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New Forms and Functions of Subordinate Clause in Kurdish

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Abstract

Abstract Kurdish is an agglutinative language, so that subject and object might appear as a dependent morpheme, and sometimes they would become a zero morpheme and disappear in sentence, but still they have obvious meaning. Kurdish speaker can distinguish between the meanings of sentences that consist in same word, but have different gist, because of rhythm. However, it becomes more challenging in writing and grammatical analyzes. Moreover, this complexity is advance more in complex sentences, which is concentrated on in this article. There are various classifications for Kurdish subordinate clause in terms of semantic. They highlighted the meaning of sentences. So that the categorizations are different with each other, and each linguist shows its opinion due to the fact that meaning is tricky itself, and would change easily with context. To be more accurate, in this study, Kurdish subordinate clause will be classified in terms of syntax, which is static. Keywords: Kurdish grammar, lexical clauses, simple sentence, compound sentence, complex sentence
International Journal of Kurdish Studies No. 1/2 ( July 2015 ) 1
IJOKS
International Journal of Kurdish Studies
(ISSN:2149-2751)
1 (2), pp. 1 - 14
http://www.ijoks.com
New Forms and Functions of Subordinate Clause in Kurdish
Kürtçede yan cümleciklerin yeni biçim ve işlevleri
Hewa Salam Khalid
1
, Atta Mostafa Hamamorad
2
Abstract
Kurdish is an agglutinative language, so that subject and object might appear as a dependent morpheme, and
sometimes they would become a zero morpheme and disappear in sentence, but still they have obvious meaning.
Kurdish speaker can distinguish between the meanings of sentences that consist in same word, but have different
gist, because of rhythm. However, it becomes more challenging in writing and grammatical analyzes. Moreover,
this complexity is advance more in complex sentences, which is concentrated on in this article. There are various
classifications for Kurdish subordinate clause in terms of semantic. They highlighted the meaning of sentences.
So that the categorizations are different with each other, and each linguist shows its opinion due to the fact that
meaning is tricky itself, and would change easily with context. To be more accurate, in this study, Kurdish
subordinate clause will be classified in terms of syntax, which is static.
Keywords: Kurdish grammar, lexical clauses, simple sentence, compound sentence, complex sentence
Kurte
Kurdî zmanêkî lkawye, leber ewe bker w berkar lewaneye wek morfîmî yarîdeder le risteda derbkewn, tenanet
hendêkcar debne morfîmî sifr w dernakewn, legel eweşda hestyan pê dekrêt le ruî manawe. Qsekerî Kurd
detwanêt cyawazî bkat le nêwan manaî ew rstaney ke le heman wşe pêk hatwn w watay cyawazyan heye, be hoy
awazî qsekirdnewe. Herçende em cyakrdneweye kemêk grantr debêt le katî nusîn w şîkrdnewey rêzmanî.
Tenanet em alozye zyatrîş debêt rstey alozda, ke lem lêkolîneweyeda tîşkî xrawete ser. Dabeşkirdnî
corawcorman heye le rwangey sîmantîkyewe bo larista le zmanî Kurdî da, ke grngyan be watay riste dawe. Le
encamda polênkrdnekan cyawazn la yektir w her zmanewanêk ray xoy le barewe derbrîwe. Çunke xoy le xoyda
mana negor nye w zor be asanî gorankarî beser dêt le jîngeî axawtn. Lem lêkolîneweye da larista polên krawe be
gwêrey erke rêzmanyekey, ke em dabeşkirdne deşêt wrdtir w negortir bêt.
Peyvên Serekê: Rêzmanî Kurdî, amrazekanî bestnewe, ristaî sade, ristaî lêkdraw, ristaî aloz.
Recommended citation:
Khalid, H. S. & Hamamorad, A. M. (2015). New Forms and Functions of Subordinate Clause in Kurdish.
International Journal of Kurdish Studies 1 (2), pp.1 14.
1
Corresponding Author: Koya University Kurdish Department - Kurdistan Region of Iraq
E-mail: hewa.salam@koyauniversity.org
2
Halabja University English Department –– Kurdistan Region, E-mail: atta.hawrami82@gmail.com
Article
Khalid & Hamamorad New Forms and Functions of Subordinate Clause in Kurdish
International Journal of Kurdish Studies No. 1/2 ( July 2015 ) 2
INTRODUCTION
Studies of Kurdish language are generally focused on language family, Kurdish
dialects, language policy and so on. There is not enough works in the field of Kurdish
grammar, in particular in English language. It might be because Kurdish is not standardized
and each dialect works in its own.
Due of the fact that Kurdish is an agglutinative language, considerate the construction
of Kurdish sentence would be challenging for speakers of some other languages, for example
English speakers. This is because both subject and object might be agglutinated and appear as
a dependent morpheme, and in some cases the dependent morpheme will not appear. So that,
there can be only one word that have proper meaning and work as a complete sentence
because of its zero morpheme. Zero morpheme is a hidden morpheme that is not appeared, but
still have a role and meaning in a sentence. In contrast, English sentences need to have
independent subject, object and verb. Furthermore, compound and complex sentences also
need to be analyzed and categorized by considering other parts of sentence such as lexical
clauses.
Likewise other languages, there are two kinds of categorizations of Kurdish sentences.
The first one, which are the traditional works, classifies Kurdish sentences in terms of
