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Urban PGIS: PGIS, PPGIS, Participatory Mapping in the Urban Context utilising Local Spatial Knowledge. A Bibliography

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Abstract

This set of listings is to identify and communicate the breadth of material with a focus on PGIS / PPGIS and participatory mapping / community cartography, applied to the understanding, knowledge, use, management, claims, values, interactions, governance and conflicts in relation to urban spaces and urban communities and settlements, globally.
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... The potential of PPGIS enquiries lies in localizing and visualizing views and opinions (Brown, 2012;Kahila & Kyttä, 2009;Rantanen & Kahila, 2009). For over 20 years, PPGIS methods have been used all over the world to involve people in different land use planning processes (Brown, 2012;Brown & Kyttä, 2014;Brown & Kyttä, 2018;McCall, 2015a;McCall, 2015b). The PPGIS is one of the newest participation methods and the development of technology has made it possible to use PPGIS relatively easily via different platforms (International Society for Participatory Mapping). ...
... Kahila-Tani and Kyttä (2017) discern seven stages at which PPGIS can be used in the planning process. The PPGIS methods have proved to be useful and functional in both planning and research, and they have been applied in hundreds of studies and plans for urban and rural areas (Brown, 2012;Brown & Kyttä, 2014McCall, 2015aMcCall, , 2015b. The basic idea of PPGIS is very simple: social values are localized by means of either electronic or paper maps. ...
Article
Like innumerable areas worldwide, northern and Arctic areas are experiencing rapid urbanization. The land is often publicly owned in the main, and there are many interests focusing on the same areas. Different activities lead to specific challenges in land use management in regard to public participation. There are guidelines and legal norms for participation in Finland from the municipality to the ministry level, but the style and rate of participation vary a lot from city to city. In this article the potential of public participatory geographic information systems (PPGIS) is examined in the Arctic city, Rovaniemi. The research questions are: How has participation in land use planning and decision-making been implemented in the context of sparsely populated Arctic city the past and present times? How do the interviewees see the potential of the use of PPGIS? Attitudes towards PPGIS were positive, but the implementation of all types of participation data, such as PPGIS data, was seen as vague and weak. Challenges of the participation were associated with poor communication, insufficient information, and lack of trust. Nature values and local opinions were considered to be at risk of being overshadowed by economic values.
... Funded by the 'Institut de recherche pour le développement' (IRD) 1 , this action-research project conducted in 2018 was conducted by IRD Benin in partnership with a FabLab of Benin 2 , the BloLab and the OpenStreetMap Benin community (OSM) 3 . Its initial aim is to produce a map of the Ladji district with its inhabitants in order to show it on the Cotonou map, drawing on work on the collective production of cartographic knowledge (Hirt, Roche, 2013;Joliveau et al., 2013;Lefebvre et al., 2017), including participatory geographical information systems (PGIS) (McCall 2015;Rambaldi 2015) 4 . It is also about familiarizing residents with digital technology, by inviting them to make computers from recycled electronic components. ...
Article
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This paper aims to analyse an experience of participatory mapping and digital innovation launched in 2018 in a slum in Cotonou (economic capital-city of the Benin Republic). Carried out with a Beninese FabLab and the OpenStreetMap Benin community, the Map & Jerry project made it possible to map a precarious neighbourhood that had hitherto been missing from the official map of the city. The paper focuses on the production of this map, its legitimacy and its impacts, primarily social and political, on inhabitants and local authorities unfamiliar with cartographic tools. Moreover, it sheds light on the digital innovation process, and its implementation in a city located in the Global South. Finally, it offers a critical reflection on the sustainability aspects of the project and the potential empowerment of urban poor and their recognition for the right to the city.cartography, citizen participation, digital innovation, digital divide, Subsaharian Africa
... Funded by the 'Institut de recherche pour le développement' (IRD) 1 , this action-research project conducted in 2018 was conducted by IRD Benin in partnership with a FabLab of Benin 2 , the BloLab and the OpenStreetMap Benin community (OSM) 3 . Its initial aim is to produce a map of the Ladji district with its inhabitants in order to show it on the Cotonou map, drawing on work on the collective production of cartographic knowledge (Hirt, Roche, 2013;Joliveau et al., 2013;Lefebvre et al., 2017), including participatory geographical information systems (PGIS) (McCall 2015;Rambaldi 2015) 4 . It is also about familiarizing residents with digital technology, by inviting them to make computers from recycled electronic components. ...
Article
Full-text available
This paper aims to analyse an experience of participatory mapping and digital innovation launched in 2018 in a slum in Cotonou (economic capital-city of the Benin Republic). Carried out with a Beninese FabLab and the OpenStreetMap Benin community, the Map & Jerry project made it possible to map a precarious neighbourhood that had hitherto been missing from the official map of the city. The paper focuses on the production of this map, its legitimacy and its impacts, especially social and political, on inhabitants and local authorities unfamiliar with cartographic tools. Moreover, it sheds light on the digital innovation process, and its implementation in a city located in the Global South. Finally, it offers a critical reflection on the sustainability aspects of the project and the potential empowerment of urban poor and their recognition for the right to the city.
