ArticlePDF Available

ENTREPRENEURSHIP DEVELOPMENT AND POVERTY ALLEVIATION: AN EMPIRICAL REVIEW

Authors:

Abstract

The main purpose of this paper is to corroborate the relationship between entrepreneurship development and poverty alleviation constructed on empirical reviews. In this study, we conducted general search to accumulate empirical literatures by the name of entrepreneurship development and poverty alleviation in different online database sources such as Google Scholars, Springer Link, Wiley, Science Direct, JSTOR, Emerald full text, Scopus, and EBSCO HOST etc. We found innovation, entrepreneurship training & education, family background, government support program, social entrepreneurship, women participation, individual entrepreneurial characteristics, participation of micro, small & medium enterprises, youth empowerment, collaboration of government-university-industry is the key tool for entrepreneurship development which is stimulating employment are eventually alleviating poverty.
Journal of Asian Scientific Research, 2014, 4(10): 558-573
558
ENTREPRENEURSHIP DEVELOPMENT AND POVERTY ALLEVIATION: AN
EMPIRICAL REVIEW
Mohammad Delwar Hussain
School of Business Innovation and Technoprenuership, University Malaysia Perlis (UniMAP), Perlis,
Malaysia
Abul Bashar Bhuiyan
School of Economics, Finance & Banking, College of Business (COB), Universiti Utara Malaysia (UUM),
Associate Research Fellow, Accounting Research Institutes (ARI), University Technology Mara (UiTM), &
Institute for Environment and Development (LESTARI) National University of Malaysia (UKM), Malaysia
Rosni Bakar
School of Business Innovation and Technoprenuership, University Malaysia Perlis (UniMAP), Perlis,
Malaysia
ABSTRACT
The main purpose of this paper is to corroborate the relationship between entrepreneurship
development and poverty alleviation constructed on empirical reviews. In this study, we conducted
general search to accumulate empirical literatures by the name of entrepreneurship development
and poverty alleviation in different online database sources such as Google Scholars, Springer
Link, Wiley, Science Direct, JSTOR, Emerald full text, Scopus, and EBSCO HOST etc. We found
innovation, entrepreneurship training & education, family background, government support
program, social entrepreneurship, women participation, individual entrepreneurial characteristics,
participation of micro, small & medium enterprises, youth empowerment, collaboration of
government-university-industry is the key tool for entrepreneurship development which is
stimulating employment are eventually alleviating poverty.
© 2014 AESS Publications. All Rights Reserved.
Keywords: Entrepreneurship development, Poverty alleviation, Entrepreneurship education, SME
& microenterprise, Social entrepreneurship, Women entrepreneurship.
Contribution/ Originality
The present study highlighting the shortcomings of the current poverty alleviation strategy of
the world, this study provide a new dimensions in the research world that brings entrepreneurship
development to the fore in the fight against poverty.
Journal of Asian Scientific Research
journal homepage: http://www.aessweb.com/journals/5003
Journal of Asian Scientific Research, 2014, 4(10): 558-573
559
1. INTRODUCTION
Poverty is the main obstacles and problem of the people are facing particularly in the world
[1]. As of 2013, there were about 2.47 billion people in the world living in poverty with an income
of USD 2 or less a day most of them from developing or under developing countries located in
African and Asian continent [1]. The population living under poverty only declined from 2.59
billion to 2.47 billion between 1981 and 2013 [1]. Hence the declines principally are seated mostly
in developed countries [1].
Poverty means the lack of income or shortage of assets; the lack of competence, confidence,
disempowerment, etc.; has also deprivation of national currency; it is also common to speak of an
poor understanding, or culture, or spirit [2]. Poverty may arise from low productivity of the
households and they face financial constraints and lack of other incentives of entrepreneurship [3].
Alan E. Singer in 2006 said that the best cure for poverty alleviation in any region of the world lies
in encouraging more on business activity and startup the new ventures through entrepreneurship
development [2]. Moreover, entrepreneurship provides a basis for economic change through new
knowledge creation and application [2].
On the other hand, development and growth require shifts from low to high productivity, the
creation and adoption of new goods and services, new skills and new knowledge [4]. These shifts
are made possible by entrepreneurs who are the architects of “capacity creation‟ for productivity
and growth [4]. Mobilizing the specific factors of capital, labor and technology which are generally
imperfectly marketed, may not otherwise be allocated to activities supplied where productivity
could be the greatest [4]. The creation of successful new ventures locally also helps to generate
indigenous growth and reduce the reliance on the mercurial character of foreign direct investment
[4]. However, entrepreneurship consistent source of income earnings not only to the entrepreneur
and labor but also other factor inputs and given the long-term focuses and the growth potential of
entrepreneurial activities [3]. The entrepreneur and labor with all income earners become more
economically independent and confident to confront the challenges of life and it can, therefore, be
stated that entrepreneurship promotes income empowerment in an economy and in the modern
world; entrepreneurship provides a new approach for fighting poverty and stimulating economic
growth in developing countries [3].
Entrepreneurship development contributes to poverty reduction when it creates employment
through the startup of new entrepreneurship or the expansion of existing ones and they increases
social wealth by creating new markets, new industries, new technology, new institutional forms,
new jobs and net increases in real productivity, increases income which culminates in higher
standards of living for the population then it is logically to state that if the number of entrepreneurs
of any given country increase the poverty indicators will decrease [5]. In 2013, Bruton, G. D., D. J.
Ketchen Jr, et al. examined the extant knowledge about entrepreneurship and where the future
research on this important topic should move to enhance the knowledge about entrepreneurship as a
pathway to reducing poverty [1].Individuals are living in poverty is a critical issue which is focuses
on how entrepreneurship will help to solve the poverty, on the other hand, those who living under
poverty create their own business, ultimately, entrepreneurship is a process which is creating long
lasting solutions to alleviate poverty [1]. One line of thinking about poverty reduction has
Journal of Asian Scientific Research, 2014, 4(10): 558-573
560
developed around the idea of entrepreneurial activities in the form of new venture formation,
innovation and high-growth firms [4]. Entrepreneurship is viewed today as a key driver of
economic growth [4]. This is because small rapidly growing firms started by entrepreneurially
minded individuals, create wealth and a significant number of jobs in particular economies, thereby
impacting greatly on social and economic development [4].
The main objective of this paper is justifying the linkage between entrepreneurship
development and poverty alleviation. This paper is divided into five sections. Section one is the
introductory part of the paper. It provides a concise overview on the paper. Section two describes
the backgrounds of the study in order to provide insight into the concepts of alleviating poverty
through entrepreneurship development. Section three highlights the methods and materials used for
the research with justification for its adoption. Section four, presents the empirical findings and
outcomes of the study with a table. Section five concludes for effective utilization of
entrepreneurship development as tools for poverty reduction, stimulating employment as well as
fast-tracking realization of universal primary education and promoting gender equality.
2. BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
2.1. Concept of Poverty
One of the major challenges facing developing and underdeveloped countries of the world is
poverty. It has been so common problem for all is that the high rate of unemployment and that has
become the major obstacle of the developing and underdeveloped countries of the world. Although
the level and extent of poverty and unemployment has been observed to be different within and
across the nations and it is still remains the major obstacle to the optimum utilization of human
resources for both social and economic development of the nations. The World Bank indicates that
poverty is categorized as both absolute and relative [6]. When poverty is said to be absolute, it
describes as a lack of resources to meet the physical needs for survival, a lack of basic security, the
absence of one or more factors that enable individuals and families to assume basic responsibilities
and to enjoy fundamental rights [6]. On the other hand, relative poverty can be categorized in
relation to particular groups or areas in relation to the economic status of other members of the
society which is interpreted as a lack of resources to achieve a standard of living that allows people
to play roles, participate in relationships, and live a life that is deemed normative of the society to
which they belong [6]. Poverty results from and even consists of a lack of basic securities, which
not only include financial resources, but also education, employment, housing, health care and
other related aspects leading to deprivation [6]. The World Bank also believes that political
instability, lack of improvement in infrastructure, inadequacy of national policy and structural
adjustment, lack of investment are among the main causes of poverty [6].Poverty is widely
understood as the condition of living on an income below a certain minimum threshold. The World
Bank defines those living on under US$2 a day as living in poverty, and those living on under
US$1.25 as living in extreme poverty internationally [7]. Individual countries generally have their
own poverty lines, based on a basket of „essential‟ goods, including the cost in that country of
obtaining 2100 calories, a minimum for healthy functioning [7]. Poverty also relates, however, to
other deprivations such as poor health, lack of education, vulnerability, exposure to risk and
Journal of Asian Scientific Research, 2014, 4(10): 558-573
561
powerlessness [7].On the other hand, the four broad categories of assets have been identified by
Rogerson in 1999 for measuring poverty in the context of South African perspective these are; i.
human capital, such as labour, education, health, ii. social and institutional assets, such as
household relations, trust, access to decision-making, iii. natural resources, such as land, water,
common property, and, iv. human made assets, such as housing, productive infrastructure, social
infrastructure [8]. The individuals, households and communities have or secure access to and those
who are these assets managed, they are less vulnerable, on the other hand, those who are the greater
the losses of their assets have more insecurity and they have associated poverty [8]. However,
poverty is a state of absolute economic deprivation in which the individual cannot independently
have access to the basic human life-sustaining essentials such as food, clothing, protection, and
shelter [3]. The Western societies have become less tolerant against poverty over time, on the other
hand, Asian societies tolerate high economic inequality or poverty [9].
2.2. Concept of Entrepreneurship
Entrepreneurship is defined as the identification of a new business opportunities and the
mobilization of economic resources to initiate a new business or regenerate an existing business,
under the conditions of risks and uncertainties, for the purpose of making profits under private
ownership [3]. In simple, entrepreneurship is a process which may develop a single entrepreneur or
enterprise with the main objective is to making profit by using of scarce resources most likely
under private ownership [3]. On the other hand, entrepreneurship is concerned with creating long-
term value and creates regular cash flow streams on an individual or the group of individuals for
the future through the process of imagination, initiative and innovation for the purpose of
maximizing profits and minimizing risk with the view of long term expansion [3]. Moreover,
entrepreneurship is the key to the growth and development of local industries through the
processing of local raw materials into finished and semi-finished goods for the domestic and
foreign markets [3]. It also promotes the utilization of improved and cost-effective technology in
small and medium-scale enterprises which enhances higher factor productivity at the local level
especially in low-income countries where the traditional rural economy is predominant [3].
According to Kuratko and Hodgetts entrepreneurship is a dynamic process of vision, change
and creation [10]. M. Coulter in 2001 tries to find out the definition of entrepreneurship
"entrepreneurship is the process whereby an individual or a group of individuals use organized
efforts and means to pursue opportunities to create value and grow by fulfilling wants and needs
through innovation and uniqueness, no matter what resources are currently controlled [11].
So, entrepreneurship has been considered as self-employment. While, there is a consensus
among entrepreneurship scholars on that entrepreneurship is not just running a small business that
already exists [12]. Rather, it is change management, creative thinking, opportunity seeking, and
innovativeness [12].
Journal of Asian Scientific Research, 2014, 4(10): 558-573
562
2.3. Entrepreneurship Development and Poverty Alleviation Strategy
2.3.1. Alleviating Poverty through Entrepreneurship Education
Entrepreneurship education seeks to provide students with the knowledge, skills and
motivation to encourage entrepreneurial success in a variety of settings [13]. Entrepreneurship
education is known as a specialized knowledge that inculcates in learners the traits of risk-taking,
innovation, arbitrage and co-ordination of factors of production for the purpose of creating new
products or services for new and existing users within human communities [14]. Entrepreneurial
education is considered central to the economic development of nations [15]. Entrepreneurship
education has to increase entrepreneurial self-efficacy, self-employment, and risk-taking attitude of
the entrepreneur [16]. Entrepreneurship education creates enormous business opportunities and
trains people with innovative enterprise skills to grasp the opportunities for starting new
entrepreneurial activities [16].
Entrepreneurship education is one way of addressing poverty reduction, as there is strong
empirical evidence suggesting that economic growth over time is necessary for poverty reduction.
Entrepreneurship boosts economic growth, enhances educational attainment and increases the rate
of economic growth [4]. The World Economic Forum in 2009 claims that the three relationships
are suggestive of productive outcomes emanating from education provision [4]. For example, in
eradicating extreme hunger and poverty even if developing countries focus on innovation,
creativity, talent and resources to overcome poverty, they lack the infrastructure and the expertise
to support such an objective [4]. These deficiencies could be overcome through capacity building
through entrepreneurship education to transform these assets into products and services, thereby
creating more jobs, enhancing their global trade opportunities and reducing the incidence of
poverty [4].
2.3.2. Alleviating Poverty through Micro, Small & Medium Enterprises
Micro, Small & Medium Enterprises (MS&MEs) has been played a importance role for
development of the economic growth of a country as well as alleviating poverty through new jobs
creation and provide income for the people [17]. MS&MEs not only help during the period of
economic growth but also in economic recession [17]. The strong turbulence in the world economy
in 1970s had made many large firms in developed countries lay off their employees then MS&MEs
were regarded as the problem solver to these structural changes [17]. The strategic importance of
micro, small and medium-sized enterprises in national economic development is widely recognised
by many countries, developed and developing countries alike [18]. Simultaneously, there have been
reports and evidence of contributions that MS&MEs make in the process of industrial development
[18]. It was noted that MS&MEs consist of 9193% of the total industrial establishments in
countries such as Singapore, Taiwan, Thailand and South Korea [18]. In these countries,
contributions of MS&MEs to employment ranged from 35 to nearly 61% with the contribution to
value added ranging between 22 and 40% [18]. In Malaysia, MS&MEs accounted for about 84% of
manufacturing establishments, while their contribution to total value added and employment was
about 28 and 38%, respectively [18]. Moreover, there have been evidence that MS&MEs link
themselves with large and multinational companies as has been the case in Japan, the United States,
Journal of Asian Scientific Research, 2014, 4(10): 558-573
563
the United Kingdom, Canada, Germany etc [18]. MS&MEs remain a vital force in the
manufacturing sector and their importance has increased rather than diminished in many countries
[18]. An ILO study in 2003 examined firms with fewer than 10 workers found that they generated
58% of total employment in Paraguay, 54% in Mexico, and 53% in Bolivia, on the other hand, its
contribute approximately 31% of overall GDP in the Dominican Republic, 13% in Kenya, and 11%
in Pakistan [19].
2.3.3. Alleviating Poverty through Social Entrepreneurship
Social entrepreneurship is now creating new business model. It also bridges an important gap
between business and social action. Social entrepreneurship, commonly defined as
„„entrepreneurial activity with an embedded social purpose‟‟ [20]. Social entrepreneurship is
perceived to be about applying the expertise, talents and resources of entrepreneurs to the variety of
problems developing countries face, such as education, health, personal safety and security, poverty
alleviation, social advancement, environmental sustainability, and so forth [21]. Social
entrepreneurship has developed a global phenomenon that influences the society by using
innovative approaches to elucidate social problems [22]. Therefore, Duke University‟s Fuqua
School of Business, the Center for the Advancement of Social Entrepreneurship (CASE) writes,
Social entrepreneurship is the process of recognizing and resourcefully pursuing opportunities to
create social value with the innovative method. Social entrepreneurs are innovative, resourceful,
and result-oriented, who draw upon the best thinking in both the business and nonprofit worlds to
develop strategies that maximize social impact. These entrepreneurial leaders operate in all kinds
of organizations: large and small; new and old; religious and secular; non-profit, for-profit, and
hybrid [22].