meaning. For example, Declarative, Interrogative, Imperative and Exclamatory sentences,
which sometimes might be problematic, because meaning would be tricky and it would
change depending on the context. The second one concentrates more on the structure of
sentence, such as simple sentence, compound sentence and complex sentence. Then, there
would be cohesive understanding due to the fact that structure is more obvious and concrete
than meaning; however, meaning also needs to be taken into account. These analytical types
are seen in categorizing subordinate clause as well. Those who classify subordinate clauses in
terms of meaning have dissimilar classifications. For example the classification of Zare
Yusupova is different with the classification of Nuri Ali Amin, and they are different from the
classification of Kurdistan Mukriani, and so on (Yusupova, 2005; Amin, 1960; Mukryani,
2004). The question is “Could subordinate clauses be classified in terms of grammar?” and
“How accurate is it?”
The study presents a qualitative analysis of subordinate clause in Kurdish language
‘Central Kurmanji dialect Sorani’. To have deeper understanding, the examples are defined,
translated, and compared to English grammar. Also the changes, in particular morphosyntax
changes, are presented within smart arts. Types of subordinate clause are classified in terms of
grammatical structure, and they were compared with types that categorized in terms of
meaning.
In general, excluding introduction and conclusion, the study consists of two main
parts; the first part is sentence in Kurdish language. In this part, various descriptions for
sentences are analyzed, and Kurdish sentences is compared with sentences in English. Then,
forms of Kurdish sentences are classified in terms of meaning and structure. Also, types of
lexical clause are presented. The second part focuses on the classification of Kurdish
subordinate clause in terms of grammatical structure.
Khalid & Hamamorad New Forms and Functions of Subordinate Clause in Kurdish
International Journal of Kurdish Studies No. 1/2 ( July 2015 ) 3
1. Sentence in Kurdish language
Generally, there are various definitions for a sentence, and each comes from a special
point of view, or it is defined according to a particular language. For example sentence is
defined as ‘a set of words that is complete in itself, typically containing a subject and
predicate, conveying a statement, question, exclamation, or command, and consisting of a
main clause and sometimes one or more subordinate clauses (Oxford Dictionary, 2015). This
definition is totally acceptable for English language, but it might not be appropriate for some
other languages that difference with English, for example Kurdish language. This is because
the structure of Kurdish language is grammatically different from English language. So, one
needs to look for Kurdish linguistic definitions for sentence to understand more about it in
Kurdish. There are fundamental differences between the two languages, for example; standard
word order in Kurdish is SOV, while English standard word order is SVO (Bybee, 2002, p.
4). Also, Kurdish language is an agglutinative language, which means that Kurdish sentence
may consist of only one word, whereas the definition of sentence in English language confirm
that it is a combination of ‘a set of words’ as mentioned above. To be more obvious, take
these Kurdish sentences and their meanings in English as examples:
- 
- /hɑ:t/ means: He/She came.
- 
- /rɔɪiʃt/ means: He/She went.
In Kurdish sentences, subject has not appeared as an independent morpheme, however,
Kurdish speaker still sense the meaning of hidden morpheme. Regarding English sentences,
they have an independent subject.
To cover Kurdish sentences within a definition, Kurdish linguists suggest various
definitions for sentence. Some of these definitions looked at Kurdish sentence semantically,
for example sentence is defined by Tofiq Wahbi as ‘set of words that have complete meaning’
(Mukiryani, 2002, p. 8). Also, Nuri Ali Hama-Amin says; ‘when we are speaking or writing,
some morphemes will be used, they have proper meaning, and there will be a verb’ (Amin,
1960, p. 37). Both Kurdish definitions almost express similar idea and they might have gotten
benefit from the English definitions or the definition for sentence in other languages.
Moreover, they have concentrated on meaning of sentence, so they would not be wildly
accurate due to the fact that meaning is very tricky, and it often depends on context. On the
other hand, there are grammatical definitions for a Kurdish sentence. Muhamad Maruf
Fattah's view can be taken as an example, who argued that; ‘sentence is the biggest item in
syntax that is independent in terms of construction’ (Fattah, 1990, p. 98). It is believed that
this definition is more appropriate for Kurdish sentences, it encompasses all types, and it
brings back sentence into syntax.
Regarding the types of sentences, similar with other languages, there are two kinds of
classifications for Kurdish sentence. On one hand, sentences are classified in terms of
Khalid & Hamamorad New Forms and Functions of Subordinate Clause in Kurdish
International Journal of Kurdish Studies No. 1/2 ( July 2015 ) 4
meaning (Mukiryani, 2002; Kakil, 1995) that they generally are categorized in four functional
parts, which are:
1. Declarative sentence:

- /Bʌrd/ /lʌ/ /dʒeɪ/ /ḫāʾɔɪ/ /sʌndʒi:nʌ/. (Stone is heavy in its place.
3
)
2. Interrogative sentence:
- 
- /ɑ:ɪəʳ/ /Bʌrd/ /lʌ/ /dʒeɪ/ /ḫāʾɔɪ/ /sʌndʒi:ntrʌ/? (Is stone heavier in its place?)
3. Imperative sentence:
- 
- /ʌm/ /kɑ:rʌ/ /bkʌ/. (Do this work.)
4. Exclamatory sentence
- 
- /wɑ:w/! /Kwrdstən/ /zoʊr/ /dʒwənʌ/. (Wow! Kurdistan is very beautiful.)
Also, it might be important to say that the harmony of the speaker has a great role in
changing meaning of Kurdish sentence. One would not need any extra morpheme to change
the meaning of a sentence. The bottom sentences, can be changed just by harmony without
any grammatical change, however, it is recommended to use the keys in formal places.
- 
/Kwrdstɑ:n/ /wlətekɪ/ /ḫāʾoʊʃʌ/ (Formal and informal).
(Kurdistan is a beautiful country.)
-  
/Kwrdstɑ:n/ /wlətekɪ/ /ḫāʾoʊʃʌ/! (Informal).
(Kurdistan is a beautiful country!)
-  
/wɑ:w/!/Kwrdstɑ:n/ /wlətekɪ/ /ḫāʾoʊʃʌ/. (Informal).
(Wow! Kurdistan is a beautiful country.)
-  
/Kwrdstɑ:n/ /wlətekɪ/ /ḫāʾoʊʃʌ/? (Informal).
(Is Kurdistan a beautiful country?)
- 
/ɑ:ɪə/ /Kwrdstɑ:n/ /wlətekɪ/ /ḫāʾoʊʃʌ/? (Informal).
3
Kurdish gnomonic, which means human is more respected in its country of origin than diaspora.
Khalid & Hamamorad New Forms and Functions of Subordinate Clause in Kurdish
International Journal of Kurdish Studies No. 1/2 ( July 2015 ) 5
(Is Kurdistan a beautiful country?)
Similar with other languages, it would be more formal if the speaker uses proper and
full grammar rules. Also, for non-native speakers, it would be easier to use the key questions
for interrogative sentences, and use key exclamatory for exclamatory sentences. This is
because they might not be familiar with Kurdish language harmony.
On the other hand, Kurdish sentences may be classified in terms of structure. There is
a unified classification among Kurdish linguists that classify Kurdish sentence into three types
that mentioned bottom (Amin, 1960; Mirawdali, 2007; H.Rasul, 2005; Mukryani, 2004),
however, there might be some minor differences; for example, Abdulla H. Rasul (2005)put
both compound and complex sentence in a column, and simple sentence in the other column.
Types of Kurdish sentences in terms of structure:
1. Simple sentence: It includes at least one noun clause and one verb clause.’ (Amin,
2004) Such as;
- 
- /ɑ:zəd/ /nwst/. (Azad slept.)
- 
- /ʃɪri:n/ /nəmʌ/ /dənwset/. (Shireen is writing a message.)
Kurdish simple sentence also could be expanded by adjective, adverb and other
compliments. These extra words just make a sentence clearer, and erasing them will
not affect the main meaning. Furthermore, it could be made just by one verb with a
hidden noun phrase ‘zero morpheme’, as mentioned earlier.
2. Compound sentence: This kind of sentence consists of two simple sentences or more,
the sentences are independent in terms of meaning and grammar. Also, there is a
coordinating conjunction, conjunctive adverb or a semicolon between the sentences
(H.Rasul, 2005). For example;
- 
- /lə/ /ḫāʾʌw/ /həstɑ:m/ /w/ /dwətr/ /roʃtm/ /bo/ /zənko/.
(I woke up and then I went to university.)
- 
- /kwrʌkʌ/ /ɪərɪ/ /dwdʒolɪ/ /dʌkrd/, /əw/ /kətʌɪ/ /ktʃʌkʌ/ /ktebekɪ/ dʌḫāʾwendʌwʌ/.
(He was playing football, when she was reading a book.)
- 
- /nən/ /bo/ /nənʌwə/, /dʒoʃt/ /bo/ /kəsɑ:b/.
Khalid & Hamamorad New Forms and Functions of Subordinate Clause in Kurdish
International Journal of Kurdish Studies No. 1/2 ( July 2015 ) 6
(Bread is for baker, meat is for butcher
4
.)
3. Complex sentence: ‘It is joining two sentences that are different in syntax, one of them
is the main sentence, and another one is dependent, relative clauses are making the
relationship between both sentences’ (A.Omer, 2008). Complex sentences consist of
two main parts, which are:
A. Independent clause:
An independent clause expresses a complete thought. It can be used alone, and there is
not any relative clause in front of it (A.Ibrahim, 1980) (Amin N. A., 1960) (Fattah, 1990)
(Kakil, 1995) (Mukryani, 2004) (R.Barznji, 2004), for instance;

