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Structural equation modeling in practice: A review and recommended two-step approach.

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Abstract

In this article, we provide guidance for substantive researchers on the use of structural equation modeling in practice for theory testing and development. We present a comprehensive, two-step modeling approach that employs a series of nested models and sequential chi-square difference tests. We discuss the comparative advantages of this approach over a one-step approach. Considerations in specification, assessment of fit, and respecification of measurement models using confirmatory factor analysis are reviewed. As background to the two-step approach, the distinction between exploratory and confirmatory analysis, the distinction between complementary approaches for theory testing versus predictive application, and some developments in estimation methods also are discussed.

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... In this study, path analysis using a structured equation model (SEM) was performed in two stages, namely the measurement model and the structured model (Anderson & Gerbing, 1988). In the measurement model, confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) with maximum likelihood estimation was performed. ...
... df = 356; p < 0.05; χ2/df = 2.70; GFI = 0.91 TFI = 0.93; IFI = 0.92, TLI = 0.92 CFI = 0.92; RMSEA = 0.06; SRMR = 0.05). The composite reliability (CR) values were supported as they exceeded the recommended value of 0.60 (between 0.70 and 0.80) (Anderson & Gerbing, 1988). The average variance extracted (AVE) ranged from 0.53 to 0.69, which is higher than Content courtesy of Springer Nature, terms of use apply. ...
... the suggested value of 0.50 (Anderson & Gerbing, 1988). The Cronbach's Alpha (α) values were found reliable since they were above the recommended value of 0.70 (Anderson & Gerbing, 1988). ...
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Many studies show that augmented reality (AR) provides multiple benefits to science education, including learning gains, motivation to learn, and collaborative learning. However, while using AR largely depends on the teachers’ willingness, existing literature lacks studies that identify teachers’ intentions to use this technology. This study proposes a model to predict science teachers’ intentions to use AR in their classes. Our model merges the Theory of Planned Behavior and the Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology 2. It includes nine hypotheses that were tested with 451 science teachers from different cities in Turkey. The results indicate that our model identifies the factors affecting teachers’ intentions to use AR with a stronger explanatory power than the referenced theories. Besides, all hypotheses within the proposed model were statistically supported in determining antecedents of science teachers' intentions. Finally, the study contributes to the theory and practice by focusing on the psychological aspects required for explaining science teachers’ intentions to use AR.
... The study estimates that the structural equation model follows the two-stage procedure recommended by Anderson and Gerbing (1988). The first stage involves estimation of the measurement model using CFA. ...
... The two-step approach has a number of comparative strengths that allow meaningful inferences to be made (Anderson and Gerbing, 1988). First, it allows tests of the significance for all pattern coefficients. ...
Thesis
p>The contingency approach is a recent and important development in ABC research. It is suggested that ABC system success will depend upon specific organisational factors such as strategy, structure, technology, and environment. However, less contingency-based research has been done on ABC systems in the UK. Therefore, a contingency model of ABC systems has been developed in order to empirically examine the relationship between ABC systems, competitive strategy, advanced manufacturing technology (AMT), management accounting practices, and the performance of the UK’s manufacturing business units. Precisely speaking, this study examines one major question: How does the fit between ABC systems, competitive strategy, AMT, and management accounting practices affect the performance of the UK’s manufacturing business units? To investigate this question, a reliable and valid instrument was developed. Extensive efforts were made to ensure content validity during instrument development by carefully designing processes for item generation, pre-testing, and pilot study testing. A cross-sectional mail survey of a sample of 112 UK’s manufacturing business units has been conducted. The empirical findings of the study show that the use of ABC systems is associated with the performance of the UK’s manufacturing business units. In addition, structural equation modelling (SEM), AMOS 5.0 analysis, offers statistical evidence that the patterns of ABC use by the adopters would influence business units’ performance. The results also indicate empirical support for the study’s major premise that the fit between competitive strategy, AMT, and management accounting practices will be associated with the adoption of the different patterns of ABC systems. This study contributes to the knowledge and management accounting literature by providing some explanations on the contextual factors that influence the adoption and success of ABC systems. The study concluded that it is not necessarily true that business units that have not adopted ABC systems could improve their performance by simply introducing ABC as stand alone techniques.</p
... Descriptive statistics and Pearson correlation were run, and path analysis was done to test the hypotheses. To evaluate the absolute fit and test hypotheses using path analysis (according to Anderson and Gerbing, 1988), chi-square (X 2 , minimum fit function test), root mean square error of approximation (RMSEA), normed fit index (NFI), comparative fit index (CFI) and goodness-of-fit index (GFI) were used. The accepted thresholds for these indices are: X 2 /df ratio should be less than 3; RMSEA is recommended to be up to 0.05, and acceptable up to 0.08; the values of NFI, CFI, GFI and AGFI should be greater than 0.90. ...
... The hypotheses were tested using structural equation modeling. Following the research of Anderson and Gerbing (1988), non-significant paths were removed from the model until all remaining paths in the model were significant and the re-constructed (reduced) model was a good fit. The values of the indices (X 2 /df 5 1.861; GFI 5 0.991; AGFI 5 0.971; CFI 5 0.964; NFI 5 0.928; RMSEA 5 0.052) show that the model exhibited a satisfactory fit. ...