The term “social entrepreneurship” is used to refer to the rapidly growing number of
organizations that have created models for efficiently catering to basic human needs that existing
markets and institutions have failed to satisfy [23]. Social entrepreneurship combines the
resourcefulness of traditional entrepreneurship with a mission to change society [23]. Social
entrepreneurship offers insights that may stimulate ideas for more socially acceptable and
sustainable business strategies and organizational forms, because, it contributes directly to
internationally recognized sustainable development goals, social entrepreneurship may also
encourage established corporations to take on greater social responsibility [23].
Finally, Social entrepreneurship paves the way to a future that may allow coming generations
to satisfy their needs better than we are able to satisfy even the basic needs of today‟s population
[23]. Social entrepreneurship is thus having profound implications in the economic system:
creating new industries, validating new business models, and re-directing resources to neglected
societal problems [20]. The World Bank brings social entrepreneurs with poverty-fighting ideas
into contact with partners that have the resources to help them implement their vision [23]. In 2003,
World Bank President James Wolfensohn awarded more than US$6 million in seed money to be
shared among 47 small-scale, innovative development projects in 27 countries [23].
Journal of Asian Scientific Research, 2014, 4(10): 558-573
564
2.3.4. Alleviating Poverty through Women Entrepreneurship
Entrepreneurship is today considered to be a relevant vehicle for economic development and
women contribute to it significantly worldwide: indeed, in 2010, 187 million women were involved
in creating and operating enterprises, meaning that almost 42% of entrepreneurs in the world were
women [24]. On the other hand, however, women have a number of parental duties and inflexible
household obligations which they try to effectively combine to maintain a balance between running
a business and running a home [25]. Moreover, women to date represents an important engine of
economic growth for developing countries as it has a leading role in generating productive work,
achieving gender equality and reducing poverty [24]. Global Entrepreneurship Monitor (GEM) in
2004 showed that women perform 66% of work globally and produce more than 50% of food
globally and these women turn locally available raw materials into processed and finished goods
for sale, therefore making them innovators in business [6]. Women entrepreneurship is relatively
new area of research which originated in the mid-1980s [25]. Three stages can be illustrious in the
research into women entrepreneurship [25]. The first stage, before the 1970s, was a move from the
gender-neutral position to the male-specific position [25]. The second stage, from the 1970s to the
beginning of the 1990s, was conventional in nature, indicating how women are perceived in
relation to men [25]. Finally, the third, postmodernist, stage began to study the otherness of women
entrepreneurship [25]. The postmodernist context makes it possible to ask questions about how
women perceive being entrepreneurs and business owners [25].
Female entrepreneurship can be divided into two categories: the traditional generation of
entrepreneurial women, concentrated around businesses involving household services, which
require reduced skills and experience; on the other hand, the modern generation, more actively
involved in businesses more oriented towards profit and creating new markets [25]. Women
entrepreneurship is becoming gradually popular across the globe. The participation of women is
progressively being observed as one of the major contributors in economic growth. Regardless of
their involvement in small or medium scale enterprises or in the informal or formal sectors, their
contribution to output and value addition is considerable [26]. Women entrepreneurship is not only
necessary for their economic survival but also for strengthening the social system [26].
3. METHODOLOGY OF THE STUDY
This is the review study which has examined the determinants of entrepreneurship
development and poverty alleviation from the flow of existing literature. In this study, we
conducted general search by the name of entrepreneurship development and poverty alleviation in
different online database sources such as Google Scholars, Springer Link, Wiley, Science Direct,
JSTOR, Emerald full text, Scopus, and EBSCO HOST etc. From this search we found number of
journal articles, conference and other types of work, which we have read to determine which
articles need to be included in the review of this paper. After reading thoroughly most relevant
articles have collected those were found as the best fit within objectives of the present issues about
entrepreneurship development as well as poverty alleviation. The review have examined on the
basis of objectives, methods and findings accordingly of the all collected empirical studies.
Journal of Asian Scientific Research, 2014, 4(10): 558-573
565
4. EMPIRICAL REVIEWS OF ENTREPRENEURSHIP DEVELOPMENT AND
POVERTY ALLEVIATION
By using descriptive statistical method R. E. Goldsmith and J. R. Kerr in 1991 tested Kirton„s
Adaption-Innovation (KAI) Theory into 34 business students in a class at the beginning and end of
the semester which have described deep-seated differences in styles of creativity, decision making,
and problem solving that appear to be relevant to entrepreneurship. They found that students in a
class in entrepreneurship and small business would have KAI scores higher than those of the
general population and the control group [27].
A. Kanitkar in 1994 conducted case studies from 86 village-based entrepreneur and micro
enterprise owners in different regions of rural India. He examined the process of emergence of
successful entrepreneurs and owners of micro-enterprises in rural areas. He used case survey
method for collected data with a semi-structured questionnaire followed by an open-ended
interview from the entrepreneur. He found that based on socio economic profile of entrepreneur‟s
they were motivated for shifting from an agriculture-based occupation to a non-farm activity,
raising resources for their enterprises and entry of the village-based entrepreneurs into a business
activity [28].
McMullan and Gillin in 1998 surveys the activities and performance of graduates students who
were passed from the Swinburne University of Technology in Melbourne, Australia. They found
that about 87% students were started ventures, either independently or under the supports of a
corporation [29].
M. A. Abdullah in 1999 conducted a survey about 185 small and medium-sized enterprises in
Penang, Malaysia for evaluated the accessibility of government sponsored support programmes to
SMEs. He conducted this survey by using structured questionnaire. He found that clumsy
legislative process, inadequate knowledge about the support programmes, individual thinking,
lacking of information etc. are the main reasons for the limited access of the programme [18].
Kodithuwakku, S. S. and P. Rosa in 2002 based on a qualitative case study of Sri Lankan
villagers they tried to examine the nature and role of entrepreneurial processes in the success of the
Mahaveli rural entrepreneurs. They found that after 10 years most of the commercially successful
farmers had succeeded in adding new ventures to their portfolio of income-generating activities
engaging in an average of 3.7 ventures each. They also found that the successful farmers were not
only successful as farmers, but had also diversified into other business ventures [30].
C. K. Wang and P.-K. Wong in 2004 examined the level and determinants of interest in
entrepreneurship among university undergraduate students in Singapore. They applied historical
regression for measuring the student‟s self-perceived knowledge in starting a business and
knowledge in managing business. They found that three background factors significantly affect the
interest to starting new business such as gender, family business experience and education level.
While they found little effect about ethnicity, citizenship and family income status for became an
entrepreneur. Moreover, they found female university students were less entrepreneurship
knowledge and influenced by traditional social role [31].
P. Agupusi in 2007 examined the role of the small business sector in poverty alleviation by the
support from government and private sector initiative in Alexandra, South Africa. He applied
Journal of Asian Scientific Research, 2014, 4(10): 558-573
566
critical analysis of secondary material complemented with primary data obtained through semi-
structured interviews with key informants and actors, entrepreneurs and potential entrepreneurs. He
found that with positive interaction between development agencies, and small businesses in
Alexandra, predominantly informal and semi-formal SMMEs in Alexandra could not only alleviate
poverty but could also contribute to the general transformation process [32].
V. Sriram, et al. in 2007 develops a model and set a research framework for their further
research regarding entrepreneurship development based on African-American regions. They found
that motivation and skills is the important driver of the entrepreneurial behavior. The entrepreneur
needs certain skill to sustain. The impact of culture is considerable matter for entrepreneurship
development [33].
T. Tambunan in 2008 examined the effects of the development of small and medium
enterprises (SMEs) in less developed countries (LDCs) on two issues: the survival of SMEs in the
course of economic development and the importance of government promotion programs for SME
development with Indonesian data. He found that both real gross domestic product per capita and
government development expenditure have positive impacts on SME growth. He also found that
SMEs in LDCs can survive, and even grow in the long-run, for three main reasons: (a) they create a
niche market for themselves, (b) they act as a “last resort” for the poor, and (c) they will grow
along with large enterprises (LEs) because of their increasingly important production linkages with
LEs in the form of subcontracting [34].
