ArticlePDF Available

Bio-field Treatment: An Effective Strategy to Improve the Quality of Beef Extract and Meat Infusion Powder

Authors:

Abstract and Figures

The present research work investigated the influence of bio-field treatment on two common flavoring agents used in food industries namely beef extract powder (BEP) and meat infusion powder (MIP). The treated powders were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), particle size analysis, surface area analysis, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The FT-IR results showed disappearance of triglycerides peaks in both the treated powders as compared to control. XRD results corroborated the amorphous nature of both control and treated samples. The BEP showed enhanced average particle size (d50) and d99 (size exhibited by 99% of powder particles) by 5.7% and 16.1%, respectively as compared to control. Contrarily, the MIP showed a decreased particle size (d50; 0.4% and d99; 18.1%) as compared to control. It was assumed that enormous energy was stored in MIP after bio-field treatment that led to fracture into smaller particles. The surface area was increased in both the treated powders. DSC result showed significant increase in melting temperature, in BEP and MIP, which indicated the higher thermal stability of the samples. However, the specific heat capacity (∆H) was decreased in both samples, which was probably due to high energy state of the powders.
Content may be subject to copyright.
Volume 5 • Issue 4 • 1000389
J Nutr Food Sci
ISSN: 2155-9600 JNFS, an open access journal
Open Access
Research Article
Nutrition and Food
Sciences
ISSN: 2155-9600
J
o
u
r
n
a
l
o
f
N
u
t
r
i
t
i
o
n
&
F
o
o
d
S
c
i
e
n
c
e
s
Mahendra et al., J Nutr Food Sci 2015, 5:4
http://dx.doi.org/10.4172/2155-9600.1000389
*Corresponding author: Shrikant P, Trivedi Global Inc., 10624 S Eastern
Avenue Suite A-969, Henderson, NV 89052, USA, Tel: 1602-531-5400; E-mail:
publication@trivedieffect.com
Received June 02, 2015; Accepted June 18, 2015; Published June 23, 2015
Citation: Mahendra KT, Gopal N, Shrikant P, Rama MT, Snehasis J, et al. (2015)
Bio-eld Treatment: An Effective Strategy to Improve the Quality of Beef Extract and
Meat Infusion Powder. J Nutr Food Sci 5: 389. doi:10.4172/2155-9600.1000389
Copyright: © 2015 Mahendra KT, et al. This is an open-access article distributed
under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits
unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the
original author and source are credited.
Bio-field Treatment: An Effective Strategy to Improve the Quality of Beef
Extract and Meat Infusion Powder
Mahendra KT, Gopal N, Shrikant P*, Rama MT, Snehasis J and Rakesh M
Trivedi Global Inc., 10624 S Eastern Avenue Suite A-969, Henderson, NV 89052, USA
Abstract
The present research work investigated the inuence of bio-eld treatment on two common avoring agents used
in food industries namely beef extract powder (BEP) and meat infusion powder (MIP). The treated powders were
characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), particle size analysis,
surface area analysis, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The FT-IR
results showed disappearance of triglycerides peaks in both the treated powders as compared to control. XRD
results corroborated the amorphous nature of both control and treated samples. The BEP showed enhanced average
particle size (d
50
) and d
99
(size exhibited by 99% of powder particles) by 5.7% and 16.1%, respectively as compared
to control. Contrarily, the MIP showed a decreased particle size (d
50;
0.4% and d
99
; 18.1%) as compared to control.
It was assumed that enormous energy was stored in MIP after bio-eld treatment that led to fracture into smaller
particles. The surface area was increased in both the treated powders. DSC result showed signicant increase in
melting temperature, in BEP and MIP, which indicated the higher thermal stability of the samples. However, the
specic heat capacity (∆H) was decreased in both samples, which was probably due to high energy state of the
powders.
Keywords: Beef extract powder; Meat infusion powder; Bio-eld
treatment; Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy; X-ray diraction;
Particle size analysis; Surface area analysis; Dierential scanning
calorimetry; ermo gravimetric analysis
Abbreviations: BEP: Beef Extract Powder; MIP: Meat Infusion
Powder; FT-IR: Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy; XRD: X-Ray
Diraction; DSC: Dierential scanning Calorimetry; TGA: ermo
Gravimetric Analysis; CHD: Coronory Heart Disease; BET: Brunauer-
Emmett-Teller; DTG: Derivative ermo Gravimetry
Introduction
Beef is known to have excellent nutritional value and it has been
widely consumed in many countries. e prominent reason for this
high food value is its strongest peroxide forming potential due to its
excellent myoglobin and haem levels [1,2]. Beef extract powder (BEP)
is highly concentrated meat stock and has been used in food industry
as a avouring agent in cooking and to prepare broth for drinks [3]. It
has been used since many years as a food additive and taste enhancer
in food technological applications. On the other hand, meat infusion
powder (MIP) has been used as a microbial growth medium and
avouring agent [4].
Coronory heart disease (CHD) is the main cause of death in western
countries. e life style and genetic backgrounds are two important
factors, which aects the mortality in CHD. e elevated level of
triglycerides is one of the main reasons for CHD. e factors such as
obesity, insulin resistance, excessive alcohol consumption, diabetes, and
kidney disease also causes risk of high triglycerides [5]. Moreover, the
red meat such as beef and less dark meat chicken also have the higher
triglycerides. Previously, it was suggested that removing triglycerides
from cooked meat aects the aroma and thus it can aect the quality of
the beef meat [6]. Hence, reducing the triglyceride content will directly
improve the health and it will improve the quality of the meat products.
Currently, no alternative and cost eective approaches are available to
alter the content of triglycerides, but bio-eld treatment may be a new
approach to change the physiochemical properties of powders made
from these meat products.
In physics, energy is a property of objects that can be transmitted
to other objects and changed into dierent forms but neither can be
created or destroyed [7]. According to Einstein’s equation (E=mc
2
)
the energy and matter are fundamentally related to each other [8].
Nonetheless, the energy is a eld of force which can signicantly
interact with any object at a distance and cause action. Furthermore, the
energy can exists in several forms such as kinetic, potential, electrical,
magnetic, and nuclear. Researchers have shown that short lived
electrical events or action potential exists in several types of animal
cells such as neurons, muscle cells, endocrine cells as well as plant cells.
e human nervous system consist the energy/information in the form
of electrical signals [9,10]. Whenever, these electrical signals uctuate
with time, the magnetic eld generates as per the Ampere-Maxwell
law, and cumulatively known as electromagnetic eld. Hence, the
electromagnetic eld being generated from the human body is known
as bio-eld energy [11].