Article
Purpose The purpose of the study is to establish the relationship between age, job involvement, job satisfaction and job performance of sub-county chiefs in the Ugandan local government. Design/methodology/approach A cross-sectional survey design was used to obtain a total sample of 320 sub-county chiefs who were selected to participate in the study using multi-stage stratified random sampling. A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect data that were entered into the computer using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences, version 23 (IBM SPSS-AMOS). Path analysis results were used to test the hypotheses. Findings The results indicated significant positive relationships between: age and job involvement, job involvement and job satisfaction, and job involvement and job performance. Non-significant relationships were between age and job satisfaction, age and job performance, and job satisfaction and job performance. A reconstructed model was presented. Practical implications Employees’ participation in decisions that affect their work brings positive behavioral outcomes. Job involvement makes workers feel as part of the organization and contributes significantly to organizational effectiveness and morale of workers. Managers are encouraged to pay much attention to the requirements of their staff so as to increase their job involvement, which can ultimately lead to high levels of job satisfaction and improved job performance. Originality/value This study proposes that older employees who highly participate in organizational activities are likely to be satisfied and outstanding performers. Strategic recruitment agencies are very important in ensuring “quality at the gate” because they focus on the work attitudes and can attract and retain a satisfied and competent workforce.
... Churchill (1979) approves the usage of Cronbach's alpha (α) for appraising the quality of the scale. Anderson and Gerbing (1998) recommended 0.7 or above values of Cronbach's alpha (α). Hair et al. (2010) recommended exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) for the confirmation of construct validity. ...
... As recommended by Hair et al. (2010), KMO values must be larger than 0.60, Barlett's Test of Sphericity must be significant (p < 0.001), and correlation among variables must be larger than 0.30 (results are presented in Table 2). Anderson and Gerbing's (1998) CFA model was applied to verify the analytical data. RMSEA values in the range of 0.03-0.08, ...
Article
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Transformational leadership (TFL) impacts on project and organizational success are well established. However, many underlying factors that make TFL effective are still missing. Therefore, we formulated hypotheses and tested the mediating role of trust (TS) and job satisfaction (JS) in linking TFL to project success (PS). A time-lagged methodology was used to collect quantitative data using a structured questionnaire from 326 project manager-team member dyads working in Pakistan’s public sector. Our results showed that TS, JS, and TFL significantly impacted project success. Moreover, we found that TS and JS mediate the relationship between TFL and PS. These findings highlight the importance of trust and job satisfaction as mechanisms that translate TFL into the success of projects for organizations.
... Churchill (1979) approves the usage of Cronbach's alpha (α) for appraising the quality of the scale. Anderson and Gerbing (1998) recommended 0.7 or above values of Cronbach's alpha (α). Hair et al. (2010) recommended exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) for the confirmation of construct validity. ...
... As recommended by Hair et al. (2010), KMO values must be larger than 0.60, Barlett's Test of Sphericity must be significant (p < 0.001), and correlation among variables must be larger than 0.30 (results are presented in Table 2). Anderson and Gerbing's (1998) CFA model was applied to verify the analytical data. RMSEA values in the range of 0.03-0.08, ...
... The results of CFA suggested the model fit the data well (x 2 /df = 249.605/109 = 2.29, RMSEA = 0.045, CFI = 0.969, SRMR = 0.037), and all item loadings were higher than the 0.707 threshold (Anderson and Gerbing, 1988). The AVE values for all factors were greater than 0.60, with the lowest for Economic Consideration (AVE = 0.64) and the highest (AVE = 0.75) for Schedule Convenience. ...
... = 2.19, RMSEA = 0.044, CFI = 0.916 and SRMR = 0.044). Of the 57 items, 51 had loadings above 0.707, a high and conservative criterion (Anderson and Gerbing, 1988). In addition, it has been suggested that an indicator loading of 0.707 or greater indicates the pattern coefficient achieves meaningful significance (Hair et al., 2005). ...
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The purpose of this study was to empirically investigate the interrelationships between push and pull factors associated with the consumption of women’s professional basketball games. Multiple factors pertaining to sport consumers’ internal needs, identified as “push” factors, contain various intangible socio-psychological motivations representing an individual’s intrinsic desires that drive consumers toward certain goal-driven behaviors. On the other hand, “pull” factors, related to the supply side, refer to the different aspects of sport products the management of sport teams provides. It is imperative to obtain a better understanding of the push–pull interaction so that sport marketers can design their products to satisfy spectators’ expectations with different needs. Spectators ( N = 628) attending WNBA games responded to an on-site survey. CFA was conducted to ensure the psychometric properties of the scales, which showed that the overall model fit the data well. A canonical correlation analysis was performed, and two significant functions were revealed by the dimension reduction analysis. The first function [ F (40,2,683) = 4.49, p < 0.001]: I-Want-Everything-Consumer suggests that the market segment comprises individuals with multiple needs (ranged from 0.55 to 0.85) and expectations (ranged from 0.55 to 0.89), both of which need to be met simultaneously. Thus, sports marketers can satisfy WNBA consumers’ needs by enhancing the quality of tangible pull factors. The second function [ F (28,2,222) = 2.38, p < 0.001]: Achievement-Seekers revealed that the consumers motivated by vicarious achievement (–0.59) expect game promotion (–0.55) rather than the quality of the opposing team (0.42), indicating that sport marketers should provide tailored promotional strategies to satisfy this segment of consumers. Specifically, the findings of this study can be used to segment consumers based upon fan motives (i.e., push factors) and position products accordingly by managing the controllable aspects of sport products (i.e., pull factors). This study provides empirical evidence of the relationship between WNBA consumers’ multiple needs and attributes associated with the WNBA core product.