/sərkəwtw/ /dəbi:t/, /ədʒər/ /Ḫāʾot/ /mɑ:ndw/ /bkʌi:t/.
(You will succeed, if you work hard.)

/əw/ /kotrə/, /kə/ /fri:/, /dʒwɑ:n/ /bw/.
(That pigeon, that flew away, was beautiful.)
B. Dependent (subordinate) clause:
It is also a part of complex sentence. Although, it has the main parts of sentence such
as subject and verb, it cannot be complete and independent without the main clause. It is
linked with the independent clause grammatically and semantically (R.Barznji, 2004).
Dependent clause always plays a role in the main clause such as ‘subject, object…etc’. The
grammatical forms and functions of subordinate clause will be clarified in the next section.

/mɑ:ndʒekʌ/ /nʌmbi:ni:wə/, /boeə/ /dldʒrɑ:nm/.
(I have not seen him/her for a month, which is why I am sad.)

/d eəʳʌ/, /kʌ/ /əw/ /ḫāʾoʃi:/ /dəwet/.
(It is obvious, he/she loves her/him.)
Subordinating conjunctions, which are part of subordinate clause, will be explained
along with other lexical clauses below.
There are three types of lexical clauses:
1. Connector
In Kurdish language, there are some connectors that are used in simple sentences to make
a connection between two words within a sentence, (A.Ibrahim, 1980, p. 28). The
connector does not have independent meaning (Shwani, 2003, p. 52). For example;
4
Kurdish gnomonic, which basically means that everyone should do its work only.
Khalid & Hamamorad New Forms and Functions of Subordinate Clause in Kurdish
International Journal of Kurdish Studies No. 1/2 ( July 2015 ) 7
.
- /mn/ /dʌrom//bo/ /Hʌwler/.
(I will go to Erbil.)

- /mn/ /bʌ/ /tʃɑ:wi:/ / ḫāʾom//bi:ni:m/.
(I saw it by my eyes.)
2. Conjunction
Conjunctions join two sentences or more, which they have different aims, both joint
sentences remain independent. This is because conjunctions are not a part of the sentences
(Shwani, 2003, p. 54), for example ‘/w/ (and), /endʒə/ (after that), /bələm/ (but)….etc.’