Mr. Trivedi is known to exert prominent eects on external
surrounding using his unique bio-eld, herein referred as Bio-eld
treatment. Recently, it was investigated that bio-eld treatment
can signicantly change the characteristics of living and non-living
organisms. Subjecting bio-eld treatment on metals and ceramics
caused signicant changes in crystalline, thermal, and atomic
properties [12-19]. It has been recently published that the eect of
bio-eld treatment resulted in signicant improvement of the yield
and quality of various agriculture products [20-23]. e said bio-eld
Citation: Mahendra KT, Gopal N, Shrikant P, Rama MT, Snehasis J, et al. (2015) Bio-eld Treatment: An Effective Strategy to Improve the Quality of
Beef Extract and Meat Infusion Powder. J Nutr Food Sci 5: 389. doi:10.4172/2155-9600.1000389
Page 2 of 8
Volume 5 • Issue 4 • 1000389
J Nutr Food Sci
ISSN: 2155-9600 JNFS, an open access journal
exposure caused an increase in growth and anatomical characteristics
of an herb Pogostemon cablin that is commonly used in perfumes, in
incense/insect repellents, and alternative medicine [24]. Moreover,
in microbiology, bio-eld treatment has also changed the antibiotic
susceptibility patterns as well as produced biochemical reactions that
induced changes in the characteristics of pathogenic microbes [25-27].
Having inspired by these excellent results, in present study, an
attempt was made to investigate the physicochemical properties of BEP
and MIP that were exposed to the said Bio-eld. e bio-eld treated
powders were thoroughly characterized by FT-IR, XRD, DSC, TGA,
CHNSO, and particle size analysis.
Experimental
Materials and methods
e BEP and MIP were procured from HiMedia Laboratories Pvt
Ltd, India. e samples were grouped into two parts; one was kept
as a control sample, while the remaining part was subjected to Mr.
Trivedi’s bio-eld treatment and coded as treated sample. Aer that,
all the samples (control and treated) were characterized with respect
to FT-IR, CHNSO, XRD, particle size analysis, surface area analysis,
DSC, and TGA.
Characterization
Fourier transforms infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy: e infrared
spectra of BEP and MIP were recorded with FT-IR spectrometer
(Perkin Elmer, USA). IR spectrum was recorded in the range of 4000
to 500 cm
-1
.
CHNSO analysis: e BEP and MIP were analyzed for their
elemental composition (C,H,N,S, and O). e powdered samples were
subjected to CHNSO Analyzer using Model Flash EA 1112 Series,
ermo Finnigan Italy.
X-ray diraction (XRD) study: XRD of BEP and MIP were
analyzed using Phillips Holland PW 1710 X-ray diractometer system.
e wavelength of the radiation was 1.54056 angstrom. e data was
obtained in the form of 2θ versus intensity (a.u) chart. e obtained
data was used for calculation of crystallite size using the following
formula.
Crystallite size= kλ/b Cos θ
Where, λ is the wavelength and k is the equipment constant (0.94).
Particle size analysis: e average particle size and particle size
distribution were analyzed using Sympetac Helos-BF Laser Particle
Size Analyzer with a detection range of 0.1 µm to 875µm. Average
particle size d
50
and size exhibited by 99% (d
99
) of powder particles were
computed from laser diraction data table. e d
50
and d
99
value were
calculated using following formula.
Percentage change in d
50
size=100 × (d
50
treated- d
50
control)/ d
50
control.
Percentage change in d
99
size=100 × (d
99
treated- d
99
control)/ d
99
control.
Surface area analysis: e surface area of BEP and MIP were
characterized using Surface Area Analyzer, SMART SORB 90 BET
(Brunauer-Emmett-Teller), which had a detection range of 0.1-100
m
2
/g.
Dierential scanning calorimetry (DSC) study: e BEP and
MIP were used for DSC study. e samples were analyzed using a
Pyris-6 Perkin Elmer DSC on a heating rate of 10ºC/min under oxygen
atmosphere.
ermo gravimetric analysis (TGA): ermal stability of the BEP
and MIP were analyzed using Metller Toledo simultaneous TGA. e
samples were heated from room temperature to 400ºC with a heating
rate of 5ºC/min under oxygen atmosphere.
Results and Discussion
FT-IR spectroscopy
e FT-IR spectrum of control and bio-eld treated samples are
illustrated in Figure 1. e IR spectrum of control and BEP showed
(Figure 1) prominent vibration bands at 1760 cm
-1
(-C=O) and
1151 cm
-1
(-C-O) due to presence of triglycerides peak stretching in
the sample. Other important peaks were observed at 2895 and 2817
cm
-1
which can be attributed to C-H stretching vibration peaks. e
spectrum showed peaks at 1635 and 1587 cm
-1
attributed to presence of
characteristic protein bands such as amide-I and amide -II stretching
vibration peaks [28-31]. Another peak was observed at 3078 to
3780.2 cm
-1
attributed to -OH stretching vibration peak. e treated
sample showed considerable change in FT-IR spectrum (Figure 1).
We observed that the presence of triglycerides peak of -C=O (1760
cm
-1
) and C-O (1151cm
-1
) was disappeared in the treated BEP. e
result showed that the bio-eld treatment, probably removed the fatty
triglycerides components from the treated BEP. Additionally, it was
also observed that the characteristic –OH/-NH stretching vibration
peaks were reduced to lower wavenumbers 3064 cm
-1
,which indicated
the formation of strong intermolecular hydrogen bonding in the
treated sample [32,33]. ese results suggest that bio-eld treatment
has induced structural changes in the treated sample.
e FT-IR spectrum of control and treated MIP are presented in
Figure 2. e FT-IR of control powder showed (Figure 2) important
peaks at 1689 and 1589 cm
-1
due to amide-I and amide-II stretching
vibration peaks, respectively. Other important peaks were observed
at 1760 and 1157cm
-1
for C=O and C-O group, respectively due to
triglycerides. However, these two peaks were completely disappeared
in treated MIP (Figure 2) which indicated that bio-eld treatment
aected chemical changes in the treated sample.
Figure 1: FTIR spectrum of control and treated beef extract powder.
Citation: Mahendra KT, Gopal N, Shrikant P, Rama MT, Snehasis J, et al. (2015) Bio-eld Treatment: An Effective Strategy to Improve the Quality of
Beef Extract and Meat Infusion Powder. J Nutr Food Sci 5: 389. doi:10.4172/2155-9600.1000389
Page 3 of 8
Volume 5 • Issue 4 • 1000389
J Nutr Food Sci
ISSN: 2155-9600 JNFS, an open access journal
CHNSO analysis
Table 1 shows the results of CHNSO analysis of BEP and MIP.
e treated BEP showed substantial changes in terms of elemental
composition of the treated sample. e treated BEP showed 5.05%
increase in nitrogen as compared to control. e oxygen percentage
was increased by 3.82% in the treated BEP as compared to control. e
carbon percentage was also improved by 2.09% as compared to control
sample. Moreover, the treated BEP showed the presence of sulphur
element; however no trace of sulphur was found in control sample.
e presence of sulphur might play a crucial role in preserving the
comminuted meat products [34]. is data showed that the bio-eld
treatment led to change the elemental composition in BEP.
Whereas the treated MIP showed small percentage change in
nitrogen (0.77%) as compared to control powder. However, carbon and
hydrogen percentage was decreased by 1.22% and 7.13%, respectively
in the treated sample as compared to control. It was observed that there
was a signicant change in oxygen percentage in treated MIP (24.48%)
as compared to control sample. e treated MIP showed some trace
of sulphur (0.27%) though no sulphur was found in control sample.