G. Singh and R. Belwal in 2008 tried to identify the problem areas and developmental issues
involved with women‟s entrepreneurship particularly in Addis Ababa, the capital city of Ethiopia.
They attempted to identify the problem areas in terms of nature, needs, desire, motivations and
problems of women entrepreneurs in Ethiopia by an extensive review of the existing literature.
And, then they incorporated a ground survey and focused interviews with groups of female
entrepreneurs for assessing the factors related to entrepreneurship. The focused interview identified
problems in the areas of securing finances for establishing and running small and medium
enterprises, lack of entrepreneurial and management competence and exposure, problems in finding
the markets and distribution networks; limited opportunities for promotion and participation;
limited amount of government and institutional support; absence of technological know-how and
integration mechanism; and rampant corruption in an undisguised or disguised form, as major
bottlenecks [26].
Robson, P. J., H. M. Haugh, et al. in 2009 has been adopts a multi-level theoretical framework
to examine data from 496 entrepreneurs in Ghana. They accumulate seven types of innovation
activity against three categories of variables these are the characteristics of the entrepreneur, the
internal competencies of the firm, and firm location. They found that the level of innovation was
related to the educational level of the entrepreneur; moreover, the firm size and involvement were
positively related to innovation. They also found that entrepreneurs have introduced innovations in
a range of products, services, production processes, work practices, and marketing which have
brought benefits to their firm [35].
M. Y. Cheng, W. S. Chan, et al. in 2009 evaluated effectiveness and limitations of the
development of entrepreneurship education in Malaysia. They collected primary data to reveal
Journal of Asian Scientific Research, 2014, 4(10): 558-573
567
students‟ perceptions of the effectiveness of the entrepreneurship teaching and their knowledge
about entrepreneurship. They found that entrepreneurship education in Malaysia is not matching
students‟ skill expectations with skill acquisition. They also found that the level of understanding
on “what is entrepreneurship” is still low among the selected respondents [16].
S. Nichter and L. Goldmark in 2009 conducted a comprehensive survey from the secondary
research for found factors affecting the growth of micro & small enterprises in perspective of
developing countries. From the survey they found four types of factors were associated with small
firm growth that is: individual entrepreneur characteristics, firm characteristics, relational factors
such as social networks or value chains and contextual factors such as the business environment
[19].
Mensah, S.-A. and E. Benedict in 2010 conducted desk research and quantitative analysis from
the poorest regions of South Africa for found out the impact of government initiative for alleviating
poverty through entrepreneurship development. They found out that the training in
entrepreneurship and provision of other facilities could give poor owners of micro and small
enterprises opportunities to grow their businesses and get themselves and other out of poverty [36].
A. Bagheri and Z. A. L. Pihie in 2010 tried to identify the processes of entrepreneurial learning
that contribute to university students‟ entrepreneurial leadership learning and development. They
used qualitative research method for analyzing the data collected from selected fourteen
undergraduates‟ students by using semi-structured interviews. They found that social interactions
played a significant role in students‟ entrepreneurial leadership learning, students had the
opportunity to learn from direct observation, and the students has been learned entrepreneurial
leadership competencies through individual and collective reflection [12].
Kobia and Sikalieh in 2010 tried to search the meaning of entrepreneurship through literature
review by focusing on the trait, behavioral and opportunity identification approaches. They found a
direct correlation between the small & medium entrepreneur with the economic growth and
poverty. They recommended that researchers and educators need to study the entrepreneur before,
during and after the entrepreneurial process [37].
M. N. Mohd Shariff, C. Peou, et al. in 2010 examined government policy is a moderating
effect on the relationship with entrepreneurial values, firm financing, management, market
practices and growth performance of SMEs in Cambodia. They used survey questionnaires from
220 SME owner-managers in the City of Phnom Penh in Cambodia and used hierarchical multiple
regression method for analyzing the data. They found that there was a positive relationship between
entrepreneurial values, firm financing, management, market practices and SME growth
performance as hypothesized. They also found that government policy have an important role as
full moderator in such relationships [17].
J. Mitra, Y. Abubakar, et al. in 2011 by using an illustrative case study they examined the
participation of graduate entrepreneurship in perspective of human capital development
education, training and research to meet the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) in Nigeria.
They found that knowledge creation lies at the heart of entrepreneurship development in
developing economies is based on human capital development [4].
Journal of Asian Scientific Research, 2014, 4(10): 558-573
568
C. Jones and H. Matlay in 2011 developed a conceptual framework based on Gartner‟s 1985
conceptual framework for understanding the complexity of entrepreneurship education. Also, they
tried to ascertain two questions that were why entrepreneurship education is important and how
such importance can be prolonged. They proposed an alternative framework based on the logic of
Gartner‟s framework to advance the understanding of entrepreneurship education where dialogic
relationships exist between students, educators, educational process, institutions and the
communities they exist in [38].
Z. Mohamed, G. Rezai, et al. in 2011 assessed the state and effectiveness of informal
entrepreneurship extension education among Malaysian farmers especially the members of
Farmers‟ Organization Authority (FOA). They interviewed four hundred farmers who were the
members of FOA with a structured questionnaire. They found that informal entrepreneurship
education is not able to provide the entrepreneurship skills acquisition as expected. They also found
that the level of understanding on “what is entrepreneurship” is still low among the FOA members
[39].
J. O. Okpara in 2011 examined the factors that obstruct the growth and survival of small
businesses in Nigeria. He used a survey method to gather data from 211 small business owners and
managers located in selected cities in Nigeria. He conducted several statistical analyses to identify
the factors constraining the growth and survival of SMEs in Nigeria. He found that the most
common constraints obstructing small business growth and survival in Nigeria are lack of financial
support, poor management, corruption, lack of training and experience, poor infrastructure,
insufficient profits, and low demand for product and services [40].
Nasution, H. N., F. T. Mavondo, et al. in 2011 have been examine effects of entrepreneurship
with learning orientation, integrated market orientation, human resource practices on innovation
and customer value. They collected data from small and medium size hotels in Indonesia and
analyzed by using the structural equation model. They found that interaction of entrepreneurship
and integrated market orientation as well as human resource practices has significant impact on
customer value and innovation respectively [41].
P. M. Mshenga and R. B. Richardson in 2012 examined micro and small enterprise (MSE)
contribution in tourism and the linkages between tourism businesses and MSEs in the coastal
region of Kenya. They collected data by using structured questionnaire from two surveys involving
449 MSEs and 49 hotels. They used Tobit regression model to estimate the determinants of MSE
participation in tourism, as well as the proportion of products purchased by hotels from MSEs.
They found that older, larger MSEs and those that were members of associations were more likely
to participate in tourism. They also found that the elements of hotel procurement from MSEs
included age of the hotel, bed capacity, and management characteristics [42].
O. Ogundele, W. A. Akingbade, et al. in 2012 tried to investigate the intensity of
entrepreneurship training and education as strategic tools for poverty alleviation in Nigeria. They
select 250 entrepreneurs from five recognized local government areas Lagos state of South Western
Nigeria. They used stratified random sampling technique through a self-monitored questionnaire
survey and simple regression analysis was used to test the relationship between the
entrepreneurship training and education and poverty alleviation. They found that entrepreneurship
Journal of Asian Scientific Research, 2014, 4(10): 558-573
569
training and education were significantly related to the youth empowerment and social welfare
services. They also found that youth empowerment was influenced by their acquired technical skill.
They recommend that effective technical education, youth empowerment, and social welfare
service as a catalyst for poverty alleviation [43].
Tende, S. B. A. in 2013 has been examined government initiatives toward entrepreneurship
development in Nigeria and evaluates the job creation capacity of the entrepreneurship
development programs on Nigerians. Random samples of 1,159 beneficiaries of were selected from
six geo-political zone and structured questionnaires were used to obtain information from the
selected beneficiaries. He found that government credit policies have no significant effect on the
development of entrepreneurial activities in the country and mostly the beneficiaries do not derived
maximum satisfaction from government programs and policies [44].