... Convergent validity was tested by returning to the CFA performed at the start of the process, and by confirming the high estimated value and significance of the correlations between the dimensions in the scales. Table 4 shows the discriminant validity of the constructs considered assessed by AVE (Fornell & Larcker, 1981) and by confident interval tests (Anderson & Gerbing, 1988). In relation to the first test, when the square root of the AVE between each pair of factors is higher than the estimated correlation between those factors, as occurs here, the discriminant validity is ratified. ...
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The aim of this study is to examine the relationship between sustainability with customer satisfaction and service experience in service ecosystems, by analyzing the moderated role of business models. A model with four variables is proposed, whereby customer satisfaction is the dependent variable, perceived sustainability of the service ecosystem is the explanatory variable, service experience is the mediator variable, and business models is the moderator variable. The model is applied in a survey of tourists. The results enable comparison of the causal model: perceived sustainability influences customer satisfaction directly and indirectly through service experience; and business model can play a moderator role since significant differences are identified in one of the three types of tourism destinations.
... Following Anderson and Gerbing (1988), the obtained data were analyzed in two steps. The first step involved the evaluation of the measurement model, while the second step involved the evaluation of the structural model. ...
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The effectiveness of the E-CRM system was examined in this study, involving those with online shopping experience, specifically the regular customers of Carrefour in Jordan. Data were obtained through 550 distributed sets of questionnaires. Four trained and certified research assistants assisted the data gathering process. Data from 320 returned questionnaires were analyzed using Structural Equation Modeling (SEM). System quality, access to information, security, training and customer satisfaction were the examined factors towards the effectiveness of E-CRM systems. Results show positive impact of security, system quality, training, and access to information on user satisfaction, and user satisfaction affected the effectiveness of E-CRM. Nonetheless, the relationship between training and effectiveness of E-CRM on online shopping was not mediated by user satisfaction.
... El enfoque debe mantenerse con firmeza, además de la preservación de la expresión y riqueza cultural para el goce de los actuales y futuros turistas. La sostenibilidad se convierte en un arma interdisciplinar con observación transversal en todo el abanico de actividades, acciones y políticas relacionadas al quehacer cultural, que garanticen los códigos identitarios señalados por Acle (2018). Se coincide con Giménez (2004) al afirmar que la cultura protegida puede ser disfrutable a largo plazo, otorgando a los individuos y colectivos un mayor sentido de pertenencia y de identidad adheridos a la cultura mexicana. ...
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El sector turístico se enfrenta a una creciente demanda de productos innovadores, y para dar respuesta surge, entre otras, la propuesta de los living labs como una estrategia para la generación y el desarrollo de innovaciones orientadas en los usuarios y sus necesidades. Su aplicación es susceptible si se concibe al espacio turístico como un punto de encuentro entre los turistas y otros actores para desplegar prácticas de innovación. En este capítulo se realizó una revisión de literatura para analizar el cuerpo de conocimientos en torno a los laboratorios vivientes como plataformas de innovación. Se concluye que al vislumbrar al espacio turístico como un living lab, las oportunidades y los beneficios de la innovación se vuelven mayores. Por ende, es necesario contar con proyectos centrados en las experiencias y colaboración de los actores que permitan transformaciones significativas y la especialización de los destinos para brindar productos turísticos únicos.
... Evaluation of the discriminant validity (see Table 3) was based on chi-square differences and confidence interval (CI) (Anderson & Gerbing, 1988). The extracted variance for each construct was higher than the square root of the correlation between that construct and any other, as is suggested by Fornell and Larcker (1981). ...
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This research was carried out from the perspective of downward price-based brand extensions with the aim to discover its effects on customer perceptions regarding luxury brands and brand extensions and consequences on buying intention and luxury brand loyalty. The conceptual framework is based on both previous qualitative and quantitative research. A five factors model is tested in a judgemental sample of 158 premium luxury brands consumers using Partial Least Squares (PLS). Findings confirm that extension in new segments could negatively affect the brand concept perception of the parent luxury brand. These results indicate that (a) the brand concept consistency is affected by down-price brand extension, (b) due to brand concept changes then brand personality also changes, (c) this variations affect the fit between brand personality and consumer self-image and, (d), as a consequence, the purchase intention and brand loyalty are affected in a negative way. From a managerial point of view, this type of brand extension can be less positive than expected, generating negative effects against the extension and the parent brand itself. This work contributes to rethink the use of downward price-based brand extensions as an strategic alternative for brand managers.