/ɑ:zɑ:d/ /hɑ:t/ /w/ /nʌwz ɑ:d/ /roe ʃt/.
(Azad came and Nawzad went.)
3. Subordinating conjunctions
It is an article that makes a connection between independent and dependent clause. In
Kurdish and most other languages, it becomes a part of the dependent clause
(R.Barznji, 2004; Shwani, 2003). Also, it might not appear sometimes, in this case a
comma or semicolon would be used.

- /rɑ:weʒ/, /kʌ/ /zori:/ /ḫāʾwend/, /sʌrkʌwt/.
(Rawezh succeded because he studied hard.)

- /ʃʌw/ /t ɑ:ri:k/ /bw/, /ḫāʾoe/ /krd/ /bʌ/ /ʒwrd ɑ:/.
(It was a dark night, he/she came in.)
2. Categorizing Kurdish subordinate clause in terms of grammatical structure
Generally, there are more than one classification for subordinate clauses in Kurdish.
The traditional one has classified Kurdish subordinate clauses semantically. This has resulted
partial disagreement among linguists because there are various understanding regarding each
sentence. For example, the classification of Nuri A. Amin, who classify subordinate clause
into three parts ‘noun part, adjective part, adverb part’, is different from Kurdistan Mukriani,
who classify it into ten parts, and both of them are different with Zare Yusupova (Amin, 1960,
p. 51; Mukryani, 2004, pp. 77-88; Yusupova, 2005). To be more accurate, the modern
linguists have relied on the syntactical classification, however; some of the semantic spheres
are still seen due to the fact that a sentence is also a part of semantics as well (R.Barznji,
2004, p. 65).
In the syntactical classification, subordinate clause has a grammatical role similar to
other parts of sentence. There are types of subordinate clauses in Kurdish and their syntactic
role:
Khalid & Hamamorad New Forms and Functions of Subordinate Clause in Kurdish
International Journal of Kurdish Studies No. 1/2 ( July 2015 ) 8
1. Subjective subordinate clause
Kurdish is an SOV language, which basically means that the order of Kurdish words
in sentence is ‘subject + object + verb’, for example;

- /ɑ:zəd/ /nəmʌ/ /dənwset/.
(Azad is writing a letter.)
However, the noun phrases might disappear, but sill clear in terms of meaning
because, as been said earlier, Kurdish is an agglutinative language. For example;

- /nəmʌ/ /dənwset/.
(He/She is writing letter.)
In this sentence agglutinate pronoun has same meaning with subject, so the subject is
not appeared. Even, sometimes the agglutinate pronoun is zero morpheme such as;

- /roeʃt/.
(He/She went.)
As it generally known, a complex sentence consists of a simple independent sentence
and a dependent sentence. As previously showed, the simple independent sentence
may consist of only a verb. In the previous example, Kurdish speaker knows that the
subject is ‘he/she
5
’. This case is called zero morpheme.
When, subject is zero morpheme, the subordinate clause would take its role, which is
called subjective clause. The subjective clause may take its place after the main clause
or it cuts the main clause. This type of the clauses are joint by /-ka/ (Yusupova, 2005,
p. 201); for example:

/d eərʌ/, /kʌ/ /hi:tʃt/ /dəstnəkəwtwə/.
(It is obvious, which you have not got anything.)
Sentence = noun phrase + verbal phrase
Noun phrase = subjective subordinate clause
Verbal phrase = verb
5
In Central Kurdish dialect, there is not gender differences for pronouns, both (she/he) means / ʌw/.
Khalid & Hamamorad New Forms and Functions of Subordinate Clause in Kurdish
International Journal of Kurdish Studies No. 1/2 ( July 2015 ) 9
This smart art shows how the changes are made in Kurdish subjective subordinate
clause.
In such cases, the grammatical order of Kurdish language would change. In the above
example the order is (VSO).
2. Objective subordinate clause
It is clear that objective will appear with transitive verb, for example;

- /ʃɪri:n/ /nəmʌ/ /dənwset/.
(Shirin is writing a letter.)
Objective also might not appear as an independent word, and it becomes an
agglutinate pronoun. Likewise subject, there would be a zero morpheme object.
However, object still shows itself in meaning, such as;

/ʌw/ /pərəkəi:/ /dəwet/.Regular sentence with independent subject and object’