All together, the CHNSO results conrmed that bio-eld treatment
signicantly changed the elemental percentage in treated samples.
X-ray diraction studies
e XRD diractogram of control and treated BEP sample are
illustrated in Figure 3, where, a and b represented to control and
treated sample respectively. e XRD showed the amorphous nature of
the control sample (Figure 3a) with a broad halo at 2θ equals to 20.0°.
e XRD of treated BEP did not reveal (Figure 3b) any dierences in
X-ray pattern of the sample. e treated samples also showed the broad
amorphous nature which was probably due to less ordered atomic
arrangement in the sample. e X-ray diractogram of control and
treated MIP are presented in Figures 4a and 4b. e Figure 4a showed
a broad amorphous peak at 2θ equals to 22° and Figure 4b showed
similar XRD pattern with no change in peak position. Amorphous
materials due to random or irregular arrangement in atoms show
broad and diused peaks [35].
Particle size and surface area analysis
e particle size analysis was carried out on BEP and MIP. e
percentage of average particle size (d
50
) and (d
99
) were computed and
results are presented in Figure 5. e control BEP showed d
50
value
11.75 μm and d
99
value of 85.39 μm respectively. Aer treatment d
50
value was increased to 12.42 μm and d
99
value was increased to 99.1
μm. e percentage change in d
50
value and d
99
value of the treated
BEP was increased by 5.7% and 16.1%, respectively as compared to
control sample (Figure 5). is showed that bio-eld treatment led to
an increase in particle size of the treated samples. It is postulated that
the agglomeration of treated BEP may be due to bio-eld treatment
which causes joining of particle boundaries and hence increase in
particle size.
Contrarily, in case of MIP the d
50
and d
99
values were decreased by
0.4% and 18.1% (Figure 6). Here we assume that the treated powder
particles received high bio-eld energy which led to deformation of the
particle boundaries, and hence it caused a reduction in particle size.
e surface area was analyzed by BET analysis and results are
presented in Table 2. e treated BEP showed substantial increase in
surface area (1.291 m
2
/g) as compared to control powder (1.027 m
2
/g).
is was contrary to our particle size results. e surface area of treated
Figure 2: FTIR spectrum of control and treated meat infusion powder.
Figure 3a: XRD diffractogram of control beef extract powder.
Figure 3b: XRD diffractogram of treated beef extract powder.
Citation: Mahendra KT, Gopal N, Shrikant P, Rama MT, Snehasis J, et al. (2015) Bio-eld Treatment: An Effective Strategy to Improve the Quality of
Beef Extract and Meat Infusion Powder. J Nutr Food Sci 5: 389. doi:10.4172/2155-9600.1000389
Page 4 of 8
Volume 5 • Issue 4 • 1000389
J Nutr Food Sci
ISSN: 2155-9600 JNFS, an open access journal
MIP (0.625 m
2
/g) was also increased as compared to control powder
(0.488 m
2
/g). e percentage changes in surface area of the samples
(BEP and MIP) were 25.7% and 28% respectively. is was probably
due to the fact that, the decreased particle size in MIP caused an
increase in surface area. e surface area and particle size changes are
usually opposite to each other i.e., smaller the particles size, larger the
surface area and vice versa [36-38]. Hence the more surface area could
have been exposed to solvents thereby causing increased solubility.
Dierential scanning calorimetry study
DSC is an excellent technique to investigate the glass transition,
melting temperature and change in heat capacity of dierent materials.
DSC thermogram of control and treated BEP are presented in Figures
7a and 7b, respectively. e DSC thermogram of control sample
(Figure 7a) showed a broad endothermic inexion at 124.61°C, which
was due to melting temperature of the control sample. However, the
treated BEP sample showed an elevation in melting temperature as
compared to control. DSC thermogram of treated powder showed
(Figure 7b) a broad endothermic peak at 192°C. is sharp increase in
melting temperature was probably due to the higher absorption of bio-
eld in the treated sample. Hence, the treated BEP need more external
thermal energy in order to melt the sample which increased its melting
temperature as compared to control.
e DSC thermo gram of both control and treated MIP are
presented in Figures 8a and 8b. e DSC thermogram of control MIP
Figure 4a: XRD diffractogram of control meat infusion powder.
Figure 4b: XRD diffractogram of treated meat infusion powder.
Figure 5: Particle size results (d50 and d99) of beef extract powder and meat
infusion powder.
Figure 6: Percentage change in particle size (d50 and d99) of beef extracts
powder and meat infusion powder.
Figure 7a: DSC thermogram of control beef extract powder.
Citation: Mahendra KT, Gopal N, Shrikant P, Rama MT, Snehasis J, et al. (2015) Bio-eld Treatment: An Effective Strategy to Improve the Quality of
Beef Extract and Meat Infusion Powder. J Nutr Food Sci 5: 389. doi:10.4172/2155-9600.1000389
Page 5 of 8
Volume 5 • Issue 4 • 1000389
J Nutr Food Sci
ISSN: 2155-9600 JNFS, an open access journal
showed (Figure 8a) a sharp endothermic inexion at 131.67°C, which
was responsible for its melting temperature. Contrarily, the bio-eld
treated sample showed (Figure 8b) a broad endothermic inexion
at 182°C which was due to melting temperature of the sample. is
conrmed that bio -eld treatment enhanced the melting temperature
of the treated MIP. is was probably due to increased internal energy
that was caused due to Bio-eld, which subsequently needed more
external energy in order to disturb the material chains.
e increased melting temperature could be correlated to higher
thermal stability of the treated BEP and MIP. It can be hypothesized
that bio-eld has acted as a crosslinker for the collagen present in meat
products (BEP and MIP) which probably restricted the molecular
mobility that resulted in enhanced thermal denaturation and stability
[39,40]. Moreover, the specic heat capacity of the control and treated
samples were computed from DSC data and results are presented
in Table 3. e specic heat capacity was found to be decreased
proportionally in both the samples (83.92% and 3.84%). It was assumed
that the treated samples (BEP and MIP) were present in corresponding
high energy state.
ermal stability
TGA thermo gram of control and treated BEP are illustrated
in Figures 9a and 9b. e thermograms of control powder showed
(Figure 9a) one step thermal degradation pattern. e control sample
started to degrade at 188°C and degradation was terminated at 235°C.
Derivative thermogravimetry (DTG) thermogram of the control
powder showed the maximum thermal decomposition temperature at
206°C. Similarly, the treated BEP also displayed (Figure 9b) one step
thermal degradation pattern. e treated sample started to decompose
at 180
o
C and decomposition step was terminated at 250°C. However,
signicant increase in maximum thermal decomposition temperature
(218°C) was observed in the treated sample, which could be correlated
with its higher thermal stability.