... This section reviews relationship between two main concepts that are undertaken in this research, namely PGIS and Collaborative Governance. Both concepts are fundamental concepts that can bridge communication between community and authorities in a more collaborative planning process (Barton et al., 2015;McCall & Dunn, 2012;McCall & Michael, 2014;Rambaldi, Kyem, McCall, & Weiner, 2006;Sieber, 2006;Zolkafli et al., 2017). The use of these two concepts in this research provides insight for stakeholders to enable or constrain the integration of community-based adaptation into spatial planning in Jakarta. ...
Thesis
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Integrating community-based adaptation planning into spatial planning is key policy to build a resilient urban community. Although community’s planning is considerably encouraged by the local government, yet the integration process in spatial planning remains difficult. Hence, the main objective of this study is to investigate an enabling environment for integration of community-based adaptation into spatial planning with the case study in Marunda, North Jakarta, Indonesia. Marunda community and NGOs have produced adaptation planning through participatory GIS process so-called Participatory Urban Neighbourhood Assessment (PUNA). To achieve the main objective, this study specified into three sub-objectives; (1) to review the existing PUNA process, (2) to examine to which extent PUNA outputs satisfy community and local government geo-information needs, (3) to examine what constitutes an enabling environment through which PUNA outputs can be integrated into Jakarta spatial planning. This study used literature studies to review documents related to PUNA process and employed semi-structured interview, FGD, photovoice, and participatory mapping methods to obtain primary data. The results demonstrate that (1) the PUNA process has empowered Marunda community to cope to hazards risks with their local context and capacities. However, typical GIS technology such as Web-based GIS simultaneously empowers and marginalises community in Marunda. Collaboration with government institutions in Jakarta needs to be expanded. (2) Marunda community is satisfied with PUNA outputs since they never have spatial information before. Conversely, government feel satisfied and understandably reluctant at the same time to the PUNA outputs. They essentially emphasised on the suitability between demands and provisions, coordination of information and the trust and credibility of information. (3) the five barriers recognised in adaptation literature i.e. lack of institutional arrangement, leadership, knowledge, resources, behaviour and technology were clearly evident in the case study Jakarta. Through PUNA outputs, it is believed able to solve issues on lack of knowledge and resources. Then, to provide enabling environment for the integration, the findings concern significantly on lack of institutional arrangement, lack of leadership, lack of behaviour, and lack of technology. This study concludes that to provide enabling environment for community-based adaptation into spatial planning, there are several critical factors to be taken into consideration. There is a need for institutional change where local government should be given an authority to make a plan related to climatic uncertainty and how local level can adapt to hazards risks. The top-down development should be aligned with local-level needs. Leadership in local government is essential for the integration process. The needs for increasing the acknowledgement of adaptation issues in spatial planning by local government and community. The last, the need to encourage the government of Jakarta to focus on integrated geospatial data. The integrated geospatial data contributes not only to resolving technical issues, but also unifying those different sectoral interests.
... Virallisten suunnittelujärjestelmien kanssa "keskustelevat" PPGIS-menetelmät ovat osoittautuneet sekä maailmalla että Suomessa hyödyllisiksi ja toimiviksi niin suunnittelussa kuin tutkimuksessa. Niitä on sovellettu jo satoihin kaupunki-ja maaseutualueisiin (McCall, 2015a(McCall, , 2015b. Suomessa PPGIS-menetelmiä on hyödynnetty kaupunkien (esim. ...
Article
Tourism season in Lapland is mainly winter. Only one quarter of the registered overnight stays take place in snowless seasons in Lapland. Therefore lots of efforts are made to develop summer tourism. Recreational trails are an important part of this development work. Conventional interviews and surveys produce user-based knowledge that seldom ends up into a system of land-use planning, since information is not georeferenced. This article introduces two methods; one is able to collect user knowledge broadly and comprehensively, the other processes it for trail planning from perspectives of summer and wellness tourism. First, tourists’ and locals’ views about natural areas of the Levi tourism resort were collected with internet-based public participatory geographic information system (PPGIS). The inquiry produced almost three hundred georeferenced favorite places and plenty of descriptive verbal information. This knowledge on strengths, weaknesses and development needs of places was complemented with dozen interviews of locals. The user-based knowledge was combined with ecological knowledge on places that are relevant to nature experiences and wellbeing benefits of nature with the help of GIS-method in order to identify ”hot spots for forest bathing”. The twenty hot spots do not involve only forests but also waterfronts, mires and meadows outside the reach of the official trails but having wellbeing benefits or being important to the users. The Levi network of nature areas was developed in order to give model for land-use and trail planning to avoid the challenges caused by seasonality and to enhance sustainable tourism for other resorts to apply.
