not only grown in Arab
countries but exist throughout the world. From this study it is found that Ocimum basilicumis
used for kidney problems, gum ulcers and as a hemostyptic in childbirth(Valli, 2007).Leaves
and flowers of O. basilicum are of great importance for medicinaluse as antispasmodic,
aromatic, carminative digestive, galactogogue, stomachic and tonic agent(Bunrathep, et. al.,
2007 and Meyers, 2003).Basil tea is also good for digestion, to expel gases, stomach cramps,
constipation, diarrhea, and vomiting. It is used to treat mental fatigue nervous, conditions and
hyssop for cough (http://homecooking.about.com/od/foodhistory/a/basilhistory).
Olea europea leaf has been used as a folk remedy for combating fevers and other diseases,
such as malaria. Several reports have shown that olive leaf extract had the capacity to lower
blood pressure in animals (Samuelsson, 1951) and increased blood flow in the coronary
arteries (Zarzuelo, 1991), relieved arrhythmia and prevented intestinal muscle spasms.
Allium cepa is extensively used as spice, condiment and vegetable in kitchen. The bulbs are
stimulant, digestive expectorant and aphrodisiac. Baked onions can be used as a poultice to
remove pus from sores. Allium sativum L. has been held in high esteem for its health
building qualities for centuries. It contains high percentage of minerals and vitamins.
This study is carried out to document the medicinal uses of plants listed in the holy Quran.
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Supplementary resource (1)

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... The emphasis on the usefulness of dates on health has been mentioned in the Holy Quran. 35 Regilda et al found that foods rich in corn, chickpea, and 240 cow's lungs are effective in controlling IDA, and it has increased the Hgb levels significantly in primary school children. 36 Also, Anita found that the date extract increases the level of Hgb, which indicates that the dates are rich in iron, and the presence of proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, and 245 elements such as Zn, Fe, Ca, and the presence of abundant amounts of vitamin A is helping in the synthesis of Hgb. ...
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