Technical ReportPDF Available

Recent Discussions on Cultural Landscapes in the Philippines

Authors:

Abstract

The Philippines is an island-nation, which has a long and continuing relationship with the land and sea. Its evidence is found in examples like the Rice Terraces of the Cordilleras, which is one of the most prominent living cultural landscapes in the UNESCO World Heritage List. This organically formed landscape holds traditional knowledge on the optimal use of water resources and ancient methods of high altitude sustainable farming technologies . The seemingly simple terrace technology demonstrates the ancient Ifugao people’s deep understanding of their natural environment including rain patterns, soil types, water resources and native vegetation, which they have fully utilized for their agro-forestry system. Because of more than 2000 years of evolution, it has also played a key role in the conservation of the surrounding forests and biodiversity of flora and fauna. Other examples of cultural landscapes can be found in different parts of the country, like the organically formed landscape of the Batanes archipelago and the associative landscape of the Mayon Volcano, which are both in the World Heritage Tentative List. There are many other examples of cultural landscapes in the Philippines, which reinforce the necessity for deeper discussions that holistically look at safeguarding these sites and promoting their sustainable use.
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REFERENCES!
!
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X(E*]BK*=7)#7%$FX&#7%$*.'"U/+!>(8?(8g!4G$%69568A!=('!X&E&%(7B&8<!><?+!77+\,[\/+!!!
!
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.$&%"'"98*R%$/$%H'"9*&",*T$,$-'"'"9S!n(8%68&o!:96#8!:;#?&BF!=('!Q&'6<#A&!2#8#A&B&8<+!:E#6%#$%&!#<!
p5<<7g]]#96#8[#;#?&BF+('A]D7[;(8<&8<]G7%(#?9],-./]-\],-./[3&7[..[.Y[:;%#["(8=[_#%6["6';G%[
LMP+7?=q!n:;;&99&?!./!hG8&!,-./o+!!
!
:SG68([18A)!3+!O,-.YR)!aQ&'6<#A&!C'&&9)!QGB#8!4&'&;&7<6(8!#8?!"G%<G'#%!>#8?9;#7&9!(=!"6<F!XD&%%&'9!
68!<5&!456%67768&9b+*nG87G$%695&?!;(8=&'&8;&!7#7&'o!?@A_*!"#$%"&#'("&)*WG:1(/'7:*("*D$&"'"9/*&",*
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Gabriel!Caballero!69!#!%#8?9;#7&!#';56<&;<!='(B!<5&!456%67768&9)!D5(!5#9!D('N&?!=('!%&#?68A!%#8?9;#7&!
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Asian cities are experiencing rapid growth. In 2011, 13 of the 23 megacities in the world have been identified to be in Asia. Understanding how heritage plays a role in the rapid changes of city development requires critical observation because its degradation is expected to impact on the quality of life of millions of individuals. This paper focuses on documenting the state of the art on research focused on heritage and development in Asia, as well as, to discuss the main findings and gaps. It also strives to identify Asian countries, cities and heritage properties where a great body of knowledge is already available. Notably, heritage properties are being set strategically as an anchor for sustainable urban development. However, they also seem to be suffering from the unsustainable growth of Asian cities. This paper abridges the criticisms on current practices, guidelines for best practices and sustaining theories developed by scholars in the field of urban heritage in Asia. This paper also looks into how the UNESCO Recommendation on the Historic Urban Landscape can be integrated to the urban development framework of Asian cities, amidst these changes.
Article
Outstanding historical trees embedded in cities constitute pertinent environmental assets, yet they are widely threatened in third-world cities. Inadequate understanding of this valuable natural-cum-cultural heritage hinders proper conservation. A case study of Guangzhou in south China evaluated floristic composition, age profile and biomass structure of historical trees, assessed their performance in major habitats (institutional, park and roadside), and established a prognosis for future growth and management. The 348 historical trees examined belonged to only 25 species, vis-à-vis 254 trees in the entire urban forest, dominated by five species and native members. Roadside had more trees, followed by institutional and park, with merely the most common four species shared by all habitats. The limited commonality reflected tree-performance differentiation by habitats exerting selection pressure on species. The institutional growth-regime was more conducive to nurturing high-caliber specimens, whereas park is less capable. Individual species achievement by habitats, derived from tree-count ranking and relative-abundance indices, could inform species choice and tree conservation. Few trees exceeded 300 years of age in the millennium-old city, echoing a history of intense tree-city conflicts. Potential life-span, trunk and crown diameters indicated ample opportunities for further expansion of biomass and landscape impacts, which would be straitjacketed by the tightening urban fabric.
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