... Peer-reviewed articles were identified using the electronic databases of ISI Web of Science (topic, title search) and Scopus (document search: title, abstract, key words). In addition, the Google Scholar database (advanced search) and PPGIS/PGIS bibliographies were included in our search (McCall, 2012a(McCall, , 2012b. All the searches were performed between 30th December 2013 and 6th October 2014. ...
Article
It is a challenging task to get tourists involved in tourism planning. In addition, it is often believed that local authorities and tourism companies have an adequate understanding of what tourists prefer or need and how local people's interests can be integrated in tourism planning. Regardless, the tourism business is simply dependent on tourists – whether they want to come to a resort again or not. This article examines how the method of internet-based public participatory geographic information system (PPGIS) serves in gathering tourists' and locals' views about their favourite places at the Levi tourism resort in northern Finland. By using the PPGIS method it was not only possible to find clusters of favourite places, but also several single places of interest. The study revealed technical challenges in using PPGIS software. The quality and usability of the information and the method are discussed in relation to tourism planning.
Article
Full-text available
This paper reviews persistent principles of participation processes. On the basis of a review of recent interrogations of the (Public) Participatory Geographic Information Systems (P)PGIS and Volunteered Geographic Information (VGI) approaches, a summary of five prevailing principles in participatory spatial information handling is presented. We investigate these five principles that are common to (P)PGIS and VGI on the basis of a framework of two dimensions that govern the participatory use of spatial information from the perspective of people and society. This framework is presented as a shared perspective of (P)PGIS and VGI and illustrates that, although both share many of these same principles, the ways in which these principles are approached are highly diverse. The paper ends with a future outlook in which we discuss the inter-connected memes of potential technological futures, the signification of localness in ‘local spatial knowledge’, and the ramifications of ethical tenets by which PGIS and VGI can strengthen each other as two sides of the same coin.
Article
Research into spatial information systems has disclosed that geographic information systems have lagged behind important developments in computer science, information theory and interface design. Basic data structures such as vectors, strip trees and quad trees are discussed. Summaries of the properties of hierarchical, network and relational DMBS are given. Recent development of a relational spatial data base with variable-length and matrix records (RSDB) is described. RSDB has the capability to add the benefits of network and hierarchical DBMS to the relational system. Improvements in data management and information content are seen as necessary for achieving the final goal, the improvement of the human interface.-from Authors
Book
The phenomenon of volunteered geographic information is part of a profound transformation in how geographic data, information, and knowledge are produced and circulated. By situating volunteered geographic information (VGI) in the context of big-data deluge and the data-intensive inquiry, the 20 chapters in this book explore both the theories and applications of crowdsourcing for geographic knowledge production with three sections focusing on 1). VGI, Public Participation, and Citizen Science; 2). Geographic Knowledge Production and Place Inference; and 3). Emerging Applications and New Challenges. This book argues that future progress in VGI research depends in large part on building strong linkages with diverse geographic scholarship. Contributors of this volume situate VGI research in geography’s core concerns with space and place, and offer several ways of addressing persistent challenges of quality assurance in VGI. This book positions VGI as part of a shift toward hybrid epistemologies, and potentially a fourth paradigm of data-intensive inquiry across the sciences. It also considers the implications of VGI and the exaflood for further time-space compression and new forms, degrees of digital inequality, the renewed importance of geography, and the role of crowdsourcing for geographic knowledge production.
Article
We propose a new way of collectively creating data about gender violence through active participation and mapping women’s bodies and communities. We see this process of data creation, self-awareness and action as inherently linked to the native concept territorio cuerpo-tierra, the landscape of bodies-lands. The concept erases Western notions separating bodies and land and helps to decenter the public–private divide, which is an important obstacle to eliminating violence against women. Drawing on data from our work with Mexican women in the, U.S. and Mexico, we illuminate the continuity of women’s individual bodily experience of violence and collective spatial knowledge of community safety. We conclude that the process and outcomes of body and community mapping linking bodies and land, afford planners the prospect of engaging as partners and co-actants with community members in the goal of making places safe for women.
Book
Over the past twenty years research on the evolving relationship between GIS and Society has been expanding into a wide variety of topical areas, becoming in the process an increasingly challenging and multifaced endeavor. The SAGE Handbook of GIS and Society is a retrospective and prospective overview of GIS and Society research that provides an expansive and critical assessment of work in that field. Emphasizing the theoretical, methodological and substantive diversity within GIS and Society research, the book highlights the distinctiveness and intellectual coherence of the subject as a field of study, while also examining its resonances with and between key themes, and among disciplines ranging from geography and computer science to sociology, anthropology, and the health and environmental sciences. Comprising 27 chapters, often with an international focus, the book is organized into six sections: Foundations of Geographic Information and Society; Geographic Information and Modern Life; Alternative Representations of Geographic Information and Society; Organizations and Institutions; Participation and Community Issues; Value, Fairness, and Privacy. © Timothy L. Nyerges, Helen Couclelis and Robert McMaster 2011.