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Foliar application of the leachate from vermicompost and mustard oil cake on the growth and yield of summer tomato

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Abstract

This is in an environmental friendly approach to increase the yield of summer tomato as an alternative to the application of hazardous chemical fertilizers. An experiment was carried out in the experimental field of the Olericulture Research field, Bangladesh to investigate the potential of vermicompost and mustard oil cake leachate as foliar organic fertilizer with reference to the growth, yield and TSS status of BARI hybrid tomato 8 and then examined their effects on different parameters. Treatments of the experiment were: No foliar application (T); foliar application of leachate from vermicompost (T) and foliar application of leachate from 1 2 mustard oil cake (T). The experimental data revealed that significant increase in growth; yield and TSS on 3 BARI hybrid tomato 8 were observed due to foliar application of vermicompost and mustard oil cake. All parameters performed better results with the foliar application of the leachate from vermicompost which was very close the mustard oil cake. However, maximum number of fruit (30.9 plant), yield (14.3 kg plot) and TSS (4.7%) were found from the foliar application of leachate from vermicompost which was followed by mustard oil cake (28.4 plant 1, 12.7 kg plot 1 and 4.2% respectively) whereas minimum from control.
Middle-East Journal of Scientific Research 22 (8): 1233-1237, 2014
ISSN 1990-9233
© IDOSI Publications, 2014
DOI: 10.5829/idosi.mejsr.2014.22.08.22044
Corresponding Author: H. Mehraj, The United Graduate School of Agricultural Sciences, Ehime University,
3-5-7 Tarami, Matsumaya, Ehime 790-8556, Japan. E-mail: hmehraj02@yahoo.com.
1233
Foliar Application of the Leachate from Vermicompost and
Mustard Oil Cake on the Growth and Yield of Summer Tomato
M.R. Ali, H. Mehraj and A.F.M. Jamal Uddin
12 3
Scientific Officer, Olericulture Division, HRC, BARI, Joydevpur, Gazipur, Dhaka, Bangladesh
1
The United Graduate School of Agricultural Sciences,
2
Ehime University, 3-5-7 Tarami, Matsumaya, Ehime 790-8556, Japan
Department of Horticulture, Sher-e-Bangla Agricultural University, Dhaka-1207, Bangladesh
3
Abstract: This is in an environmental friendly approach to increase the yield of summer tomato as an alternative
to the application of hazardous chemical fertilizers. An experiment was carried out in the experimental field of
the Olericulture Research field, Horticulture Research Centre, Bangladesh Agricultural Research Institute,
Joydebpur, Gazipur, Dhaka, Bangladesh to investigate the potential of vermicompost and mustard oil cake
leachate as foliar organic fertilizer with reference to the growth, yield and TSS status of BARI hybrid tomato
8 and then examined their effects on different parameters. Treatments of the experiment were: No foliar
application (T ); foliar application of leachate from vermicompost (T ) and foliar application of leachate from
12
mustard oil cake (T ). The experimental data revealed that significant increase in growth; yield and TSS on
3
BARI hybrid tomato 8 were observed due to foliar application of vermicompost and mustard oil cake. All
parameters performed better results with the foliar application of the leachate from vermicompost which was
very close the mustard oil cake. However, maximum number of fruit (30.9 plant ), yield (14.3 kg plot ) and TSS
11
(4.7%) were found from the foliar application of leachate from vermicompost which was followed by mustard
oil cake (28.4 plant , 12.7 kg plot and 4.2% respectively) whereas minimum from control.