Adofu, I. and O. Akoji in 2013 was assessed the impact of entrepreneurship skill acquisition on
poverty in Kogi State of Nigeria. They used structured questioners for collecting primary data from
six Local Government Area of the state and used descriptive statistics like frequencies and
percentages. They found that 65% of the respondents accepted that lack of entrepreneurship skills
among youth is responsible for the high rate of poverty in Nigeria. The result also revealed that at
least 60% of the people that benefitted from the skill acquisition programme can afford the basic
necessity of life. [45].
Ali, D. A. H. and A. Y. S. Ali in 2013 identified the relationship between entrepreneurship
development and poverty reduction at Benadir region in Somalia. They use Correlation research
design comprised of 80 participants of micro and small enterprises in Benadir region. The study
found that Sig. or P-value was less enough, suggesting that the two variables indicated that the
computed R-value was -0.195; this indicates that there was weak positive correlation between
entrepreneurship development and poverty reduction [5].
A. A. Ndedi in 2013 investigated the South African Government support to youth
entrepreneurship program through various agencies. They conducted desk research on the impact
made by the various Sector Education Training Authorities in the area of entrepreneurship
education and training. They found that there were no inter-disciplinary approaches in
entrepreneurship training that make entrepreneurship education accessible to all students, and
where appropriate, create teams for the development and exploitation of business ideas. They also
found that business or engineering students with different backgrounds are not connected [46].
I. Akhuemonkhan, L. Raimi, et al. in 2013 examined the plausibility of deploying
entrepreneurship education as mechanism for employment stimulation in Nigeria. They adopt
quantitative research method, specifically linear multiple regression model (LMRM) for analyzing
the data. They found that entrepreneurship development is a key tool for poverty reduction;
stimulating employment as well as fast-tracking realization of universal primary education and
promoting gender equality. They recommended that institutions must intensify the integration of
entrepreneurship in education systems [14].
S. C. Chen and J. A. Elston in 2013 investigated the characteristics of entrepreneurial activity
among the small business owners in developing country, specifically in Chinese restaurant
industry. They collected primary data by using survey questionnaires in four cities across three
Journal of Asian Scientific Research, 2014, 4(10): 558-573
570
provinces in China. They used descriptive statistical analysis and found three main results. First,
the small entrepreneurs were characterized by autonomy seekers, family protectors, or profit
seekers. Second, the small entrepreneur‟s generate funding predominantly from private sources
rather than institutional. And third, entrepreneurial business was the main sources of the family‟s
income [47].
H. Al-Dajani and S. Marlow in 2013 developed an empirically informed conceptual framework
to analyze the gendered relationship between empowerment and entrepreneurship contextualized
within the lives of displaced Palestinian migrant women operating home-based enterprises in
Amman, Jordan. A longitudinal qualitative study was undertaken during which semi-structured in-
depth interviews were regularly conducted with 43 women producing high-quality traditional
embroidered goods within home-based enterprises. They found that marginalized subordinated
women were empowered through their home-based enterprises [48].
Misango & Ongiti in 2013 has examined the economic role of women entrepreneurs in poverty
reduction in Kenya. A case study was carried out among women entrepreneurs at the Maasai
market within Nairobi City‟s Central Business District. From the target population of 664, 15%
were sampled for this study, through stratified and purposive sampling techniques. Quantitative and
qualitative data were collected by use of questionnaires and interviews, hence analyzed
concurrently. The study showed that the economic activities carried out by the respondents were
similar in nature and included selling of African artifacts, clothing and ornaments. Most
respondents (95%) used readily available raw materials to make their products for sale. Majority of
the respondents (83%) agreed that the businesses had made them improve their economic status.
The businesses contributed to the promotion of tourism, employment and export trade. The study
concludes that women entrepreneurs play a major role in poverty reduction in Kenya [6].
5. CONCLUSION
From the review we found that entrepreneurial processes were important in the successful
entrepreneurs‟ development from an extremely unpromising and constrained environment.
Motivation and skills is the important driver of the entrepreneurial behavior and the entrepreneur
needs certain skill to sustain. The impact of culture is considerable matter for entrepreneurship
development. On the other hand, the level of innovation was related to the educational level of the
entrepreneur; moreover, the firm size and involvement were positively related to innovation. The
entrepreneurs have introduced innovations in a range of products, services, production processes,
work practices, and marketing which have brought benefits to their firm. Entrepreneurship and
human resource management were shown to be the most significant drivers of innovation and
customer value. Interaction of entrepreneurship and integrated market orientation as well as human
resource practices has significant impact on customer value and innovation respectively.
We also found that the direct correlation between the small and medium entrepreneur with the
economic growth and poverty. Government policies have no significant effect on the development
of entrepreneurial activities in the country and mostly the beneficiaries do not derived maximum
satisfaction from government programs and policies. The training in entrepreneurship and
Journal of Asian Scientific Research, 2014, 4(10): 558-573
571
provision of other facilities could give poor owners of micro and small enterprises opportunities to
grow their businesses and get themselves and other out of poverty.
Again, students in entrepreneurship and small business would have KAI scores higher than
those of the general population and the control group. About 87% students were started ventures,
either independently or under the supports of a corporation. However, student‟s business
knowledge was insufficient and they were not enough prepared for taken the risk to realized their
dreams. On the other hand, social interactions played a significant role in students‟ entrepreneurial
leadership learning, students had the opportunity to learn from direct observation, and the students
has been learned entrepreneurial leadership competencies through individual and collective
reflection.
Most importantly, entrepreneurship development is a key tool for poverty reduction;
stimulating employment as well as fast-tracking realization of universal primary education and
women entrepreneurs played a major role in poverty reduction in the Globe. Finally, we found that
innovation, family background, government support program, social entrepreneurship, women
participation, entrepreneurship training & education, individual entrepreneurial characteristics,
participation of micro, small & medium enterprises, youth empowerment, collaboration of
government-university-industry is the key tool for entrepreneurship development which is
stimulating employment are eventually alleviating poverty.
REFERENCES
[1] G. D. Bruton and D. J. Ketchen Jr, "Entrepreneurship as a solution to poverty," Journal of Business
Venturing, vol. 28, pp. 683689, 2013.
[2] A. E. Singer, "Business strategy and poverty alleviation," Journal of Business Ethics, vol. 66, pp.
225-231, 2006.
[3] D. E. Adenutsi, "Entrepreneurship, job creation, income empowerment and poverty reduction in
low-income economies," Munich Personal RePEc Archive (MPRA), vol. 29569, pp. 1-21, 2009.
[4] J. Mitra and Y. Abubakar, "Knowledge creation and human capital for development: The role of
graduate entrepreneurship," Education+ Training, vol. 53, pp. 462-479, 2011.
[5] D. A. H. Ali and A. Y. S. Ali, "Entrepreneurship development and poverty reduction: Empirical
survey from Somalia," American International Journal of Social Science, vol. 2, pp. 108-113, 2013.
[6] S. B. Misango and O. K. Ongiti, "Do women entrepreneurs play a role in reducing poverty? A case
in Kenya," International Review of Management and Business Research, vol. 2, pp. 87-103, 2013.
[7] S. Chen and M. Ravallion, "The developing world is poorer than we thought, but no less successful
in the fight against poverty," World Bank Development Research Group. Washington, DC, 2008.
[8] C. M. Rogerson, "Local economic development and urban poverty alleviation: The experience of
post-apartheid South Africa," Habitat International, vol. 23, pp. 511-534, 1999.
[9] P. Tridico, "Growth, inequality and poverty in emerging and transition economies," Transition
Studies Review, vol. 16, pp. 979-1001, 2010.
[10] D. Kuratko and R. Hodgetts, Entrepreneurship, theory, process, practice, 6th ed. Stanford, CT:
Thomson South-Western, 2004.
[11] M. Coulter, Entreprneurship in action. NJ: Prentice-Hall, Upper Saddle River, 2001.