... A popular indicator known as Cronbach's alpha was used to test the internal consistency of dimension indicators. This consistency is considered as suitable when the value obtained is greater than 0.600 (Anderson and Gerbing 1988). In the final PLS-SEM investigation, the blended Reliability (CR) and average variance extracted (AVE) was used to assess the structural dependability and steadiness of the internal version, with CR > 0.700 indicating accurate internal steadiness and dependability (Hair et al. 1998) and AVE > 0.500 indicating accurate fit and convergence validity (Fornell and Larcker 1981;Saedi et al. 2020). ...
Article
This research presents an evaluation system and model for optimizing phytoremediation on petroleum and heavy metal contaminated soils to simplify the methods, reduce the costs, and minimize the use of long-term tests in the phytoremediation process. The proposed evaluation system consists of Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) and the Analytic network process (ANP) and includes three criteria and twelve sub-criteria. The calculated weights indicated that plant species and soil texture were the most influential factors in phytoremediation, with loading factors of 0.910 and 0.876, respectively. Seven dominant plants from the study area were used as alternative plants for phytoremediation, and the highest weight of ranking alternative (0.201) suggested that Medicago sativa L (Alfalfa) could be a suitable plant for this purpose and that the suitable texture of the soil would be sandy clay loam for the phytoremediation measure. Sensitivity analysis confirmed that the combination of the ANP and SEM in this course was impartial and attainable. The application of structural equation modeling and multi-criteria decision methods were found to be effective since they could help diagnose not only the effects of soil texture on petroleum hydrocarbons reduction but also the impacts of selected plant species on heavy metals reduction as factors in phytoremediation inside the study area. Therefore, it was concluded that combined application of these two methods would provide an effective approach in monitoring contaminated sites for decision makers.
... The SPSS 26.0 software was used to examine the respondents' demographic characteristics, descriptive statistics of the construct variables, reliability analysis, including outlier and multicollinearity checks. Two-step approach from Anderson and Gerbing (1988) was used for the data analysis, based on the AMOS 24.0 package. To determine the uni-dimensionality and causal relationship between items and constructs, we examined the measurement model by using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). ...
Purpose-This study aims to explore the effect of multiple factors on employee innovative behavior (EIB) and examine the mediating role that thriving at work and organizational commitment play in this relationship, specifically related to the hospitality sector. Design/methodology/approach-Primary data was gathered from 612 employees across 100 small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in Vietnam. Using covariance-based structural equation modeling and the bootstrapping method, the research estimates ten overarching hypotheses to address the research question: how do job, personal and contextual factors influence EIB? Findings-Job, personal and contextual factors influence EIB significantly and positively. The results uncover the relationship between workplace support and EIB under the mediating effects of thriving at work and organizational commitment. Especially interesting for the hospitality sector is that the authors find these three factors are a strong influence on EIB. Practical implications-Management can stimulate EIB by designing job control and job demand appropriately to build and maintain workplace social support in the organization, especially in the hospitality sector. Employees' personal characteristics can also facilitate this behavior. The research adds to theory on EIB and methods to analyze the factors affecting this driver of innovation. Originality/value-The research enhances our understanding of EIB in the hospitality and the SME context generally. EIB is affected by employee perceptions of job factors (job demand and job control), personal factors (thriving at work and organizational commitment) and contextual factors (supervisor support, coworker support and climate for innovation).
... Structural equation modeling (SEM) was used to conduct confirmatory factor analysis (Bagozzi & Yi, 2012). A two-stage structural equation modeling technique was adopted to test the research hypotheses by employing AMOS software (Anderson & Gerbing, 1988). ...
Article
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While insight into consumer brand engagement, experience, and identification is rapidly developing, little remains known regarding the association of these, and related, concepts, as therefore explored in this article. Drawing on social identity theory and service‐dominant‐logic, this study develops and tests a model that explores the effect of customers' brand credibility, ‐value congruence, and ‐experience on their brand identification, and its subsequent effect on their brand advocacy, ‐attachment, and ‐loyalty. We also examine the potentially moderating role of consumers' engagement in affecting these relationships. To explore these issues, we collected tourist‐based survey data. To analyze the data, we used confirmatory factor analysis, followed by structural equation modeling. The findings reveal that brand value congruence, credibility, and experience exercise significant positive effects on customers' brand identification, which, in turn, impact their brand advocacy, attachment, and loyalty. Further, brand engagement is shown to moderate the association of these factors. We conclude by outlining key theoretical/practical implications that arise from this research.
... This reduced the multicollinearity or variance correlations of errors between indicators (Bollen, 1989;Yoon and Uysal, 2005). Modeling the structural equation used a two-step hybrid method by specifying a measurement model in confirmatory factor analysis and testing a latent structural model developed from the measurement model (Anderson & Gerbing, 1988;Hatcher, 1994;Kline, 2005). ...
