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I Shop therefore I Know that I Am: The Metaphysical Basis of Modern Consumerism

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... The discussion of the processes of consumption versus consumerism is of great importance. Certainly, they are different but related concepts: Consumption is part of daily life and the coverage of its needs while consumerism has become a central element of life in society that imposes an emotional experience on much of the public (Luhmann, 1997;Campbell, 2004;Bauman, 2007). Consumerism inexorably involves the imbalance that exists between what is produced, consumed and discarded, and its impact on the environment. ...
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The concept of consumerism brings together many of the social transformations that serve as predictors of present and future behaviors and act as vehicles for today's society. Its evolution is diffuse and corresponds to different periods of history that have incorporated the characteristics of desire, superficiality, and exclusivity that drive new needs and potentialities. Its importance underlies the need to analyze 46 theoretical approaches through their categorization in six dimensions and frequency count in Google Scholar. The methodology used a higher-order association, establishing the most significant combinations and weightings. From these results, the concept of consumerism is defined by the economic-social-cultural-ethical categories according to its frequency of use in Google. This shows economic influences as a determining factor, over and above processes that are far from the common good or the general interest.
... These changes have resulted in new configurations of consumer segments and their needs and expectations, with a marked effect on how people relate to buying and consumption Denegri & Martínez, 2004). We live in a "consumer society", in which consumption has become established as a natural need (Campbell, 2004), occupying an increasingly important space in both private life and social interaction (Denegri & Martínez, 2004;Martínez, 2007;Moulian, 1997). ...
Article
The object of the present reserach was to assess the psychometric properties of the Food Buying Styles Scale (Escala de Estilos de Compra de Alimentos – EEC-ALI) based on the Buying Styles Scale adapted by Denegri, Peñaloza, Elgueta and Sepúlveda (unpublished manuscript). This scale assesses planning, impulsiveness and compulsiveness with regards to food buying behavior. The sample consisted of 369 university students, male and female, from northern, central and southern Chile. We examined reliability and validity indicators. The analyses showed that the scale has appropriate psychometric properties, suggesting that the instrument is adequate for its use in the analysis of food buying styles in young people and specifically university students.
... Consumption is related to the consumer's desire to achieve their best version, reinforcing what each person would like to improve on himself (Levy, 1059). For Campbell (2004), this expectation can come from the subject's past experiences with the product, since memory is evoked and leads to believe that there will be greater pleasure if an experience lived in the past is repeated. Holbrook and Hirschman (1982) argue that consumption involves emotional, symbolic, sensory, hedonic, and aesthetic factors, thus constituting an experiential view. ...
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This study aimed to analyse whether sensory and symbolic elements used in perfume descriptions in internet sales can positively influence the level of involvement and consumer buying intention. To do so, a quasi-experimental design was adopted with the creation of three scenarios: one control group and two experimental groups. Each participant was presented to only one of the scenarios created, characterizing the model between subjects. Regarding the results, it was found that it is not possible to perceive differences between the means of the groups in relation to the dependent variables, except for a negative association between sensory aspects and the level of involvement. Therefore, it was concluded that it may not be advantageous to invest in sensory and symbolic aspects present in the product description in internet sales, it is necessary to rethink this strategy due the fact that this environment has a certain limitation with hedonics products.
... Betrachtet man daraufhin die Besonderheiten des modernen Konsums, so zeichne diesen aus, dass er im Unterschied zu traditionellen Konsummustern, die in die jeweilige Gesellschaftsstruktur strikt eingebettet seien, demgegenüber als weitgehend autonom eingeschätzt werden könne, sich größtenteils losgelöst von seiner sozialen Umgebung entfalte, primär durch Wünsche geleitet werde und nicht mehr am Althergebrachten klebe, sondern sich für alles Neue begeistere, also die komplette Abkehr von der vorherigen Konsumära darstelle. Außerdem spielten Emotionen und Imaginationen eine große Rolle (Campbell 2004) 53 . ...