/dəeɪwet/.’Sentence with agglutinate pronoun’
(He/She wants the money.)
In complex sentence, object might appear as a dependent clause, and the subordinate
clause fill the place of object. This is because the main object would become a zero
morpheme. (R.Barznji, 2004). In this case, the subordinate clause has the same role as object,
and it always comes after the main clause, such as;

Sentence
/deərʌ/, /kʌ/ /hi:tʃt/ /dəstnəkəwtwə/.
 .
Noun phrase
,/kʌ/ /hi:tʃt/ /dəstnəkəwtwə/.

subjective subordinate clause
,/kʌ/ /hi:tʃt/ /dəstnəkəwtwə/.
.
verbal phrase
/deərʌ/

Verb
/deərʌ/

Khalid & Hamamorad New Forms and Functions of Subordinate Clause in Kurdish
International Journal of Kurdish Studies No. 1/2 ( July 2015 ) 10
- /bi:ni:m/, /kʌ//to/ /nɑ:rɑ:zit/.
(I saw that you were disagree.)
Sentence = noun phrase + verbal phrase
Noun phrase = zero
Verbal phrase = objective clause + verb
This smart art shows how the changes are made in Kurdish objective subordinate clause.
3. Indirect objective subordinate clause;
Indirect object is to make the meaning of the sentence clearer, and has its syntaxical
role, for example;

/mn/ /dʌtʃm/ /bo/ /hʌwler/.
(I will go to Erbil.)
In complex sentence, indirect object would become a full subordinate clause, but has
same role with the hidden indirect object in the main clause. Kurdistan Mukriani stated that
‘in those complex sentences that main object appears without indirect object, the subordinate
clause would take indirect object role, (Mukryani, 2004, p. 15).
Indirect objective clause will come after the main sentence, and there would not be a
subordinating conjunction. For example;

- /ɑ:zɑ:d/ /nʌwzɑ:di:/ /nɑ:rdbw/, /kʌ/ /bgʌremwʌ/.
(Azad had sent Nawzad, in order for return me.)
Sentence
/bi:ni:m/, /kʌ/ /to/ /nɑ:rɑ:zit/.
 .
Noun phrase
zero morpheme

verbal phrase
/bi:ni:m/, /kʌ/ /to/ /nɑ:rɑ:zit/.
.
subordinate clause
,/kʌ//to/ /nɑ:rɑ:zit/.
.
Verb
/bi:ni:m/

Khalid & Hamamorad New Forms and Functions of Subordinate Clause in Kurdish
International Journal of Kurdish Studies No. 1/2 ( July 2015 ) 11
Sentence = noun clause + verbal clause
Noun clause = subject
Verbal clause = object + verb + indirect objective subordinate clause
This smart art shows that how the changes are made in Kurdish indirect objective
subordinate clause.
4. Determinative subordinate clause
Determiner is a grammatical tool to define a word, phrase or sentence. Also, there
should be a word or phrase which has been clarified by the determiner. It is a semantic
connection in general, for example;

- /kotreki:/ / dʒwɑ:n/
(A beautiful pigeon)

- /dɑ:reki:/ bʌrz/
(A tall tree)

- /wlɑ:teki:/ /gʌʃʌsʌndw/
(A developed country)
In complex sentences, sometimes subordinate clause takes determinative role, and it
will define a word in the main sentence. So, this subordinate clause is called
determinative subordinate clause (H.Rasul, 2005; Mukiryani, 2002). It takes the
Sentence
/ɑ:zɑ:d/ /nʌwzɑ:di:/ /nɑ:rdbw/, /kʌ/ /bgʌremwʌ/.
.
Noun
phrase
subject
subject
/ɑ:zɑ:d/

verbal phrase
indirect objective
subordinate clause
, /kʌ/ /bgʌremwʌ/.
 .
verbal phrase
/nʌwzɑ:di:/ /nɑ:rdbw/

object
/nʌwzɑ:di:/

verb
/nɑ:rdbw/

Khalid & Hamamorad New Forms and Functions of Subordinate Clause in Kurdish
International Journal of Kurdish Studies No. 1/2 ( July 2015 ) 12
grammatical role of the defined noun in the main clause. There are some forms of
determinative subordinate clauses;
A. Determinative subordinate clause that define subject
There is a subject in the main clause, and it will be more defined, and it will
becomes clearer by a subordinate clause, for example;

- /mʌzn/ /kʌ/ /hʌvɑ:leki:/ /dlsozi:/ /mn/ /bw/, /kotʃi:/ /dwɑ:eɪ/ /krd/.
(Mazn, who was one of my best friends, passed away.)
B. Determinative subordinate clause that defines object

- /ʌw/ /mndɑ:leki:/ /hen ɑ:/, /kʌ/ /zor/ /rw/ /ḫāʾoʃ/ /bw/.
(He brought the child who was very lovely.)