Article
This research examined the intention of Romanian tourists to travel nationwide in natural areas based on an extended TPB (Theory Perceived Behavior) model, in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic. Thus, the premise was that people would prefer less risky experiences and would see ecotourism in protected areas as a form of resilient tourism that reduces the threat of infection with the SARS-COV-2 virus or its mutations. This study tested a conceptual model that showed that this intention was influenced by the three variables of the TPB model - attitude, subjective norms and perceived behavioral control, complemented by other variables such as the feeling of security offered to tourists by natural areas in the context of the Covid-19 pandemic, the motivations of tourists that involve ecotourism in nature and cultural activities in Romanian natural areas, personal values in travel in Romanian natural areas, civic attitude to support national tourism. The proposed research model incorporated the construct of the feeling of security offered to tourists by Romanian natural areas as a result of the Covid-19 crisis, as a mediator between the attitude of traveling at national level and the motivations of tourists involved in ecotourism in nature and cultural in the Romanian natural areas. In this context, the proposed model explains a substantial proportion of the total variance of the intent-dependent variable in this study. In the long run, the promotion of ecotourism, as a resilient form of tourism, in a pandemic context, could reduce the risk of spreading the virus and contribute to supporting Romanian Eco destination so that national tourism recovers from the economic crisis caused by the COVID pandemic 19.
... In assessing the measurement model, reliability and validity were first evaluated. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was adopted for assessing internal consistency reliability, convergent reliability and discriminant validity of constructs to assess the capacity of measurement items in capturing their constructs (Anderson and Gerbing, 1988;Hair et al., 2012). 4.2.1 Internal consistency reliability. ...
Article
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Purpose - Due to the frenetic and dynamic working conditions ascribed to Architecture, Engineering and Construction (AEC) project organizations, enormous research has addressed the poor mental health propensity of project management practitioners (PMPs). However, research has not considered the distant factors related to organizational design causing poor mental health. Therefore, this study addresses the problem by integrating institutional theory, agency theory and resource-based theory (RBT) to explore the relationship between organizational design elements: project governance, knowledge management, integrated project delivery, project management skills and mental health management indicators. Examples of mental health management indicators include social relationships, work-life balance and project leadership. Design/methodology/approach- Purposive sampling method was adopted to collect survey data from 90 PMPs in 60 AEC firms in Australia. Structural equation modelling (SEM) was utilized to test the relationship between the variables. Findings - The research found that project governance, knowledge management and integrated project delivery are positively correlated to mental health management indicators. However, the research finding suggests that project management skills have a negative impact on mental health management indicators. Originality/value- The findings offer guidelines to AEC firms on achieving positive mental health management outcomes through concentration on project governance, knowledge management and integrated project delivery. It further calls for a reconsideration of existing project management skills causing poor mental health management outcomes.
... The two-step approach proposed by Anderson and Gerbing (1988) was used for data analysis. Herein, the measurement model was initially assessed by employing confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) to provide validity and construct reliability. ...
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Drawing upon the Theory of Planned Behaviour, this study explores young educated consumers’ motivations for buying second-hand clothing, including four additional constructs; novelty-seeking, frugality, being environmentally friendly, and treasure hunting in the original model. The additional constructs are derived from the Theory of Basic Values. Data were gathered from 344 participants through the judgmental sampling technique. In addition, hypothesised associations between the variables were tested with structural equation modelling. The study's findings indicated that attitudes towards second-hand clothing, subjective norms and perceived behavioural control are the predictors of intention to buy second-hand clothing. Additionally, intention to buy second-hand clothing and perceived behavioural control predict second-hand clothing buying behaviour. Moreover, the direct effects of novelty-seeking, frugality, being environmentally friendly, and treasure hunting on the intention to buy second-hand clothing and second-hand clothing buying behaviour are significant and positive. However, when the intention to buy second-hand clothing is included in the model as a mediator, the effect of these variables on second-hand clothing buying behaviour is either partially reduced or finished. So, the study's findings reported the mediating role of intention to buy second-hand clothing in the extended model. Also, this study ensures applicable insights to young consumers and practitioners of the fashion industry.
... After achieving the convergent validity for the model constructs, we assessed the discriminant validity by constraining the correlation between each pair of factors (Anderson & Gerbing, 1988). If the constrained model that the factor correlation is fixed to 1 was significantly different from the free model whose covariance is unconstrained, then the discriminant validity achieved between the constructs. ...
... Following this, exploratory factor analysis was performed to reduce the dimensions of each construct. Using software AMOS version 23, confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and structural equation modeling were conducted, following Anderson and Gerbing's (1988) two-step approach. The CFA was performed to establish a solid measurement model and to verify the factor structure. ...
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Purpose-The effects of travel motivation and emotional experience on both tourist satisfaction and destination loyalty are recognized and have been extensively researched as key factors in tourism success. However, the structural relationships between these factors, considering the mediating effects of eudaimonic well-being (optimal psychological functioning), have been scarcely investigated in the consumer tourist behaviors literature. This study aims to develop an integrated model explaining the impact of travel motivation and emotional experience on tourist satisfaction and destination loyalty, mediated by eudaimonic well-being in the realm of domestic tourism. Design/methodology/approach-A quantitative survey was conducted with 321 domestic tourists visiting Aqaba in Jordan; structural equation modeling was used to analyze the empirical data. Findings-The findings of this study indicate that both travel motivation and emotional experience have a direct effect on eudaimonic well-being and that eudaimonic well-being has a direct effect on both tourist satisfaction and destination loyalty. Additionally, travel motivation and emotional experience have significant indirect impacts on post-consumption behaviors mediated by eudaimonic well-being. Originality/value-This study contributes to the literature on consumer behavior in a tourism context by developing a fresh model that improves theoretical knowledge of the relationships between travel motivation, emotional experience and eudaimonic well-being, which underlie tourist satisfaction and destination loyalty formation. This study also advances theoretical understanding of the key roles of eudaimonic well-being in the tourist experience. Managerial implications of these findings are discussed.