Figures 10a and 10b shows the TGA thermogram of control and
bio-eld treated MIP. TGA thermogram of control MIP showed (Figure
10a) single step decomposition pattern. e sample started to degrade
at 165°C and decomposition was stopped at 250
o
C. e sample showed
maximum thermal decomposition temperature at 209°C contrarily the
treated MIP showed (Figure 10b) no DTG peak for maximum thermal
decomposition temperature. Based on ese results, we assume that
the bio-eld treatment has induced signicant thermal changes in both
BEP and MIP. e TGA results were also well supported by the DSC
data.
e FT-IR data showed a complete disappearance of triglyceride
(C=O and C-O) peak in the treated BEP and MIP as compared
to control sample. It was shown previously that elevated level of
triglycerides could cause serious health concerns such as obesity,
hypertension, and high blood glucose levels. More consumption of red
meat such as beef could increase the triglyceride level in the humans
that further increases health problems. Hence, present work describes
that bio-eld treatment could be used as possible strategy to remove
excess triglycerides. Moreover, it was recently shown that reduced level
of triglyceride might improve the aroma and quality of cooked meat.
Hence, we assume that bio-eld treatment could improve the health
and quality of beef and meat products.
Conclusion
is research study was an attempt to improve the physicochemical
properties of BEP and MIP using bio-eld treatment. FT-IR data
showed that bio-eld treatment has changed characteristics of treated
powders at the structural level. DSC study corroborated increase in
Figure 7b: DSC thermogram of treated beef extracts powder.
Figure 8a: DSC thermogram of control meat infusion powder.
Figure 8b: DSC thermogram of treated meat infusion powder.
Citation: Mahendra KT, Gopal N, Shrikant P, Rama MT, Snehasis J, et al. (2015) Bio-eld Treatment: An Effective Strategy to Improve the Quality of
Beef Extract and Meat Infusion Powder. J Nutr Food Sci 5: 389. doi:10.4172/2155-9600.1000389
Page 6 of 8
Volume 5 • Issue 4 • 1000389
J Nutr Food Sci
ISSN: 2155-9600 JNFS, an open access journal
Figure 9a: TGA thermogram of control beef extract powder.
Figure 9b: TGA thermogram of treated beef extract powder.
Citation: Mahendra KT, Gopal N, Shrikant P, Rama MT, Snehasis J, et al. (2015) Bio-eld Treatment: An Effective Strategy to Improve the Quality of
Beef Extract and Meat Infusion Powder. J Nutr Food Sci 5: 389. doi:10.4172/2155-9600.1000389
Page 7 of 8
Volume 5 • Issue 4 • 1000389
J Nutr Food Sci
ISSN: 2155-9600 JNFS, an open access journal
Figure 10a: TGA thermogram of control meat infusion powder.
Figure 10b: TGA thermogram of treated meat infusion powder.
Citation: Mahendra KT, Gopal N, Shrikant P, Rama MT, Snehasis J, et al. (2015) Bio-eld Treatment: An Effective Strategy to Improve the Quality of
Beef Extract and Meat Infusion Powder. J Nutr Food Sci 5: 389. doi:10.4172/2155-9600.1000389
Page 8 of 8
Volume 5 • Issue 4 • 1000389
J Nutr Food Sci
ISSN: 2155-9600 JNFS, an open access journal
melting temperature in BEP and MIP of treated powders as compared
to control. However, decrease in specic heat capacity (∆H) was
observed in treated samples (BEP and MIP) as compared to control.
It is postulated that no extra energy or heat was required in order to
raise the powder temperature as the treated samples were already in
high energy state due to bio-eld treatment. e increased melting
temperature and maximum thermal decomposition temperature of
treated samples showed the higher thermal stability. Based on the
results achieved, we conclude that, the removal of triglycerides could
lead to an improvement in the aroma and food quality of beef extract
and meat infusion powder.
Acknowledgement
The authors would like to thank all the laboratory staff of MGV Pharmacy
College, Nashik for their assistance during the various instrument characterizations.
We thank Dr. Cheng Dong of NLSC, institute of physics, and Chinese academy of
sciences for permitting us to use Powder X software for analyzing XRD results.
References
1. Yi G, Grabe AV, Bjelanovic M, Slinde E, Olsen K, et al. (2015) Lipid oxidation in
minced beef meat with added Krebs cycle substrates to stabilise colour. Food
Chem 187: 563-571.
2. Yi G, Haug A, Nyquist NF, Egelandsdal B (2013) Hydroperoxide formation in
different lean meats. Food Chem 141: 2656-2665.
3. Brock WH (1997) Justus von Liebig: the chemical gatekeeper. Cambridge
University Press, Cambridge, UK.
4. Gadekar YP, Sharma BD, Shinde AK, Mendiratta SK (2015) Restructured meat
products - production, processing and marketing: a review. Indian J Small
Rumin 21: 1-12.
5. Van Oostrom AJ, Real JT, Carmena R, Ascaso JF, Castro Cabezas M (2004)
Daylong triglyceridaemia in healthy Mediterranean and northern European
subjects. Neth J Med 62: 279-285.
6. Kamihiro S, Stergiadis S, Leifert C, Eyre MD, Butler G (2015) Meat quality and
health implications of organic and conventional beef production. Meat Sci 100:
306-318.
7. Planck M (1927) Treatise on Thermodynamics, third English edition translated
by A. Ogg from the seventh German edition Longmans, Green & Co, London,
UK.
8. Einstein A (1905) Does the inertia of a body depend upon its energy-content.
Annalen der Physik 18: 639-641.
9. Becker RO, Selden G (1985) The body electric: electromagnetism and the
foundation of life, NY, United States.
10. BARNES RB (1963) Thermography of the human body. Science 140: 870-877.
11. Rogalski MS, Palmer SB (2005) Advanced University Physics, (2ndedn), CRC
Press, FL, United States.
12. Trivedi MK, Tallapragada RR (2008) A transcendental to changing metal
powder characteristics. Met Powder Rep 63: 22-28.
13. Dabhade VV, Tallapragada RR, Trivedi MK (2009) Effect of external energy
on atomic, crystalline and powder characteristics of antimony and bismuth
powders. Bull Mater Sci 32: 471-479.
14. Trivedi MK, Tallapragada RR (2009) Effect of superconsciousness external
energy on atomic, crystalline and powder characteristics of carbon allotrope
powders. Mater Res Innov 13: 473-480.
15. Trivedi MK, Patil S, Tallapragada RM (2012) Thought intervention through
bioeld changing metal powder characteristics experiments on powder
characterisation at a PM Plant. Lecture Notes in Electrical Engineering-Future
Control and Automation. Springer Berlin, Heidelberg.
16. Trivedi MK, Patil S, Tallapragada RM (2013) Effect of bioeld treatment on the
physical and thermal characteristics of vanadium pentoxide powders. J Mater
Sci Eng S11: 001.
17. Trivedi MK, Patil S, Tallapragada RM (2013) Effect of bioeld treatment on the
physical and thermal characteristics of silicon, tin and lead powders. J Mater
Sci Eng 2: 125.