Journal of Asian Scientific Research, 2014, 4(10): 558-573
572
[12] A. Bagheri and Z. A. L. Pihie, "Entrepreneurial leadership learning: In search of missing links,"
Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, vol. 7, pp. 470-479, 2010.
[13] J. H. Carland and F. Boulton, "Differentiating entrepreneurs from small business owners: A
conceptualization," Academy of Management Review, vol. 9, pp. 354-359, 1984.
[14] I. Akhuemonkhan and L. Raimi, "Entrepreneurship education and employment stimulation in
Nigeria," Journal of Studies in Social Sciences, vol. 3, 2013.
[15] J. D. Kabongo and J. O. Okpara, "Entrepreneurship education in Sub-Saharan African universities,"
International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behaviour & Research, vol. 16, pp. 296-308, 2010.
[16] M. Y. Cheng and W. S. Chan, "The effectiveness of entrepreneurship education in Malaysia,"
Education+ Training, vol. 51, pp. 555-566, 2009.
[17] M. N. Mohd Shariff and C. Peou, "Moderating effect of government policy on entrepreneurship and
growth performance of small-medium enterprises in Cambodia," International Journal of Business
and Management Science, vol. 3, p. 57, 2010.
[18] M. A. Abdullah, "The accessibility of the government-sponsored support programmes for small and
medium-sized enterprises in Penang," Cities, vol. 16, pp. 83-92, 1999.
[19] S. Nichter and L. Goldmark, "Small firm growth in developing countries," World Development, vol.
37, pp. 1453-1464, 2009.
[20] F. M. Santos, "A positive theory of social entrepreneurship," Journal of Business Ethics, vol. 111,
pp. 335-351, 2012.
[21] D. A. Kirby and N. Ibrahim, "The case for (Social) entrepreneurship education in Egyptian
universities," Education+ Training, vol. 53, pp. 403-415, 2011.
[22] H. Jiao, "A conceptual model for social entrepreneurship directed toward social impact on society,"
Social Enterprise Journal, vol. 7, pp. 130-149, 2011.
[23] C. Seelos and J. Mair, "Social entrepreneurship: Creating new business models to serve the poor,"
Business Horizons, vol. 48, pp. 241-246, 2005.
[24] L. De Vita and M. Mari, "Women entrepreneurs in and from developing countries: Evidences from
the literature," European Management Journal, vol. 32, pp. 451-460, 2013.
[25] A. GAWEŁ, "Female entrepreneurship in Poland," Poznań University of Economics Review, vol. 13,
pp. 115-130, 2013.
[26] G. Singh and R. Belwal, "Entrepreneurship and SMEs in Ethiopia: Evaluating the role, prospects
and problems faced by women in this emergent sector. Gender in management," An International
Journal, vol. 23, pp. 120-136, 2008.
[27] R. E. Goldsmith and J. R. Kerr, "Entrepreneurship and adaption-innovation theory," Technovation,
vol. 11, pp. 373-382, 1991.
[28] A. Kanitkar, "Entrepreneurs and micro-enterprises in rural India," Economic and Political Weekly,
vol. 29, pp. 25-30, 1994.
[29] W. E. McMullan and L. M. Gillin, "Developing technological start-up entrepreneurs: A case study
of a graduate entrepreneurship programme at Swinburne University," Technovation, vol. 18, pp.
275-286, 1998.
[30] S. S. Kodithuwakku and P. Rosa, "The entrepreneurial process and economic success in a
constrained environment," Journal of Business Venturing, vol. 17, pp. 431-465, 2002.
Journal of Asian Scientific Research, 2014, 4(10): 558-573
573
[31] C. K. Wang and P. K. Wong, "Entrepreneurial interest of university students in Singapore,"
Technovation, vol. 24, pp. 163-172, 2004.
[32] P. Agupusi, "Small business development and poverty alleviation in Alexandra, South Africa,"
Second Meeting of the Society for the Study of Economic Inequality. Berlin, 2007.
[33] V. Sriram and T. Mersha, "Drivers of urban entrepreneurship: An integrative model," International
Journal of Entrepreneurial Behaviour & Research, vol. 13, pp. 235-251, 2007.
[34] T. Tambunan, "SME development, economic growth, and government intervention in a developing
country: The Indonesian story," Journal of International Entrepreneurship, vol. 6, pp. 147-167,
2008.
[35] P. J. Robson and H. M. Haugh, "Entrepreneurship and innovation in Ghana: Enterprising Africa,"
Small Business Economics, vol. 32, pp. 331-350, 2009.
[36] S. A. Mensah and E. Benedict, "Entrepreneurship training and poverty alleviation: Empowering the
poor in the Eastern free state of South Africa," African Journal of Economic and Management
Studies, vol. 1, pp. 138-163, 2010.
[37] M. Kobia and D. Sikalieh, "Towards a search for the meaning of entrepreneurship," Journal of
European Industrial Training, vol. 34, pp. 110-127, 2010.
[38] C. Jones and H. Matlay, "Understanding the heterogeneity of entrepreneurship education: Going
beyond gartner," Education+ Training, vol. 53, pp. 692-703, 2011.
[39] Z. Mohamed and G. Rezai, "The effectiveness of entrepreneurship extension education among the
FOA members in Malaysia," Current Research Journal of Social Sciences, vol. 3, pp. 17-21, 2011.
[40] J. O. Okpara, "Factors constraining the growth and survival of SMEs in Nigeria: Implications for
poverty alleviation," Management Research Review, vol. 34, pp. 156-171, 2011.
[41] H. N. Nasution and F. T. Mavondo, "Entrepreneurship: Its relationship with market orientation and
learning orientation and as antecedents to innovation and customer value," Industrial Marketing
Management, vol. 40, pp. 336-345, 2011.
[42] P. M. Mshenga and R. B. Richardson, "Micro and small enterprise participation in tourism in coastal
Kenya," Small Business Economics, pp. 1-15, 2012.
[43] O. Ogundele and W. A. Akingbade, "Entrepreneurship training and education as strategic tools for
poverty alleviation in Nigeria," American International Journal of Contemporary Research, vol. 2,
pp. 148-156, 2012.
[44] S. B. A. Tende, "Government initiatives toward entrepreneurship development in Nigeria," Global
Journal of Business Research, vol. 8, pp. 109-120, 2013.
[45] I. Adofu and O. Akoji, "Alleviating poverty through the use of entrepreneurship skill acquisition in
Kogi State, Nigeria," International Open Journal of Economics, vol. 1, pp. 14-23, 2013.
[46] A. A. Ndedi, "Challenges and perspectives facing the development of entrepreneurship education
and training in South Africa," World Journal of Entrepreneurship, Management and Sustainable
Development, vol. 9, pp. 126-132, 2013.
[47] S. C. Chen and J. A. Elston, "Entrepreneurial motives and characteristics: An analysis of small
restaurant owners," International Journal of Hospitality Management, vol. 35, pp. 294-305, 2013.
[48] H. Al-Dajani and S. Marlow, "Empowerment and entrepreneurship: A theoretical framework,"
International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behaviour & Research, vol. 19, pp. 4-4, 2013.
... Uziak & Lorencowicz, (2017) argue that global food demand is expected to double over the coming next 50 years, due to the global population, especially in developing countries. Thus, poverty is the most significant barrier and challenge to sustainable empowerment that people face globally, especially in developing countries (Hussain et al., 2014;Rita Ifeoma et al., 2018). The researchers argued that all nations have the right to alleviate poverty in their communities and provide sustainable community development for their communities. ...
... Poverty: Poverty is described as a lack of income or savings, as well as a lack of competence, trust, disempowerment, and lack of access to basic resources (clean water, food, free healthcare, education, clothing, and shelter). It is often popular to refer to a lack of knowledge, attitude, culture, or life force (Hussain et al., 2014). Poverty is described as a lack of access to basic requirements (needs and wants), a lack of access to productive sources, inefficient utilization of public resources, and the result of exclusion structures (Rita Ifeoma et al., 2018). ...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
E-PROCEEDING INTERNATIONAL WEBINAR COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT IN SOUTHEAST ASIA 2021 (IWCDSA2021)
... Uziak & Lorencowicz (2017) argue that global food demand is expected to double over the coming next 50 years, due to the global population, especially in developing countries. Thus, poverty is the most significant barrier and challenge to sustainable empowerment globally, especially in developing countries (Hussain et al., 2014;Rita Ifeoma et al., 2018). The researchers argued that all nations have the right to alleviate poverty in their communities and provide sustainable community development for their communities. ...