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Daniel Bell war einer der ersten Sozialwissenschaftler, der sich mit der hedonistisch-mentalen Dimension des modernen Konsums offensiv auseinandergesetzt hat, wenngleich äußert kritisch, ja ablehnend. Die Analyse wird zeigen, dass er damit einen neuralgischen Punkt getroffen hatte. Dies wurde in der nachfolgenden Konsum- und Konsumentenforschung auch bemerkt und anerkannt. Seine ablehnende Haltung färbte seinen Befund allerdings äußerst negativ-pessimistisch ein, was die Relevanz dieser Dimension für den modernen Konsum eher verunklarte. Aus diesem Grunde folgt im Anschluss eine dichte Exposition eines elf Jahre danach veröffentlichten Essays von Colin Campbell zum gleichen Gegenstand, wie man fast sagen kann, um aufzuzeigen, dass die hedonistisch-mentale Dimension modernen Konsums durchaus positiv, perspektivisch und vor allem werturteilsneutral betrachtet werden kann und damit den Blick freigibt auf das Moderne des modernen Konsums.
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This chapter proposes that social scientists should explicitly recognize the existence of consumers who engage in ‘craft consumption’ and, hence, of an additional image of the consumer to set alongside those of ‘the dupe’, ‘the rational hero’ and the ‘postmodern identity seeker’. The term ‘craft’ is used to refer to consumption activity in which the ‘product’ concerned is essentially ‘both made and designed by the same person’ and to which the consumer typically brings skill, knowledge, judgement and passion while being motivated by a desire for self-expression. Such genuine craft consumption is then distinguished from such closely associated practices as ‘personalization’ and ‘customization’ and identified as typically encountered in such fields as interior decorating, gardening, cooking and the selection of clothing ‘outfits’. Finally, after noting that craft consumers are more likely to be people with both wealth and cultural capital, Kopytoff’s suggestion that progressive commodification might prompt a ‘decommodifying reaction’ is taken as a starting point for some speculations concerning the reasons for the recent rise of craft consumption.
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This chapter focuses on ultimate or existential questions, the so-called big questions that get at the heart of some of life’s big concerns—meaning and purpose; discerning right from wrong; responsibilities and obligations; existence of a higher purpose, force, or being; life after this life—and explores these from a variety of religious, spiritual, and secular worldview perspectives. Insights from disciplines such as philosophy, theology, and religious studies are highlighted to explore at deeper levels ideas related to these questions.
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This book extends the growing body of literature around the role of Islam and Islamic education in the lives of Muslim youth, and the qualities and skills needed to facilitate effective religious education among young people. İt explores Muslim youth within their religious and cultural settings, and it also examines their subjects and problems to bring a critical approach and a new understanding. İt investigates the Muslim identity from different perspectives and considers whether this identity has its roots solely in religion or whether it also emanates from the interplay of a variety of social forces, such as secularism, modernism, and postmodernity. This book is one of the few studies that contributed to the field using Worldview Theory. The importance of this book is enhanced by the fact that in Turkish society most of the challenges in the life of religious individuals have usually been confronted with formal religious considerations such as whether they conform to Islamic proclamations or not. Thus, the findings of the study may contribute to the development of new pedagogy and curriculum in religious education, particularly in secondary schools. The book contributes to the literature about religious education, typology of youths’ worldviews, identity and culture, and advances knowledge that has the potential to create greater social cohesion in Turkey.
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Until recently government policy in the UK has encouraged an expansion of higher education to increase participation and with an express aim of creating a more edu cated workforce. This expansion has led to competition between higher education institutions , with students increasingly positioned as consumers and institutions working to improve the extent to which they meet 'consumer demands'. Especially given recent government funding cuts, the most prevalent outlook in higher education today is one of business, forcing institutions to reassess the way they are managed and promoted to ensure maximum efficiency, sales and 'profits'. Students view the opportunity to gain a degree as a right, and a service which they have paid for, demanding a greater choice and a return on their investment. Changes in higher education have been rapid, and there has been little critical research into the implications. This volume brings together internationally comparative academic perspectives, critical accounts and empirical research to explore fully the issues and experiences of education as a commodity, examining: • the international and financial context of marketisation • the new purposes of universities • the implications of university branding and promotion • league tables and student surveys vs. quality of education • the higher education market and distance learning • students as 'active consumers' in the co-creation of value • changing student experiences, demands and focus. With contributions from many of the leading names involved in higher education including Ronald Barnett, Frank Furedi, Lewis Elton, Roger Brown and also Laurie Taylor in his journalistic guise as an academic at the University of Poppleton, this book will be essential reading for many. The Marketisation of Higher Education and the Student as Consumer offers a groundbreaking insight into the effects of government policy on the structure and operation of universities.
Social and cultural forms of modernity
  • R Bocock
  • K A Thompson