18. Trivedi MK, Patil S, Tallapragada RM (2014) Atomic, crystalline and powder
characteristics of treated zirconia and silica powders. J Mater Sci Eng 3: 144.
19. Trivedi MK, Patil S, Tallapragada RMR (2015) Effect of bioeld treatment on
the physical and thermal characteristics of aluminium powders. J Ind Eng
Manag 4: 151.
20. Shinde V, Sances F, Patil S, Spence A (2012) Impact of bioeld treatment on
growth and yield of lettuce and tomato. Aust J Basic Appl Sci 6: 100-105.
21. Sances F, Flora E, Patil S, Spence A, Shinde V (2013) Impact of bioeld
treatment on ginseng and organic blueberry yield. Agrivita J Agric Sci 35: 22-
29.
22. Lenssen AW (2013) Bioeld and fungicide seed treatment inuences on
soybean productivity, seed quality and weed community. Agric J 8: 138-143.
23. Altekar N, Nayak G, (2015) Effect of bio-eld treatment on plant growth and
adaptation. J Environ Health Sci 1: 1-9.
24. Patil SA, Nayak GB, Barve SS, Tembe RP, Khan RR (2012) Impact of bioeld
treatment on growth and anatomical characteristics of Pogostemon cablin
(Benth). Biotechnology 11: 154-162.
25. Trivedi M, Patil S (2008) Impact of an external energy on Staphylococcus
epidermis [ATCC-13518] in relation to antibiotic susceptibility and biochemical
reactions -An experimental study. J Accord Integr Med 4: 230-235.
26. Trivedi M, Patil S (2008) Impact of an external energy on Yersinia enterocolitica
[ATCC –23715] in relation to antibiotic susceptibility and biochemical reactions:
An experimental study. Internet J Alternative Med 6: 2.
27. Trivedi M, Bhardwaj Y, Patil S, Shettigar H, Bulbule A (2009) Impact of an
external energy on Enterococcus faecalis [ATCC-51299] in relation to antibiotic
susceptibility and biochemical reactions-An experimental study. J Accord Integr
Med 5: 119-130.
28. Ellis DI, Broadhurst D, Kell DB, Rowland JJ, Goodacre R (2002) Rapid and
quantitative detection of the microbial spoilage of meat by fourier transform
infrared spectroscopy and machine learning. Appl Environ Microbiol 68: 2822-
2828.
29. Ammor MS, Argyri A, Nychas GJE (2009) Rapid monitoring of the spoilage
of minced beef stored under conventionally and active packaging conditions
using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy in tandem with chemometrics.
Meat Sci 81: 507-514.
30. Socrates G (2001) Infrared Raman Characteristic Group Frequencies: Tables
and Charts. (3rd edition), John Wiley and Sons, West Sussex, UK.
31. Colthup NB, Daly LH, Wiberley SE (1975) Introduction to infrared and raman
spectroscopy. (2ndedn), Academic Press, New York.
32. Barth A (2007) Infrared spectroscopy of proteins. Biochim Biophys Acta 1767:
1073-1101.
33. Bender A (1992) Meat and meat products in human nutrition in developing
countries. FAO Food Nutr Pap 53: 1-91.
34. Stachurski ZH (2011) On Structure and Properties of Amorphous Materials.
Materials 4: 1564-1598.
35. Mennucci B, Martinez JM (2005) How to model solvation of peptides?
Insights from a quantum-mechanical and molecular dynamics study of
N-methylacetamide. I. Geometries, infrared, and ultraviolet spectra in water. J
Phys Chem B 109: 9818-9829.
36. Bendz D, Tuchsen PL, Christensen TH (2007) The dissolution kinetics of major
elements in municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash particles. J Contam
Hydrol 94: 178-194.
37. Chandler AJ, Eighmy TT, Hartlen J, Hjelmer O, Kosson DS et al. (1997)
Municipal solid waste comustor residues: the international ash working group.
Studies in Environmental Science, Elsevier science, Amsterdam.
38. Tsereteli GI, Belopol’skaya TV, Mel’nik TN (1997) Thermal properties of
the collagen-water system-II. Conformation and conformational mobility of
macromolecules in the native and denatured states. Biophysics 42: 575-581.
39. Mu C, Li D, Lin W, Ding Y, Zhang G (2007) Temperature induced denaturation
of collagen in acidic solution. Biopolymers 86: 282-287.
40. Su D, Wang C, Cai S, Mu C, Li D, Lin W (2012) Inuence of palygorskite on
the structure and thermal stability of collagen. Applied Clay Science 63: 41-46.
... Biofield (putative energy fields) or electromagnetic based energy therapies used to promote health and healing that had been exclusively reported by the National Institute of Health/National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine (NIH/NCCAM) [10]. The Trivedi Effect ® has been published in numerous peer-reviewed science journals with significant outcomes in many scientific fields such as cancer research [11,12], microbiology [13][14][15][16], biotechnology [17,18], pharmaceutical science [19][20][21][22], agricultural science [23][24][25][26], materials science [27][28][29][30], nutraceuticals [31,32] ...
... Healing. Biofield Energy Treatment (the Trivedi Effect ® ) has been published in numerous peer-reviewed science journals with significant outcomes in many scientific fields such as cancer research [11,12], microbiology and biotechnology [13][14][15], pharmaceutical science [16][17][18][19], agricultural science [20][21][22], materials science [23][24][25], dietary supplement [26,27], skin health [28,29], human health and wellness. The planned to evaluate the impact of the Biofield Energy Healing Treatment (the Trivedi Effect ® ) on the test formulation for antioxidant action concerning lipid peroxidation, antioxidant activity using standard assays. ...
... The inherent energy can be harnessed from the universe and transmitted by individuals into both living and non-living objects via the process of Biofield Energy Healing Treatment. The potential of Biofield Energy Healing Treatment (the Trivedi Effect ® ) has been already been contributes in numerous scientific journals in various fields such as skin health [15,16], nutraceuticals [17,18], agricultural science [19][20][21], microbiology and biotechnology [22][23][24], pharmaceutical science [25][26][27][28], cancer research [29,30], materials science [31][32][33], human health and wellness. Based on the well-proven scientific literature on the impact of the Biofield Energy Healing Treatment (the Trivedi Effect ® ) in various fields, authors intend to conduct this experiment on the test formulation for anti-aging activity using standard antiaging biomarker assays. ...