... Poverty is described as a lack of knowledge, attitude, culture, or life force (Hussain et al., 2014), a scarcity of resources, and providing those resources would enable entrepreneurship to succeed (Sutter et al., 2019), someone whose income is insufficient to meet basic needs such as housing, food, clothes, and other necessities (Rita & Laosebikan, 2021), a serious socio-economic phenomenon characterized by a person's inability to obtain the essential necessities of life (Ozoh et al., 2020). It is described as a lack of access to basic requirements (needs and wants), a lack of access to productive sources, inefficient utilization of public resources, and exclusion structures (Rita Ifeoma et al., 2018). ...
... Uziak & Lorencowicz, (2017) argue that global food demand is expected to double over the coming next 50 years, due to the global population, especially in developing countries. Thus, poverty is the most significant barrier and challenge to sustainable empowerment that people face globally, especially in developing countries (Hussain et al., 2014;Rita Ifeoma et al., 2018). The researchers argued that all nations have the right to alleviate poverty in their communities and provide sustainable community development for their communities. ...
... Poverty: Poverty is described as a lack of income or savings, as well as a lack of competence, trust, disempowerment, and lack of access to basic resources (clean water, food, free healthcare, education, clothing, and shelter). It is often popular to refer to a lack of knowledge, attitude, culture, or life force (Hussain et al., 2014). Poverty is described as a lack of access to basic requirements (needs and wants), a lack of access to productive sources, inefficient utilization of public resources, and the result of exclusion structures (Rita Ifeoma et al., 2018). ...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The Community Development of Southeast Asia Webinar is proposed to identify the issues, practices & challenges among practitioners in community development/community work and others related discipline. In this seminar, participant to be able to share their experiences in their field that cover a wide range of clients of child, youth, adult and elderly within the community development context
... The majority of regional tourism plans and policies assume that tourism is a desirable development option for communities, as it directly contributes to improvements in destination community well-being (Mohapeloa, 2017). One of the best ways for poverty alleviation in any region of the world is entrepreneurship, as it provides a basis for economic change (Hussain, Bhuiyan, Bakar, 2014). Stokvels are also aimed at poverty alleviation as they focus on social consciousness and unity among community members (Moloi, 2011). ...
Conference Paper
The aim of this paper is to explore the development a sustainable events risk management framework for the South African (SA) events industry. This conceptual paper has its foundation in current applicable secondary data sources, identified through a systematic review of academic literature. The systematic literature review investigates event risk management and related themes. The documentation of core events literature by custodian events scholars are used to benchmark identified themes emanating from the systematic literature review to inform the development of a sustainable events risk management framework (SERMF). Results highlighted the insufficient integration of sustainable development in the reviewed literature. By applying the principles of sustainable development in an events risk framework, events managers and organisers are capacitated to comply with the South African events law requirements and ensure that risks are mitigated in a manner that can be practically applied. The development of a SERMF may be significant by adding value to the private, governmental and academic sectors in terms of practical application and theoretical contribution.
... The study revealed that the use of entrepreneurship strategies can improve the socio-economic wellbeing of families in Awka South LGA. These findings are in line with Ali and Ali (2013) and Hussain, Bhuiyan, and Bakar (2014) which showed that entrepreneurship development helps to alleviate poverty by creating jobs through the start-up of new businesses or the expansion of existing ones, as well as increasing social wealth by creating new markets, industries, technology, institutional forms, jobs, and net increases in real productivity, all of which lead to higher living standards for people. ...
Article
Full-text available
The scourge of COVID-19 has crippled many businesses in Nigeria while some are still struggling to overcome the associated negative social effects. The socioeconomic wellbeing of many families has been threatened and this calls for the need of exploring strategies in improving their socioeconomic wellbeing. This study seeks to determine strategies for improving the socioeconomic wellbeing of families in Awka South LGA of Anambra State. This paper has three research questions that guided the paper and three hypotheses. This paper adopted a cross-sectional descriptive survey design. The population is families in Awka South LGA, Anambra State. A total of 307 sample size was determined using the Taro Yamane formula for sample size determination however, the analysis was done with 231 correctly returned responses. Cluster sampling and simple random sampling techniques were used to select required households. A 4-Likert structured online questionnaire was used to collect data for the study. Descriptive statistics, which comprised mean scores and standard deviation were used to analyze the data got from the questionnaire. Simple linear regression was used to test the hypotheses at 0.05 significant level. The study found that strategies such as developing online marketing, entrepreneurial, and managerial skills for generating jobs and income can improve the socioeconomic wellbeing of families amid COVID-19. The study recommended that the government agencies such as the National Directorate of Employment and in collaboration with Non-Government Organizations need to create innovation hubs to help families develop employability skills or self-employment skills that are viable in an online-driven economy/labour market stimulated by COVID 19 pandemic.
... Bruton and Ketchen (2013) opine that entrepreneurship is a process which is generating long-lasting answers to the alleviation of poverty by driving economic growth and development. This is because fast-growing firms started by entrepreneurially minded persons with creativity impacts positively on socioeconomic development through job and wealth creation (Mohammad, Abul & Rosni, 2014). Although entrepreneurship is considered an important determinant of economic growth, it does not mean that it directly contributes to human development. ...
... Bruton and Ketchen (2013) opine that entrepreneurship is a process which is generating long-lasting answers to the alleviation of poverty by driving economic growth and development. This is because fast-growing firms started by entrepreneurially minded persons with creativity impacts positively on socioeconomic development through job and wealth creation (Mohammad, Abul & Rosni, 2014). Although entrepreneurship is considered an important determinant of economic growth, it does not mean that it directly contributes to human development. ...
Book
Full-text available
The book chapter explains the strategies to enhance entrepreneurship development that will enable the government to achieve sustainable development in Nigeria
... It is viewed today as a key driver of economic growth (Tende, 2013). This is because small rapidly growing firms started by entrepreneurially minded individuals, create wealth and a significant number of jobs in particular economies, thereby impacting greatly on social and economic development (Mohammad et al., 2014). Entrepreneurial activities have been found to be capable of making positive impacts on the economy of a nation and the quality of life of the people. ...
... Poverty reduction according to Adegun and Akomolafe (2013), applied to situation where poor people in the society are technically lifted up out of poverty through different economic empowerment. Economic empowerment according to Mohammad, et, al. (2014), means assisting people to overcome obstacles which might prevent them from achieving their potentials in life. Empowerment also arises as a result of individuals and group being able to actualize their dreams to reach their greatest potential because of artificial barrier created by some other individuals or group in the society. ...
Article
Full-text available
The study was carried out to determine the relationship between entrepreneurship education and entrepreneurship development and examine the effects of entrepreneurship on poverty reduction in Kogi state. To carry out the study, three research question and three hypotheses were formulated and tested. Data collection was done using structured questionnaire with the 4-point Likert-scale method of Strongly Agreed, Agreed, Disagreed, and Strongly Disagreed. The questionnaire was used to collect information from 500 students from two higher institutions and 500 entrepreneurs in 16 local government areas in Kogi State. The questionnaire was pilot tested using 100 respondents each with split-half method and the reliable result of 0.85 obtained shows that the questionnaire was reliable and consistent. The information collected was analyzed using the summated mean score of 2.5 for acceptance mean and one sample t-test analysis. The summated mean score of 2.7, 3.2, and 2.5 for objective one indicates that entrepreneurship education is important in the development of entrepreneurs among the youths in Kogi State. From the result of one sample t-test analysis, it was discovered that one sample t-calculated of 91.68, 19.80, and 91.68 are greater than t-critical of 1.94, 2.02, and 2.50 at 0.05 levels of significant.