... Así como también, la validez nomológica del método teórico se analizó por medio del test de la Chi cuadrada que es la medida fundamental, donde el valor final de la función de ajuste o de minimización constituye la medida de la chi-cuadrada (Lévy et al. 2005); por medio del cual el modelo teórico fue comparado con el modelo ajustado. Y los resultados obtenidos indican que las diferencias no significativas del modelo teórico son buenas en la explicación de las relaciones que se observaron entre los constructos latentes (Anderson & Gerbing, 1988;Hatcher, 1994 *** = p < 0.001 ...
Chapter
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Innovation has become a really important strategic variable due to the companies are more consistent to the relevance that innovation has in every aspect of the companies. Also they are relevant in the barriers that they have to develop their own activities. This investigation has the means to find the influence that innovation in competitiveness of Guadalajara’s SME sector. The structure of this research focus in correlating this wo variables using the method of structural equations; with this we can find out how important is innovation between the small and medium manufacturing businesses in Guadalajara. Thanks to this method we can find which factors are more significative for innovation and which one we have to reinforce to achieve competitiviness in the manufacturer SMEs of Guadalajara.
... 2005); por medio del cual el modelo teórico fue comparado con el modelo ajustado . Y los resultados obtenidos indican que las diferencias no significativas del modelo teórico son buenas en la explicación de las relaciones que se observaron entre los constructos latentes (Anderson & Gerbing, 1988;Hatcher, 1994) . Estos resultados de la aplicación del Mec se presentan en la siguiente Tabla 5 . ...
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In the last 15 years, knowledge management (km) has impacted society from the process of generating innovations, manage, share and spread them across the organization, looking for the tacit knowledge to explicit knowledge, getting within and outside of the firm, and it’s understood in the same way. The km is vital to find solutions to the problems required by the society and this will generate more value to it, so the present study was performed in manufacturing smes plastic and metal mechanical industry in Guadalajara, to detect km dimensions impacts in competitiveness. The analysis is done through structural equations to validate or reject research hypotheses.
... The average variance extracted (AVE) values were above the .50 cut off and all parameter es mates were significant (±1.96) indica ng evidence of convergent validity (Anderson & Gerbing, 1988). The results of Confirmatory factor analysis are displayed in Table 2. Discriminant validity was also obtained since the sugges ons of Fornell and Larcker's, (1981) were followed to report the AVE value for each latent construct. ...
Article
Events play a fundamental role in all contexts of society, in each territory. The relevance of events in the nautical tourism sector is no exception, due to the impacts it produces on tourist destinations sought by visitors and tourists who intend to take advantage of it. It appears that tourists are increasingly looking for a destination that has a wide range of goods and services, including events. In this context, it is essential for the territory (ies) to find strategies to promote events for the attractiveness of a greater wider number of visitors and tourists, being even useful as a way of subjecting these activities to environmental quality standards and minimizing the impact of tourist seasonality. This article aims to highlight the relevance of events in the promotion of nautical tourism, where events are considered as tourist attractions to promote the image of the Médio Tejo tourist destination. The methodology followed a base of analysis based on the pyramid of evaluation of tourist events (Getz, 2005), with emphasis on wakeboard, associated with nautical tourism. The results of this study demonstrate that the events contribute to the promotion of territories through the relevance attributed to nautical tourism. The events allow strategies to diversify the tourist offer, reinforcing the interest and the flow of visitors and tourists for the enjoyment and appreciation of heritage resources associated with this tourist segment. KeyWords: Nautical Tourism, Events, Territorial Promotion, Heritage Resources
... df = 265, p = .000, χ 2 /df = 3.543) with goodness-of-fit (GFI = 0.826, AGFI = 0.787, NFI = 0.734, CFI = 0.791, RMSEA = 0.079) indicating a poor fit of the model (Anderson & Gerbing, 1988). We then omitted Items 7 and 16 because their loadings were less than 0.4. ...
Article
Though prior studies have raised the issue that excellent service that exceeds customer expectations can negatively impact customer perceptions, we still lack a comprehensive understanding of this phenomenon in the foodservice industry. This study aims to conceptualize restaurant over-service behaviors and develop a multi-dimensional instrument for this construct. This study uses focus groups to identify restaurant over-service behaviors. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and confirmatory factory analysis (CFA) yield a five-dimension, 23-item instrument. The categorization and descriptions of restaurant over-service behaviors may serve as a reference for managers to determine whether their high-quality services overwhelm customers and to identify negative perceptions of excessive services. If the needs of customers can be understood alongside how certain service actions disturb customers, elements that lead to over-service can be eliminated or corrected, allowing for time, effort and money to be invested more effectively.