Article
The study was aimed to investigate the potential benefits of the Consciousness Energy Healing Treatment (the Trivedi Effect®) per se and Biofield Energy Healing treated novel test formulation in male Sprague Dawley rats for their antiaging activity by monitoring aging biomarkers such as brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), silent information regulator-1 (SIRT-1), and klotho protein. The test formulation was distributed into two parts. First part did not provide any Biofield Energy Treatment was denoted as the untreated sample, however the second part was received Biofield Energy Healing Treatment by a renowned Biofield Energy Healer, Mr. Mahendra Kumar Trivedi and defined as the Biofield Energy Treated sample. In this experiment, nine groups (n=10) were assigned, in which four were preventive maintenance groups. Among them, three groups of animals were also received Biofield Energy Healing Treatment per se (at day -15). BDNF was significantly increased by 25.83%, 19.35%, and 14.67% in the Biofield Energy Treated test formulation (G5), Biofield Energy Treatment per se at day -15 (G6), and Biofield Energy Treatment per se to animals plus Biofield Treated test formulation from day -15 (G8), respectively as compared to the disease control (G2) group. Moreover, expression of SIRT-1 protein was increased by 14.63% in the G5 group than the untreated test formulation (G4) group. Additionally, SIRT-1 activity was increased by 39.7%, 32.5%, 15.9%, and 136% in the G6, Biofield Energy Treated test formulation at day -15 (G7), G8, and Biofield Treatment per se (day -15) to animals plus untreated test formulation (G9) groups, respectively than the G4 group, while it was increased by 57.3% in the G9 group as compared to the G2 group. Besides, Klotho protein in kidney homogenate was significantly increased by 16.67% in the G5 group as compared to the G2 group. Altogether, the results showed a significant improvement of longevity mediators and antiaging biomarkers in the preventive maintenance groups. Therefore, results envisaged the significant slowdown of aging-related disorders and other complications in the preventive Biofield Energy Treatment group per se and/or Biofield Energy Treated Test formulation groups (viz. G6, G7, G8, and G9) comparatively with the disease control group and could be utilized against various aging-related disorders like Alzheimer's disease, hypertension, osteoporosis, cataracts, type 2 diabetes, cancer, etc. along with it could be used to extend the life-span, stress and immune-related disorders.
... This energy can be harnessed and transmitted by the experts into living and non-living things via the process of Biofield Energy Healing. Biofield Energy Treatment (The Trivedi Effect ® ) has been published in numerous peer-reviewed science journals with significant outcomes in many scientific fields such as cancer research [10,11], microbiology [12][13][14][15], biotechnology [16,17], pharmaceutical science [18][19][20][21], agricultural science [22][23][24][25], materials science [26][27][28][29], nutraceuticals [30,31], skin health, human health and wellness. ...
Article
Full-text available
Hair plays a lucrative outlook on the human body and also contribute an exciting part in social and sexual communication. Loss of hair follicle would potentially lead to various skin disorders. For this consequence, the present study was investigated for the potential of the Biofield Energy Healing (The Trivedi Effect®) Treated test item (William’s Medium E) on the vibrissae hair follicle organ culture cells for the assessment of hair cell growth and development in vitro. The test item was divided into two parts. One part was defined as the untreated, where no Biofield Energy Treatment provided, while the other part was defined as the Biofield Energy Treated test item, which received the Biofield Energy Healing Treatment by a renowned Biofield Energy Healer Alice Branton. The study parameters like bulb thickness and formation of telogen were assessed using cell-based assay with the help of UTHSCSA Image tool version 3. The experimental results showed that the untreated test item group showed 20% and 26.67% increased bulb thickness on day 5 and 7, respectively compared to day 1. Besides, the percent telogen follicle was found as 86%, 86%, and 100% on day 3, 5, and 7, respectively of the Biofield Energy Treated test item group. The overall results demonstrated that the Biofield Energy Treatment has the potential for hair growth promotion as evident via an increased formation of telogen. Therefore, the Biofield Energy Healing (The Trivedi Effect®) Treatment might be useful as a hair growth promoter for various treatment of skin injuries and skin-related disorders like necrotizing fasciitis, actinic keratosis, sebaceous cysts, diaper rash, decubitus ulcer etc.
... The impact of the Trivedi Effect ® -Consciousness Energy Healing Treatment has been published in numerous peer-reviewed scientific journals with the significant outcome on the various object(s). These scientific articles reported that the Biofield Energy Treatment (the Trivedi Effect ® ) has the amazing capability to transform the physicochemical, structural, and behavioral properties of metals and ceramics [17][18][19], organic compounds [20,21], pharmaceuticals [22,23], nutraceuticals [24,25], improve the overall productivity of crops [26,27], as well as modulate the efficacy of various living cells [28,29]. Therefore, the current study was designed to evaluate the impact of the Trivedi Effect ® -Consciousness Energy Healing Treatment on the physicochemical, thermal, and behavioural properties of cefazolin sodium using powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), particle size analysis (PSA), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA)/ Differential thermogravimetric analysis (DTG). ...
Article
Full-text available
Cefazolin sodium is a broad-spectrum first-generation cephalosporin antibiotic useful for the treatment of many bacterial infections. The aim of this research work was to estimate the impact of the Trivedi Effect® on the physicochemical and thermal properties of cefazolin using the modern analytical technique. Cefazolin sample was divided into control and treated parts. No Biofield Energy Treatment was provided to the control part of cefazolin; whereas, the treated part received Consciousness Energy Healing Treatment remotely by a distinguished Biofield Energy Healer, Alice Branton. The particle size values in the treated cefazolin were significantly increased by 11.44%(d10), 3.15%(d50), 2.35%(d90), and 2.42%{D(4,3)}; hence, the specific surface area was decreased by 4.54% compared to the control sample. The evaporation and decomposition temperature of the treated cefazolin was increased by 27.56% and 0.12%, respectively; however, the latent heat of evaporation and latent heat of decomposition was significantly altered by 1151.8% and -53.75%, respectively compared to the control cefazolin. The total weight loss was decreased by 6.57%, but the residue amount was significantly increased by 137.5% in the treated sample compared with the control sample. The maximum thermal degradation temperature of the 1st and 2nd peak was significantly altered by 5.58% and -28.66% in the treated sample compared with the control sample. The Consciousness Energy Healing Treatment might have introduced a new polymorphic form of cefazolin which may offer better powder flowability, smooth surface, and good thermal stability compared with the untreated sample. The treated cefazolin would be a more efficacious pharmaceutical formulation against cellulitis, urinary and respiratory tract infections, pneumonia, endocarditis, joint infection, genital infections, blood infections, etc.
... It improved the overall productivity of crops in agriculture and livestoc [7][8][9][10] , positive impact on cancer [11,12] , and altered characteristics features of microbes in the field of microbiology [13][14][15][16] . It also altered the structural, physical, and thermal properties of several metals and ceramics [17][18][19] , causes chromosomal changes in microbes [20,21] , and improved various nutraceutical compounds in the areas of nutraceuticals [22,23] and biotechnology [24][25][26] . Many therapeutic aspects are available for the proliferation and differentiation of macrophages cells by means of some chemical treatment. ...
