Article

Efectos psicológicos de la actividad física en personas mayores

Psicothema, ISSN 0214-9915, Vol. 12, Nº. 2, 2000, pags. 285-292
Source: OAI

ABSTRACT

En este trabajo se examinan los efectos de un programa de actividad física, aeróbica y no aeróbica, de 8 meses de duración en una muestra de personas mayores inicialmente sedentarias (rango 61-77 años) sobre el bienestar psicológico, el esfuerzo percibido y satisfacción por el ejercicio. Los sujetos participantes en el estudio fueron asignados a cuatro grupos: 1) grupo de ejercicio aeróbico (n=34), 2) grupo de ejercicio no-aeróbico (yoga) (n=30), 3) grupo control de actividades sociales (n=23) y 4) grupo control en lista de espera (n=20). Se utilizó como instrumento de evaluación de las respuestas psicológicas globales inducidas por el ejercicio la Subjective Excercise Experiences Scale (SEES; McAuley y Courneya, 1994), como medida de la sensación del esfuerzo percibido, la Perceived Exertion Scales (RPE-Scales; Borg, 1982) y como medida de la satisfacción por el ejercicio la Physical Activity Enjoyment Scale (PACES; Kendzierski y DeCarlo, 1991). Los resultados obtenidos señalaron incrementos significativos en el bienestar psicológico y en la satisfacción en los dos grupos de ejercicio en comparación con los controles. El grupo de actividad aeróbica mostró puntuaciones significativamente más elevadas en el bienestar psicológico, la sensación de fatiga y la satisfacción por el ejercicio, que las observadas en el grupo de actividad no-aeróbica

Download full-text

Full-text

Available from: Manuel De Gracia Blanco
  • Source
    • "Some evidence suggests that there may be further beneficial effects of physical activity on cognition throughout life, although the optimal amount and type of physical activity to support optimal brain function, probably vary over the life of people (Gracia and Marcó, 2000). It can reduce the risk of cognitive impairment and dementia by improving CR (Fabrigoule et al. 1995; Laurin et al. 2001; Scarmeas et al. 2001; Wang et al. 2002; Wilson et al. 2002). "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Alzheimer's disease is a sickness that has been studied from various areas of knowledge (biomarkers, brain structure, behavior, cognitive impairment). Our aim was to develop and to apply a protocol of programmed physical activity according to a non-linear methodology to enhance or diminish the deterioration of cognitive and motor functions of adults with this disease, using concepts of complexity theory for planning and programing the program. We evaluated 18 patients (12 women and 6 men) diagnosed with mild and moderate grade. We worked in small groups (2 people/coach), a total of 16 weeks, 5 sessions per week and 60 minutes per session. We designed a protocol that integrated work balance, joint mobility, coordination, muscular strength and metabolic efficiency. The strong point of this intervention was how to design the planning of tasks for patients. The tasks were developed in parallel to processes of evocation and cognitive association individually designed and presented in order of complexity. In all subjects studied, we found an improvement in the results obtained in the Mini-Mental State Examination screening test, test of Cricthon, Set-Test of Isaacs, Clock Drawing Test and Trail Making Test, and the evaluation test of fitness. The physical activity program designed and the methodology used, has been an adecuated tool to improve quality of life and autonomy of subjects analyzed.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2011
  • Source
    • "La relación entre ejercicio físico y salud ha sido objeto de innumerables estudios epidemiológicos que coinciden en aseverar que es un elemento condicionante de la calidad de vida [1], de la salud y del bienestar [2] [3], que produce efectos beneficiosos tanto físicos como psicológicos en las personas [4] [5] [6] [7] [8] [9] [10] [11] [12] [13] [14] asociándose a un menor riesgo de mortalidad y morbilidad. Los cuidados de las personas deben partir desde los profesionales de la salud ayudando a éstas a proporcionarse un autocuidado de calidad. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: In the present study, we evaluate the possibilities of Qigong exercise in people with low leg mobility, with the ultimate aim of improving their quality of life. We present a practical proposal which consists of easy exercises that justifies and adapts Qigong to a special population such as injured core, paraplegic, hemiplegic or any other condition limiting walking at home or in the hospital. The instruction in self care is the most important aspect in this work with adult people. The results obtained from the different experiments are an increase in muscle strength and above all change of attitude and quality of life for those affected.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2010 · Enfermeria Global
  • Source
    • "El análisis de las propiedades psicométricas mostró que esta nueva versión de la escala era válida y fiable para evaluar también el disfrute en la práctica físicodeportiva con adolescentes. La primera versión de la PACES (Kendzierski y DeCarlo, 1991) ha sido adaptada al contexto español por de Gracia y Marcó (2000) con una muestra de personas mayores (61-77 años) inscritas en programas de actividad física, revelando una adecuada fiabilidad interna y validez fac- torial. Frecuentemente, los investigadores han tratado de relacionar el disfrute con la motivación hacia la práctica físico-deportiva. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The study sought to validate the Physical Activity Enjoyment Scale (Motl et al., 2001) within the Spanish context. A sample of non-competitive physical-sport activity practitioners, 12 to 54 years of age, was used. A statistical analysis of the items, an exploratory factor analysis, a confirmatory factor analysis and a reliability analysis using Cronbach's alpha were carried out. The results revealed that the scale is a valid and reliable tool to measure sport enjoyment. In order to look for external evidences of validity, sport enjoyment was related to different ways of motivation established by the self-determination theory. Enjoyment was, on the one hand, found to be positively and significantly associated with intrinsic motivation and identified regulation. On the other, it was negatively and significantly related with external regulation and amotivation. Future studies will analyse the scale's validity and reliability with different populations and other type of statistical analyses.
    Full-text · Article · May 2008 · Estudios de Psicología
Show more