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Objective Lifestyle-induced nasopharyngeal carcinoma is a serious but preventable risk factor. This study serves to develop and validate a questionnaire that aims to predict the health behavioural intention on smoking cessation in Sarawak, Malaysia using the Health Belief Model (HBM). Design A cross-sectional study. Setting Urban and suburban areas in Sarawak, Malaysia. Participants The preliminary items of the instrument were developed after extensive literature review. The instrument was translated into the Malay language using the forward-backwards method before commencing with the content validity by a panel of 10 experts. Face validity was done both quantitatively and qualitatively by 10 smokers. The construct validity of the instrument was evaluated through exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). A total of 100 smokers participated in phase 1 for EFA, while 171 smokers participated in phase 2 for CFA. Internal consistency was measured using Cronbach’s alpha coefficients to evaluate the reliability. Results In the exploratory stage, the factor loading of each item remained within the acceptable threshold. The final revised CFA yielded appropriate fit of the seven-factor model with the following model fit indices: χ ² =641.705; df=500; p<0.001; comparative fit index=0.953; Tucker-Lewis Index=0.948; root mean square error of approximation=0.041. Satisfactory convergent validity and divergent validity were shown, with the exception of one pairwise construct. The internal reliability of these scales was above the desirable threshold, with Cronbach’s alpha coefficients ranging from 0.705 to 0.864 and 0.838 to 0.889 in phases 1 and 2, respectively. Conclusions The study substantiated the instrument to be valid and reliable for predicting smokers’ health behavioural intention to reduce cancer risk. The instrument is made up of 34 items, categorised into two sections, six HBM constructs and health behavioural intention. The instrument can be utilised for other smoking cessation-related cancers in different at-risk populations.
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Thesis
Cette recherche a pour objectif de cerner les déterminants de partage de Brand Content Digital (BCD) par les e-Leaders d'opinion sur les réseaux socioprofessionnels. Ce choix repose sur deux constats ; premièrement, la littérature sur les Médias Sociaux, s'est centrée sur la catégorie des Réseaux Socionumériques RSn (e.g. Facebook, Instagram, Myspace, Friendster…) au détriment de la catégorie des sites de réseautage professionnel (LinkedIn, Viadeo, Xing, SkilledAfricans…), malgré leur importance dans les contextes B2B et B2G. Deuxièmement, le partage de Brand Content Digital (BCD) est effectué par une infime partie des membres de ces réseaux socioprofessionnels, qui sont des Leaders d'opinion digitaux, dont les motivations semblent différer de ce que propose la littérature à propos des membres ordinaires de ce type de réseaux. Dans une perspective hypothético-déductive, la recherche s'est déployée en trois phases. Une première phase qualitative a permis de conduire six entretiens en profondeur avec les experts et les gestionnaires des réseaux socioprofessionnels en France (i.e. LinkedIn et Viadeo), complétés par 5 mini-focus groupes menés dans deux villes différentes (Angoulême et Poitiers). Cette première phase d'analyse qualitative a permis d'élaborer un modèle conceptuel des antécédents de partage de BCD par les e-Leaders d'opinion, fondé sur la Théorie du Comportement Planifié (TCP). Ensuite, ce modèle a été testé à travers 312 questionnaires en ligne administrés auprès de e-Leaders d'opinion, sélectionnés selon une nouvelle approche méthodologique, dite métrique-algorithmique. Les résultats de cette recherche permettent d'apporter différents types de contribution au débat scientifique. Tout d'abord, elle conduit à valider la structure de la TCP et sa force explicative sur la catégorie des réseaux socioprofessionnels, en soulignant que l'e-réputation et le gain social sont les facteurs attitudinaux clés expliquant la propension des e-Leaders d'opinion à s'engager dans le partage de BCD. En outre, ce travail permet de déterminer certaines motivations contextuelles propres tant aux Leaders d'opinion digitaux qu'à la catégorie des réseaux socioprofessionnels. Cette recherche offre également un certain éclairage sur le fonctionnement et l'évolution du rôle modérateur des traits de personnalité des leaders d'opinion digitaux sur l'intention et l'expérience de partage de BCD.A la lumière des résultats obtenus, plusieurs pistes et implications managériales sont proposées, permettant ainsi d'assoir et assister les webmanagers des entreprises dans l'optimisation de la diffusion de leurs campagnes BCD, en déterminant notamment sur quelle variable et dans quelle mesure il faut agir, observer et contrôler.