Article
Full-text available
The objective of the present study was to evaluate the immunomodulatory effect of Biofield Energy Treatment (The Trivedi Effect®) on Dulbecco’s Modified Eagle’s Medium (DMEM) and fetal bovine serum (FBS) in murine macrophage cells (RAW 264.7). The study parameters were evaluated using cell viability by MTT assay and estimation of proinflammatory cytokine like tumor necrosis factor - alpha (TNF-α) on immunomodulation using enzyme linked immune sorbent assay (ELISA). The cell viability using MTT assay data showed that more than 80% cell viability was observed in all the tested groups compared to the baseline control group (G1). The characteristics of cell morphology in the Biofield Energy Treated DMEM without FBS (G6) group showed some changes in the cell morphology as evidenced a transition from spherical to elongate and also showed maturation compared to the G1 group. The level of TNF-α expression was significantly reduced by 23.15% in the G3 group compared to the G1 group. Moreover, the secretion of TNF-α was altered by 38.06%, 35.77%, and 282.49% in the G4, G5, and G6 groups, respectively compared to the G1 group. The overall results demonstrated that the Trivedi Effect® - Consciousness Energy Healing Treatment has an impact on DMEM and FBS by alteration of cell morphology and reducing the level of TNF-α expression in immune cell (RAW 264.7). Therefore, the Trivedi Effect® treated DMEM and FBS might be useful as an immunomodulator for various immune-related disorders like Graves’ disease, rheumatoid arthritis, multiple sclerosis, etc.
... The impact of The Trivedi Effect ® has been contributed in various peer-reviewed scientific journals with excellent findings in many scientific fields viz. cancer research [16,17], microbiology [18][19][20][21], biotechnology [22,23], pharmaceutical science [24][25][26][27], agricultural science [28][29][30][31], materials science [32][33][34][35], nutraceuticals [36,37], skin health, human health and wellness. Depending on the literature and importance of vitamin D 3 on bone health, authors designed this experiment for bone health activity with respect to ALP, collagen content, and bone mineralization using standard assays in MG-63 cells. ...
Article
Full-text available
The aim was to evaluate the impact of Biofield Treated vitamin D3 and DMEM on bone health. The test items (TI), were divided into two parts. One part of each sample received Consciousness Energy Treatment by Gopal Nayak and those samples were labeled as Biofield Treated (BT), while other parts of each sample were denoted as untreated test items (UT). MTT data showed test samples were found safe and nontoxic in tested concentrations. ALP was significantly increased by 213.46% and 218.66% in BT-DMEM + UT-TI and BT-DMEM + BT-TI, respectively at 1 µg/mL compared to UT-DMEM + UT-TI. Moreover, ALP was significantly increased by 200.79% and 187.09% in BT-DMEM + UT-TI and BT-DMEM + BT-TI, respectively at 10 µg/mL than untreated. Collagen synthesis was significantly increased by 551.25% and 130.31% in BT-DMEM + UT-TI and BT-DMEM + BT-TI, respectively at 1 µg/mL than untreated. Collagen was significantly increased by 401.97% in BT-DMEM + UT-TI at 10 µg/ mL, while increased by 197.57% and 276.82% in UT-DMEM + BT-TI and BT-DMEM + UT-TI, respectively at 50 µg/mL than untreated. Percent bone mineralization was significantly increased by 186.86% and 188.23% in BT-DMEM + UT-TI and BT-DMEM + BT-TI, respectively at 10 µg/mL than untreated. It was further increased significantly by 224.04% and 156.72% in BT-DMEM + UT-TI and BT-DMEM + BT-TI, respectively at 50 µg/ mL than untreated. Overall, data suggests that Biofield Treated vitamin D3 could be a potential alternative nutraceutical supplement to combat vitamin D3 deficiency and fight against various bone disorders.
Article
This study aimed at characterising the techno-biofunctional aspect of seasoning powder made from sago palm weevil larvae (SP) in comparison with commercial products prepared from pork (CP) and chicken (CC). SP had a comparable moisture and water activity with CP and CC, following the Thai Community Product Standards. SP had higher protein, fat, carbohydrate, calcium, magnesium and potassium with lower ash and sodium (P<0.05). All samples had the same Fourier transform infrared spectra with different peak intensities. SP was darker (lower L*, higher a* and b*, and lower whiteness) than CP and CC. Different content and polarity of the intermediate (A 285 ) and final (A 420 ) products of the Maillard reaction was found. A 420 of the aqueous extract was distinctly higher than the acetone extract in all samples, suggesting the predominance of water soluble brown pigments. The highest total phenolic content and DPPH • inhibition was found in SP (P<0.05). The bulk density of SP was lower than CP and CC, which consequently affected the wettability. SP needed more time to become wet (P<0.05). The soup made from SP had the highest initial turbidity (P<0.05). All sensory aspects of SP were similar to CP and CC. Thus, SP can be categorised as an alternative functional food ingredient.
Article
Full-text available
Development of hair follicle is undergoing cycles of three phases like anagen, catagen, and telogen. Adequate hair growth is essential for social interaction and outlook in human life. In this context, the present study was performed for the assessment of the impact of Biofield Energy Healing (The Trivedi Effect®) Treatment on the test item (1:1 ratio mixture of herbal extracts of Phyllantus emblica and Eclipta alba) in C57BL/6 mice. The test item was divided into two parts. One part was denoted as the untreated and test item without any Biofield Energy Treatment, while the other part was defined as the Biofield Energy Treated test item, which received the Consciousness Energy Healing Treatment by a renowned Biofield Energy Healer, Alice Branton. The study parameters like anagen induction and visual melanogenesis using skin biopsy technique were used in this experiment for the assessment of hair growth phages.The experimental results of the untreated and Biofield Energy Treated test item groups showed 50% and 60%, respectively of hair growth on dorsal clipped skin after topical application compared to the vehicle control group. Besides, the Biofield Energy Treated test item exhibited 60% melanogenesis after biopsy analysis in mice skin at the end of experiment compared with the vehicle control group. The overall results demonstrated that the Biofield Energy Treatment has the potential for hair growth promotion as evident via increased hair growth and melanogenesis. Therefore, the Biofield Energy Healing (The Trivedi Effect®) Treatment could be useful as a hair growth promoter for various treatment of skin injuries and skin-related disorders like necrotizing fasciitis, actinic keratosis, sebaceous cysts, diaper rash, decubitus ulcer, etc.
Article
Full-text available
Hair is playing an interesting part in human for social and sexual communication. Loss of hair follicle leads to various skin disorders. For this consequence, the present study has investigated the potential of the Biofield Energy Healing (The Trivedi Effect®) Treated test item (William’s Medium E) on the vibrissae hair follicle organ culture cells for the assessment of hair cell growth and development in vitro. The test item was divided into two parts. One part was defined as the untreated test item, where no Biofield Energy Treatment provided, while the other part was defined as the Biofield Energy Treated test item, which received the Biofield Energy Healing Treatment by renowned Biofield Energy Healer, Mahendra Kumar Trivedi. The study parameters like bulb thickness and formation of telogen were assessed using cell-based assay with the help of UTHSCSA Image tool version 3. The experimental results showed that the untreated test item group showed 20.9% and 28.2% increased bulb thickness on day 5 and 7, respectively compared to the day 1, while did not produce telogen follicles upto day 7. Besides, the percentage of telogen follicle was found as 43%, 57%, and 71% on day 3, 5, and 7, respectively of the Biofield Energy Treated test item group compared to the day 1. The overall results demonstrated that the Biofield Energy Treatment has the potential for hair growth promotion as evident via increased the formation of telogen. Therefore, the Biofield Energy Healing (The Trivedi Effect®) Treatment might be useful as a hair growth promoter for various treatment of skin injuries and skin-related disorders like necrotizing fasciitis, actinic keratosis, sebaceous cysts, diaper rash, decubitus ulcer etc.