11
Key words: Lycopersicon esculentum BARI hybrid tomato 8 TSS
INTRODUCTION commercially producing tomatoes at higher temperature
Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum L.) is a popular Long time intensive use of chemical fertilizers creates
vegetable mostly grown in winter months in Bangladesh some fertility problems through soil exhaustion as well
but it has great potentiality to grow in summer also. as through interactions with other elements [5, 6] and
Cultivation of summer vegetables is affected due to causing micronutrients deficiency. Fruits harvested from
excessive rainfall, wind storm, etc. during the monsoon plant receiving organic matter were firmer, have superior
season. High temperature was reported as limiting fruit TSS and ascorbic acid, lower acidity, attractive color and
set due to an impaired complex of physiological process exacerbate marketable fruit yield up to 58.6% with better
in the pistil, which results in floral or fruit abscission. quality [7]. Leachates from vermicompost is full of
Fruit setting in tomato is interrupted above 26 and 20°C vitamins, antibiotics, microelements, minerals and
and often completely stopped above 38 and 27°C day and enzymes and that lead into plants’ growth and
night temperature respectively [1-3]. BARI has already performance improvement and even cause the increased
developed some hybrid tomato varieties for summer resistance of plants against diseases [8] also it has a huge
cultivation [4]. These tomato hybrids are capable of storage of microorganisms fixing atmospheric nitrogen
growing tomato during summer season. Nowadays and plays a significant role in raising phosphorus of soil
farmers of Bangladesh are very much fascinated to grow [9]. Mustard oil cake contains high amount of secondary
these hybrid tomatoes. Growers in some countries are also and micronutrients in addition to N, P and K @ 5.1-5.2,
through exogenous application of synthetic PGRs.
Middle-East J. Sci. Res., 22 (8): 1233-1237, 2014
1234
1.8-1.9 and 1.1-1.3%, respectively, [10]. Among the RESULTS
organic amendments, oil cakes have been found to be the
most prospective because they do not only reduce
nematode development but also stimulate plant growth
supplying plant nutrients of some sorts [11]. Its also
supply sufficient amount of S, Zn and B for the growth.
Considering the above facts, the present study was
therefore under taken to evaluate the performance of
BARI hybrid tomato 8 by foliar application of
vermicompost and mustard oil cake for summer tomato
cultivation.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
Experiment was conducted at Olericulture Research
field, Horticulture Research Centre, Bangladesh
Agricultural Research Institute, Joydebpur, Gazipur.
Dhaka, Bangladesh during the month of April to August
2013 following Completely Randomized Complete Block
Design (RCBD) with three replications. Seeds were sown
on the seedbed in 14 April and seedlings were
th
transplanted into the main field on 10 May, 2013. BARI
th
hybrid tomato 8 and three treatments viz., T : No foliar
1
application; T : foliar application of leachate from
2
vermicompost and T : foliar application of leachate from
3
mustard oil cake) were used in the experiment. The unit
plot size was 2.4 x 1.0 m . The plant spacing was 40cm in
2
rows of 60cm apart from. Manures and fertilizers were
applied as recommended by Bangladesh Agricultural
Research Institute [4]. Data were collected on plant
height, number of leaves plant , leaf area, number of
1
branches plant , percentage of disease infected plant,
1
number of fruit plant , fruit length, fruit diameter, single
1
fruit weight, yield plant and TSS. Collected data were
1
statistically analyzed using MSTAT-C program, mean was
calculated and analysis of variance (ANOVA) for each of
treatment was represented by F-test. Differences between
treatment means were evaluated by Least Significance
Difference (LSD) test at 5% level of significance [12].
Plant Growth Characteristics
Plant Height: Plant height of tomato plant varied
significantly among the treatments. Tallest plant was
found from T (122.4 cm) which was statistically identical
2
with T (115.6 cm) while minimum from T (108.5 cm) at
31
75 DAT (Table 1).
Leaves Number: Statistically significant variation was
found among the treatments for number of leaves.
Maximum number of leaves was found from T (61.8
2
plant ) which was statistically identical with T (59.8
1
3
plant ) whereas minimum from T (53.9 plant ) at 75
11
1
DAT (Table 1).
Leaf Area: Statistically significant variation was found
among the treatments for leaf area. Maximum leaf area
was found from T (58.4 cm ) which was statistically
2
2
identical with T (57.0 cm ) whereas minimum from
3
2
T (47.4 cm ) at 75 DAT (Table 1).
1
2
Number of Branches: Statistically significant variation
was found among the treatments for number of
branches. Maximum number of branches was found from
T (11.3 plant ) which was statistically identical with
2
1
T (10.3 plant ) whereas minimum from T (8.7 plant ) at
31
11
75 DAT (Table 1).
Diseases Susceptibility
Disease Infected Plant: Percentage of the diseases
infected plant varied in different foliar application.
However, minimum disease infected plant was found
from T (10.5%) which was statistically identical with
2
T (11.0%) whereas maximum from T (17.1%) at 75 DAT
31
(Table 1). From this experiment it was found that foliar
application of vermicompost and mustard oil cake
leachates reduces the diseases infection.