- /dɑ:rek/ /brwenʌ/, /kʌ/ /krme/ /nʌbet/.
(Grow a tree that is not affected by worm
6
.)
In both sentences (/mndɑ:leki:/ and /dɑ:rek/) are object, and they were made clearer by
the subordinate clauses.
C. Determinative subordinate clause that defines indirect object

- /rebwɑ:r/ /lʌ/ /ʃɑ:r/, /kʌ/ /ʒi:ngʌi:/ /pɑ:k/ /neə/, /bezɑ:rʌ/.
(Rebwar is bored with city where the weather is polluted.)
In this sentence the subordinate clause determine /ʃɑ:r/, which is indirect object.
D. Determinative subordinate clause that defines a compliment
This kind of subordinate clauses determine a compliment in the main sentence, for
example in the following sentence, the subordinate clause determine /dʒenosaɪd/ in the
main sentence, which is a compliment.
 /gʌwrʌtri:n/ /t ɑ:w ɑ:ni:/ /r ʒemi:/ /peʃwi:/ /i:rak/ / dʒenos aɪd/ /bw/, /kʌ/
/tɑ:waneki:/ /newdʌwlateə/ .
(The biggest crime that former Iraqi regime committed was genocide, which is
international crime.)
6
Kurdish gnomonic that means the groups ‘in particular national groups’ will be defeated when a member of
them is disloyal.
Khalid & Hamamorad New Forms and Functions of Subordinate Clause in Kurdish
International Journal of Kurdish Studies No. 1/2 ( July 2015 ) 13
E. Determinative clause that defines determinative in main sentence
It determines a word that is determinator in the main clause. For example in the
following sentence, /slemani:/ determined the place of /rʌʃʌbeɪ/, and the subordinate
clause determined /slemani:/.

/rʌʃʌb eɪ/ /slemani:/, /kʌ/ /p eɪtʌḫāʾti:/ /roʃnbi:ri:/ /kwrdst ɑ:nʌ/, /zor/ /bʌhezʌ/.
The wind of Sulaimani where is the cultural capital of Kurdistan, is very
strong.
CONCLUSION
In conclusion, it would important to know that each language has its sphere, and one
cannot apply the definitions that were written for English language on Kurdish language. It is
also true for other languages. Kurdish is an agglutinative language, and it is possible to make
a Kurdish sentence in only one word that have proper and complete meaning because of
having zero morpheme. There are two main classifications for Kurdish sentence, one of them
classify sentences in terms of meaning, and another one is classify sentences in terms of
grammatical structure. Both of them play their roles, however, classification in terms of
grammar would be more accurate, in particular for those people who want to learn the
language. Also, each type of sentence has its lexical clauses.
Regarding complex sentence, the classification of subordinate sentence in terms of
grammatical structure is more accurate, because the other classifications could not be unified,
and grammar is generally not vague. So that each dependent clause has its grammatical role
and make a word or a morpheme within independent clause clearer. As such, one can find the
connection between the two sentences, define the types of Kurdish subordinate clauses,
differentiate them, and use complex sentences easily in a correct way.
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Amin, W. O. (2004). More things about linguistics (in Kurdish). Erbil: Aras Publications.
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Fattah, M. M. (1990). Linguistics (in Kurdish). Erbil: Salhaddin University.
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H.Rasul, A. (2005). A gist of Kurdish syntax (in Kurdish). Sulaimani: 1st edition.
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Kakil, Q. (1995). Types of sentence and theories of speaking (In Kurdish). Erbil: Salahaddin University 'Master thesis'.
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Mirawdali, K. (2007). Kurdish language dictionary (in Kurdish). Sulaimani: 1st edition.
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Mukiryani, K. (2002). Kurdish syntax; the simple sentence (In Kurdish). Erbil.