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Background Technological progress in artificial intelligence has led to the increasing popularity of virtual assistants, i.e., embodied or disembodied conversational agents that allow chatting with a technical system in a natural language. However, only little comprehensive research is conducted about patients' perceptions and possible applications of virtual assistant in healthcare with cancer patients. This research aims to investigate the key acceptance factors and value-adding use cases of a virtual assistant for patients diagnosed with cancer. Methods Qualitative interviews with eight former patients and four doctors of a Dutch radiotherapy institute were conducted to determine what acceptance factors they find most important for a virtual assistant and gain insights into value-adding applications. The unified theory of acceptance and use of technology (UTAUT) was used to structure perceptions and was inductively modified as a result of the interviews. The subsequent research model was triangulated via an online survey with 127 respondents diagnosed with cancer. A structural equation model was used to determine the relevance of acceptance factors. Through a multigroup analysis, differences between sample subgroups were compared. Results The interviews found support for all factors of the UTAUT: performance expectancy, effort expectancy, social influence and facilitating conditions. Additionally, self-efficacy, trust, and resistance to change, were added as an extension of the UTAUT. Former patients found a virtual assistant helpful in receiving information about logistic questions, treatment procedures, side effects, or scheduling appointments. The quantitative study found that the constructs performance expectancy (ß = 0.399), effort expectancy (ß = 0.258), social influence (ß = 0.114), and trust (ß = 0.210) significantly influenced behavioral intention to use a virtual assistant, explaining 80% of its variance. Self-efficacy (ß = 0.792) acts as antecedent of effort expectancy. Facilitating conditions and resistance to change were not found to have a significant relationship with user intention. Conclusions Performance and effort expectancy are the leading determinants of virtual assistant acceptance. The latter is dependent on a patient’s self-efficacy. Therefore, including patients during the development and introduction of a VA in cancer treatment is important. The high relevance of trust indicates the need for a reliable, secure service that should be promoted as such. Social influence suggests using doctors in endorsing the VA.
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The literature review lacks empirical studies on the role of big data analytics (BDA) and green technological innovation capabilities (GTICs) in promoting the sustainable performance of the manufacturing industry. The primary objective of this study is to examine the role of BDA-technology capability, GTIC, and environmental orientation toward green production and sustainable firm performance. Moreover, this research paper investigates the mediating role of green production and green competitive advantage and the moderating role of corporate reputation and supply chain innovativeness. Primary data was collected from Pakistani manufacturing firms through the survey method. Structural equation modeling was applied to measure and verify the relationship of proposed hypotheses. Empirical findings show BDA technology capability, GTIC, and environmental orientation positively contribute to green production. Moreover, green production helps achieve a green competitive advantage, and green competitive advantage positively influences sustainable firm performance. Furthermore, mediating role of green production and green competitive advantage and moderating role of corporate reputation and supply chain innovativeness was also confirmed. This study contributes by developing a comprehensive model showing the relationship between organizational capabilities, BDA technology capability, GTIC, and sustainable firm performance by considering potential mediators and moderators. Thus, this research suggests enhancing green production and sustainable firm performance through adopting BDA technology capability and GTIC by Pakistani manufacturing firms.
Thesis
L’expérience étudiante non-académique est devenue un levier incontournable au sein des écoles de commerce françaises pour faire face aux transformations de leur marché, comme en témoigne l’évolution des comportements des étudiants. Ces derniers, appartenant à la génération Z, possèdent des usages digitaux qui impactent directement leurs attentes vis-à-vis des établissements. Dans ce cadre, proposer des services non-académiques numériques de bonne qualité devient central pour influencer la satisfaction étudiante.Ce travail est réalisé dans le cadre d’un dispositif CIFRE au sein d’un cabinet de conseil en stratégie et s’appuie sur une méthodologie mixte au travers d’une recherche-intervention et d’une étude quantitative. Les résultats mettent en avant l’impact positif de la qualité perçue des services numériques non-académiques sur la satisfaction étudiante, les services associés à la vie quotidienne ayant la plus grande d’influence. Un biais de surconfiance est également démontré : les étudiants de la génération Z surestiment leurs compétences numériques. Enfin, la méconnaissance de l’offre de services disponible nuit à la satisfaction.
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With the unprecedented growth of YouTube in the South Korean video market, this study aims to understand its exponential expansion of users by investigating the network effects of YouTube as a shared platform. To this end, we propose a new acceptance model where two discrete intentions (to subscribe to and share YouTube channels) were designated within the same phase and named sequential acceptance. For an analysis of the new model, the study conducted an online survey, due to Covid-19 circumstances, on generation Z YouTube users for a month in April 2021 and found 377 valid data. We used PLS-SEM for the model assessment and revealed meaningful explanatory power of sequential acceptance. To be specific, subscription intention plays an anchor point engendering a significant influence on sharing intention in that perceived values revealed mediating effects through subscription intention, validating the sequential acceptance. The value of this study is that our multi-layered intentions explain the user’s acceptance in-depth compared to existing studies and that our model can be a transformative foundation for future platform and acceptance studies by applying them in a different context. The study then recommends a series of actions to improve research and marketing strategy on a shared platform.
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A lot of previous research has highlighted the negative consequences of Internet addiction. However, relatively few is known about the underlying mechanism for Internet addiction among college students in relation to family function. The present study explored the relationship between family function and Internet addiction among college students, as well as the mediating effects of alexithymia and loneliness. A sample of 783 Chinese college students were administered a number of psychometric scales including the "General Function" subscale of the Chinese version of the Family Assessment Device, Toronto Alexithymia Scale, UCLA Loneliness Scale, and Revised Chinese Internet Addiction Scale. The results showed that family function was negatively associated with Internet addiction; the association was significantly mediated by alexithymia; the association was significantly mediated by loneliness; and alexithymia and loneliness sequentially mediated the association. The total mediating effect was 63.96%. The results of the present study are of great significance to the prevention and intervention of Internet addiction among college students.
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