Table 1: Response of BARI hybrid tomato 8 to foliar application of vermicompost and mustard oil cake on growth characteristics and diseases
susceptibilityX
Plant height (cm) Leaves number plant Leaf area (cm2) Number of branches plant Disease infected plant (%)
11
Treatments ---------------------- ----------------------------- ------------------- ------------------------------------ ---------------------------------
T 108.5 B 53.9 b 47.4 b 8.7 b 17.1 a
1
T 122.4 A 61.8 a 58.4 a 11.3 a 10.5 b
2
T 115.6 ab 59.8 a 57.0 a 10.3 a 11.0 b
3
LSD0.05 7.1 2.0 7.7 1.5 3.3
CV% 2.7 1.5 6.3 6.6 11.3
In a column means values having similar letter(s) are statistically similar and those having dissimilar letter(s) differ significantly as per 0.05 level of
X
significance.
Middle-East J. Sci. Res., 22 (8): 1233-1237, 2014
1235
Table 2: Response of BARI hybrid tomato 8 to foliar application of vermicompost and mustard oil cake on yield and quality characteristicsX
Number of Fruit Fruit Single fruit Yield
fruits plant length (cm) diameter (cm) weight (g) (kg plant ) Yield (kg plot ) TSS (%)
1 11
Treatments ----------------- --------------- ----------------- ---------------- ---------------- ---------------------- -------------
T 22.3 c 4.0 c 3.7 c 43.5 a 1.0 b 9.4 c 3.5 c
1
T 30.9 a 4.6 a 4.6 a 49.5 a 1.5 a 14.3 a 4.7 a
2
T 28.4 b 4.4 b 4.2 b 47.1 a 1.3 a 12.7 b 4.2 b
3
LSD0.05 1.8 0.2 0.3 6.6 0.2 1.5 0.4
CV% 2.9 1.8 2.9 6.2 8.3 3.7 4.3
In a column means values having similar letter(s) are statistically similar and those having dissimilar letter(s) differ significantly as per 0.05 level of
X
significance
Yield Characteristics substances [13]. Vermicompost an organic source of plant
Number of Fruit Plant :Number of fruit plant showed nutrients contains a higher percentage of nutrients
11
significant variation due to the foliar application of necessary for plant growth in readily available forms [17],
vermicompost and mustard oil cake. Maximum number has the capacity to supply both macro and micronutrients
of fruit was found from T (30.9 plant ) followed by for improving optimum plant growth [18, 19]. Leachates
2
1
T (28.4 plant ) while minimum from T (22.3 plant ) from vermicompost are a huge storage of microorganisms
31
11
(Table 2). fixing atmospheric nitrogen and play a significant role in
Fruit Length and Diameter: Fruit length and diameter effect of vermiwash on plant growth of black gram
showed significant variation due to the foliar application reported [20] and on tea, coconut and horticultural crops
of vermicompost and mustard oil cake. Longest fruit was [21]. Zaller [22] have studied the effect of vermiwash on
found from T (4.6 cm) followed by T (4.4 cm) the field grown tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
23
while minimum from T (4.0 cm) (Table 2). Maximum indicated the late blight suppression and improve the fruit
1
fruit diameter was found from T (4.6 cm) followed by quality. The application of vermiwash has been shown to
2
T (4.2 cm) while minimum from T (3.7 cm) (Table 2). reduce disease caused by necrotrophs as well as
31
Single Fruit Weight: BARI hybrid tomato 8 did not [25, 26]. On the other hand, MOC (mustard oil cake)
show any significant variation for single fruit weight. application showed the better performance of the growth
Maximum single fruit weight was found from T (49.5 g) and yield characteristics of rice [27, 28, 29]. Islam et al.
2
followed by T (47.1 g) whereas minimum from T (43.5 g) [30] observed that rice grain yield was increased with the
31
(Table 2). application of MOC. Mustard oil cake was also found to
Yield: Yield of tomato was varied significantly among the growth characters with improved length of shoot and
different treatments. However, maximum yield was found root and fresh weight of shoot and root correspondingly
from T (1.5 kg plant and 14.3 kg plot ) while minimum with reduced galling incidence and different stages of
2
11
from T (1.0 kg plant and 9.4 kg plot ) (Table 2). nematode population and also reported that oil cake
1
11
Quality Characteristics populations, the most common of which were
TSS: TSS content of BARI hybrid tomato 8 showed Hoplolaimus indicus, Tylenchorynchus brassicae,
significant variation among the treatments. However, Helicorylenchus spp. and Meloidogyne incognita.
maximum TSS content was found from T (4.7%) which Mustard oil cake was most effective in tomato, carrot and
2
was followed by T (4.2%) whereas minimum from potato fields [31-33].