Article
Poverty is a prevalent global developmental challenge recognised by the United Nations (UN) as part of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDG) and the desire to eradicate it is identified as goal number one (No Poverty). The challenges and setbacks to achieving poverty alleviation in Nigeria are multifaceted, including political, economic, and in some cases communication-related. Communication plays a role in promoting knowledge, social inclusion, and national development programmes. Consequently, where there is a communication gap, it is likely to result in an interruption in the attainment of poverty alleviation objectives. Nigeria is a peculiar reference case with respect to poverty prevalence. The country accounts for one of the highest numbers of poor people worldwide. Nearly half of Nigeria’s 200 million population are living below the international poverty line of $1.9 per day. This study examined the role of communication in poverty alleviation in Nigeria. Development media theory underpinned the study. The study identified media ownership structure, political concern, media bias, or lack of interest as part of the communication constraints acting as limiting poverty alleviation efforts in Nigeria. It recommends leveraging existing and new communication strategies, techniques, and approaches, beyond the traditional media, toward achieving the goal of eradicating extreme poverty by the year 2030.
Article
Full-text available
This study assessed the impact of entrepreneurship skill acquisition on poverty in Kogi State of Nigeria. The study made use of primary data collected with the aid of a well-structured questionnaire, which were administered by well-trained enumerator to beneficiaries of entrepreneurship acquisition skills randomly sampled from six Local Government Area of the state. The data collected through the questionnaire was analyzed using descriptive statistics like frequencies and percentages. The result shows that 65% of the respondents accepted that lack of entrepreneurship skills among youth is responsible for the high rate of poverty in Nigeria. The result also revealed that at least 60% of the people that benefitted from the skill acquisition programme can now afford the basic necessity of life. The study therefore recommended that since most of the people that benefited from the programme could afford the basic necessity of life, the government should begin to think of the way of developing the programme to the status of poverty eradication programme.
Book
Full-text available
The theoretical foundation, overall structure and teaching elements of the US text have been retained, yet a high proportion of material has been updated to describe the Asia Pacific business environment. The text maintains a balance between regional examples and a global focus.<br /
Article
Full-text available
This paper has examined the economic role of women entrepreneurs in poverty reduction in Kenya. A case study was carried out among women entrepreneurs at the Maasai market within Nairobi City's Central Business District. From the target population of 664, 15% were sampled for this study, through stratified and purposive sampling techniques. Quantitative and qualitative data were collected by use of questionnaires and interviews, hence analyzed concurrently. The study showed that the economic activities carried out by the respondents were similar in nature and included selling of African artifacts, clothing and ornaments. Most respondents (95%) used readily available raw materials to make their products for sale. Majority of the respondents (83%) agreed that the businesses had made them improve their economic status. The businesses contributed to the promotion of tourism, employment and export trade. The study concludes that women entrepreneurs play a major role in poverty reduction in Kenya.
Article
Full-text available
The aim of this paper is to present the issues connected with female entrepreneurship and in particular to analyse the changes in the rates of female entrepreneurship in Poland between the years 1993 and 2010 against the background of the job market situation, as well as identifying the factors which determine the entrepreneurship of women. The dynamics of female entrepreneurship will be contrasted with entrepreneurship among men. The entrepreneurship gender gap in Poland only slightly decreased during the studied period even though the situation of women in the job market is more difficult than that of men, which could engender a negative entrepreneurial motivation. The results of the research show that female entrepreneurship is significantly more susceptible to the influences of the general market situation, measured by GDP, than the entrepreneurship of men. This means that the entrepreneurship gender gap can decrease only when there is long-term economic growth.
Article
The role of Small-Medium Enterprises has been recognized to be importance as an engine of growth and poverty alleviation through the creation of jobs and income for the people. The aims of this study are to examine the 'moderating effect of government policy on the relationship between entrepreneurial values, firm financing, management, market practices and growth performance of SMEs in Cambodia. The survey method was used to gather 220 usable questionnaires from SME owner-managers in the City of Phnom Penh in Cambodia. Hierarchical multiple regression analysis was performed to determine the results. The results of the study showed a positive relationship between entrepreneurial values, firm financing, management, market practices and SME growth performance as hypothesized. The results also confirm that government policy have an important role as full moderator in such relationships. In addition, implications to growth theory and practice, limitations, and suggestions for future research were also discussed.
Article
The main objective of the study is to investigate the intensity of entrepreneurship training and education as strategic tools for poverty alleviation in Nigeria. Using a stratified random sampling technique, 250 entrepreneurs and apprenticeships from five recognized local government areas in Lagos state, South Western Nigeria were selected as our respondents. Data were gathered through a self-monitored questionnaire survey. Simple regression analysis was used to test the relationship between the entrepreneurship training and education and poverty alleviation. Two hypotheses were postulated to determine the relationship between technical skill and youth empowerment and between personal entrepreneurial skill and social welfare services. This study confirmed that entrepreneurship training and education are significantly related to the youth empowerment and social welfare services. Findings revealed that youth empowerment are influenced by their acquired technical skill. The study recommends effective technical education, youth empowerment, and social welfare service as a catalyst for poverty alleviation.
Article
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to develop an empirically informed conceptual framework to analyse the gendered relationship between empowerment and entrepreneurship contextualised within the lives of displaced Palestinian migrant women operating home‐based enterprises in Amman, Jordan. Design/methodology/approach – A longitudinal qualitative study was undertaken during which semi‐structured in‐depth interviews were regularly conducted with 43 women producing high‐quality traditional embroidered goods within home‐based enterprises. The empirical material was utilised to inform and illustrate the creation of an empowerment framework. Findings – Entrepreneurship is popularly presented as an individually focused economic undertaking. However, this paper demonstrates it is also a socio‐politically situated activity; within this particular context, marginalised subordinated women were empowered through their home‐based enterprises. Originality/value – This paper offers a gender informed conceptual framework to inform the analyses of empowerment and entrepreneurship. The discussion describes the necessary processes for development goals to be realised, and explains how traditionally subordinated women can utilise enterprise to contribute to social change. In so doing, the proposed conceptual framework acts as a theoretical illustration of the gendered relationship between empowerment and entrepreneurship.
Article
This paper explores the relationship between the entrepreneurship Development and economic growth, the study employed correlation research design. The overall sample consists of 80 participants in Benadir region. The study found weak positive relationship between entrepreneurship development and poverty reductions. The Sig. or P-value was less enough, suggesting that the two variables indicated that the computed R-value was _0.195; this indicates that there was weak positive correlation between entrepreneurship development and poverty reduction.
Article
Individuals living in poverty remain a critical issue. This special issue focuses on how entrepreneurship can help to solve such poverty. Rather than viewing those in poverty as a market for goods, the solution lies in understanding how to help those living in poverty create their own businesses. Ultimately, entrepreneurship among those in poverty will create a long lasting solution to their poverty. Herein, we initially examine the extant knowledge about entrepreneurship. We then examine where future research on this important topic should move. Finally, we introduce the five articles that make up this special issue. These five articles came from the initial 71 submissions and enhance our knowledge about entrepreneurship as a pathway to reducing poverty.
Article
Entrepreneurship has a leading role in economic development worldwide and, although it has usually been considered as a male dominated activity, recent studies emphasize how significant the contribution of women today is: in 2010, almost 42% of entrepreneurs in the world were, indeed, women (GEM, 2010). The role of the gender factor emerged in the academic literature on entrepreneurship in the late 1970s. Over the years, attention has been mainly devoted to the analysis of women entrepreneurs’ characteristics in developed countries. Only recently have both the role of female entrepreneurship in emerging economies and the relevance of immigrant female entrepreneurs in developed countries appeared in international journals. Due to the relevance of these two issues for economic development and the still existing gap in the systematization of both theoretical and empirical findings, the authors of this work aim to fill this gap with a systematic literature review based on rigorous criteria.