3
T (3.5%) (Table 2).
1
DISCUSSION
Vermicompost increased the plant height in tomato, cake leachates have remarkable influence on growth,
carrot [13], in Allium sativum (garlic) [14], eggplant, okra yield and TSS content of BARI hybrid tomato 8 during
and tomato plants [15] and evergreen [16] which may be summer cultivation. Thus, to obtain higher yield with
due to the stimulation of the production of auxin-like better TSS of BARI hybrid tomato 8 foliar application of
raising the phosphorus of soil [9]. The stimulatory
biotrophs [23, 24]; depress soil born pathogen and pest
give comparatively better effect in respect of plant
amendments reduced plant parasitic nematode
CONCLUSIONS
Foliar application of vermicompost and mustard oil
Middle-East J. Sci. Res., 22 (8): 1233-1237, 2014
1236
vermicompost should be incorporated with recommended 12. Gomez, K.A. and A.A. Gomez, 1984. Statistical
NPK fertilizers but unavailability of vermicompost mustard Procedures for Agricultural Research. 2 edn. John
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... Several authors have shown the positive role of vermicompost derived liquids on the improvement of growth and phytochemical content in plants [26,50,62,27,30,65,8,47,11,7,4,16,9,44,57,42,58] . The positive effect of soil drenching with vermicompost leachate on the growth of greenhouse-grown 'Williams' bananas was also demonstrated [6] . ...
... Singh et al. (2010) confirmed that leachates derived from vermicomposting process could potentially apply to strawberry as foliar fertilization [62] . Ali et al. (2014) reported that foliar application of vermicompost leachate caused a remarkable influence on growth and yield of tomato plants [4] . Shirani Bidabadi et al. (2017) reported that, foliar spray of vermicompost leachate induced salt tolerance by reducing the accumulation of Na + in the pomegranate seedlings [58] . ...
... Singh et al. (2010) confirmed that leachates derived from vermicomposting process could potentially apply to strawberry as foliar fertilization [62] . Ali et al. (2014) reported that foliar application of vermicompost leachate caused a remarkable influence on growth and yield of tomato plants [4] . Shirani Bidabadi et al. (2017) reported that, foliar spray of vermicompost leachate induced salt tolerance by reducing the accumulation of Na + in the pomegranate seedlings [58] . ...
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The effects of additions of earthworm-processed pig manure (vermicompost) on the growth and productivity of French marigold (Tagetes patula) plants were evaluated under glasshouse conditions. Marigolds were germinated and grown in a standard commercial greenhouse container medium (Metro-Mix 360), substituted with 10%, 20%, 30%, 40%, 50%, 60%, 70%, 80%, 90%, and 100% (by volume) pig manure vermicompost. The control consisted of Metro-Mix 360 alone without vermicompost. Plants were supplied regularly with a complete mineral nutrient solution for 121 days. The greatest vegetative growth resulted from substitution of Metro-Mix 360 with 30% and 40% pig manure vermicompost, and the lowest growth was in the potting mixtures containing 90% and 100% vermicompost. Most flower buds occurred in the potting mixtures containing 40% pig manure vermicompost (19.4 buds), and fewest in the potting mixtures containing 100% vermicompost. Marigolds grown in Metro-Mix 360 substituted with 90% and 100% pig manure vermicompost had the fewest and smallest flowers. After substitution of Metro-Mix 360 with 20%, 30%, 40%, 50%, 60%, 70%, 80%, and 90% vermicompost, the marigold roots were larger than those of plants grown in the Metro-Mix 360 controls. Substitution of Metro-Mix 360 with any concentration of pig manure vermicompost, with all needed nutrients provided, increased the overall nitrate-nitrogen concentrations of the marigold leaf tissues at flowering stage. Some of the marigold growth and productivity enhancement, resulting from substitution of Metro-Mix 360 with pig manure vermicompost, may be explained by nutritional factors; However, other, factors, such as plant-growth regulators and humates, might have also been involved since all plants were supplied regularly with all required nutrients.
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The efficacy of foliar sprays with compost water extracts (compost extracts) in reducing the severity of bacterial spot of tomato caused by Xanthomonas vesicatoria was investigated. Extracts prepared from composted cow manure, composted pine bark, an organic farm compost, or composted yard waste, applied as foliar sprays on tomato transplants, resulted in a moderate but statistically significant reduction in the severity of bacterial spot. The population of X. vesicatoria in infected leaves was reduced significantly by extracts prepared from composted cow manure. Efficacy of the water extracts was not affected by oxygen concentrations in the suspension during extraction, compost maturity, or sterilization by filtration or autoclaving. The degree of control provided by foliar sprays with the most effective compost extracts did not differ from that obtained with the plant activator acibenzolar-S-methyl. In the field in two growing seasons, foliar sprays with compost water extracts did not reduce the severity of foliar diseases, including bacterial spot. During the 1997 season, when the severity of bacterial spot in the field was high, foliar sprays with compost water extracts significantly reduced the incidence of bacterial spot on tomato fruit. Amending plot soil with several rates of composted yard waste did not lead to additional control of fruit disease over those only sprayed with extracts. Foliar sprays with a mixture of chlorothalonil and copper hydroxide or with acibenzolar-S-methyl reduced the severity of bacterial spot as well as incidence of spot on fruit.
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Studies were conducted to determine the effect of vermicompost on growth, physiological disorders, fruit yield and quality of 'Chandler' strawberry. For this, 4 levels of vermicompost (2.5, 5.0, 7.5 and 10.0tha(-1)) were supplemented with inorganic fertilizers to balance fertilizer requirement of strawberry under semi-arid region of northern India. The vermicompost was incorporated into top 10cm layer of soil, which was supplemented on the basis of chemical analysis, with amount of inorganic N, P, K fertilizer calculated to equalize the recommended dose of nutrients. Vermicompost application increased plant spread (10.7%), leaf area (23.1%) and dry matter (20.7%), and increased total fruit yield (32.7%). Substitution of vermicompost drastically reduced the incidence of physiological disorders like albinism (16.1-4.5%); fruit malformation (11.5-4.0%) and occurrence of grey mould (10.4-2.1%) in strawberry indicating that vermicompost had significant role in reducing nutrient-related disorders and disease like Botrytis rot, and thereby increasing the marketable fruit yield up to 58.6% with better quality parameters. Fruit harvested from plant receiving vermicompost were firmer, have higher TSS, ascorbic acid content and lower acidity, and have attractive colour. All these parameters appeared to be dose dependent and best results were achieved @ 7.5tha(-1), however, beyond this dose of vermicompost, there was not significant influence on these parameters.
Tsai and application of water hyacinth compost/vermicompost I.S. Tsay, 1979. Tomato fruit set at high temperature. on the growth and flowering of Grassandra undulae
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Kuo, C.G., B.W. Chen, M.M. Chou, C.C. Tsai and application of water hyacinth compost/vermicompost I.S. Tsay, 1979. Tomato fruit set at high temperature. on the growth and flowering of Grassandra undulae In: Cowel R. (ed.) Proc. 1st Int. Symp. Tropical folia and on several vegetable. Biores. Technol., tomato. Asian Vegetable Research and Development 85: 197-199.
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Abedin, l997. Effect of long 17
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  • M J Nagavallema
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  • S Lacroix
Rahman, M.H. and M.J. Abedin, l997. Effect of long 17. Nagavallema, K.P., S.P. Wani, S. Lacroix, term fertilizer on soil fertility and rice yield. V.V. Padmajav, A.C. Vineel, M. BabuRao and Bangladesh. Nuclear Agric., 13: 65-70.
Influence of wastes into valuable organic fertilizer. India: Tithonia diversifolia leaf mulch and fertilizer International Crops Research Institute for the application on the growth and yield of potted Semi-Arid Tropics
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Liasu, M.O. and A.K.K. Achakzai, 2007. Influence of wastes into valuable organic fertilizer. India: Tithonia diversifolia leaf mulch and fertilizer International Crops Research Institute for the application on the growth and yield of potted Semi-Arid Tropics, pp: 20. tomato plants. American-Eurasian J. Agric. & 18. Harris, G.D., W.L. Platt and B.C. Price, 1990. Environ. Sci., 2(4): 335-340. Vermicomposting in a rural community. Biocycle,