Article
Full-text available
In earlier papers the effect of Mr. Trivedi's thought intervention through biofield in his physical presence on the atomic, crystalline and particle characteristics of first series of transition metal powders, group four metals and carbon allotropes are discussed. In the present paper we demonstrate this unusual effect on sieve size distribution, apparent density and flow of several metal powders under PM plant conditions.
Article
Full-text available
Background : While spiritual and mental energies are known to man, their impact has never been scientifically measurable in the material world and they remain outside the domain of science. The present experiments on Yersinia enterocolitica [ATCC –23715], report the effects of such energy transmitted through a person, Mr. Mahendrakumar Trivedi, which has produced an impact measurable in scientifically rigorous manner. Methods: Yersinia enterocolitica strains in revived and lyophilized state were subjected to spiritual energy transmitted through thought intervention and/or physical touch of Mr. Trivedi to the sealed tubes containing strain and were analyzed within 10 days after incubation. Results: The results indicated that Mr.Trivedi's energy has changed 20 of 33 biochemical characteristics of Yersinia enterocolitica along with significant changes in susceptibility pattern in 15 of 32 antibiotics. The Biotype number has changed from the original control strain giving rise to 2 different biotypes in treated samples while the external energy /treatment given was the same for all treated samples suggestive of random polymorphism as analyzed through an automated machine. Conclusions: These results cannot be explained by current theories of science, and indicate a potency in Mr.Trivedi's energy, providing a model for science to be able to investigate the impact of spiritual energy in a rigorous manner. In lyophilized state, biochemical and enzymatic characteristics could be altered.
Article
Full-text available
Pogostemon cablin is a known aromatic plant which is cultivated for its essential oil widely applicated in perfumery and cosmetic industries. In the present study, the effect of biofield treatment was studied on the growth of P. cablin. For this study an in vitro culture system was set up in two groups, viz., control and treatment, each of which was derived from three different explant sources, namely leaf, node and petiole. Further these in vitro plantlets were hardened and transferred to external environment. The stomatal cells and epidermal hair growth were also studied at various morphogenetic stages. The study revealed that a single spell of biofield energy treatment produced significant increase in growth in treated group throughout all the morphogenetic phases from in vitro to in vivo level. A remarkable increase in stomatal cells and epidermal hair was also seen in treated group.
Article
Full-text available
This study tested the Null Hypothesis for the effect of BioField Energy applied to two separate crops under typical growing conditions, namely ginseng and organic blueberry in commercial plantings in Wisconsin and California, respectively. Following treatment to replicated plots in standard experimental design, data were collected at harvest for yield quantity and quality. Ginseng plants treated both pre-harvest and a combination of pre- and post-harvest showed market grade increases of 33.3% and 40.0%, respectively. Point of sale gross return for this crop is dependent upon tuber quality, and from these data the economics of these treatments were calculated. Based on stand adjusted yields and quality values, a combination of pre- and post-harvest treatment increased gross income by 57.4%. The second crop showed similar trends in positive responses. In the two blueberry varieties studied, Emerald treated plants showed 96% statistical increase in yield, while Jewel showed 31% increase. At the time of treatment, each variety was in a different stage of flowering. The Emerald variety was in the flowering stage, and Jewel was predominately in the fruiting stage. Both treated cultivars however demons-trated increased yield quantity and quality. The specific mechanisms that lead to these pre-liminary results need further investigation.
Article
Full-text available
Background : While spiritual and mental energies are known to man, their impact has never been scientifically measurable in the material world and they remain outside the domain of science. The present experiments on Enterococcus faecalis [ATCC –51299], report the effects of such energy transmitted through a person, Mr. Mahendrakumar Trivedi, which has produced an impact measurable in scientifically rigorous manner. Methods: Enterococcus faecalis strains in revived and lyophilized state were subjected to spiritual energy transmitted through thought intervention and/or physical touch of Mr. Trivedi to the sealed tubes containing strain, the process taking about 3 minutes and were analyzed within 10 days after incubation. All tests were performed with the help of automation on the Microscan Walkaway System in Microbiology Laboratory - accredited by The College of American Pathologists Results: The results indicated that Mr.Trivedi’s energy has changed 9 of 27 biochemical characteristics of Enterococcus faecalis along with significant changes in susceptibility pattern in 5 of 31 antibiotics. The Biotype number has changed from the original control strain giving rise to 2 different biotypes in treated samples while the external energy/treatment given was the same for all treated samples suggestive of random polymorphism as analyzed through the automated machine. Conclusions: These results cannot be explained by current theories of science, and indicate a potency in Mr.Trivedi’s energy, providing a model for science to be able to investigate the impact of spiritual energy in a rigorous manner. In lyophilized state, biochemical and enzymatic characteristics could be altered.
Article
Zirconium oxide and silicon dioxide powders are selected and subjected to a non-contact Biofield energy known to be transmitted by Mahendra Kumar Trivedi. Particle sizes d50 and d99 showed up to 71.5 percent decrease indicating that the energy had caused deformation and fracture as if the powders have been subjected to high energy milling. This is also supported by increase in specific surface area up to 19.48 percent. In the present investigation Zirconium oxide and silicon dioxide powders are exposed to Bio-field. Both the exposed and unexposed powders are later characterized by various techniques. The treated powders when characterized by X-ray diffraction are found to exhibit significant increase and decrease in the lattice parameters of the unit cell, crystallite size and density. The lattice parameters are then used to compute the molecular weight and total number of protons and neutrons in the molecule, which showed an increase up to 0.24 and decrease up to 0.31 percent. It is speculated that the Biofield energy transmitted by Mr. Trivedi is acting on the nucleus in the atoms through some reversible weak interaction of larger cross section causing changes in the proton to neutron ratios and thus energy to mass and mass to energy. Thus the effect is felt by all the atoms, and hence the unit cell, single crystal grain and grain boundaries. The stresses generated in turn may have caused deformation and fracture of the weak interfaces in the polycrystalline powders such as the crystallite and grain boundaries.
Article
Vanadium pentoxide powders are very useful in producing ferrous as well as aluminium alloys, in removing carbon and sulphur and as catalysts in synthesizing ammonia and sulphuric acid. It is also used as corrosion inhibitor petroleum and chemical processing. In the present investigation V2O5 powders are exposed to biofield. Both the exposed and unexposed powders are later characterized by various techniques. The average particle size is found to decrease with increase in number of days after treatment up to a maximum of 15.9% in 110 days indicating severe fracture at agglomerate/ crystallite boundaries. The BET surface area showed a surprising decrease (it should increase as particle size is decreased) of 7.22% in 109 days indicating the surface densification/ removal of sharp surface corners/ formation of large particles. SEM photographs indeed showed that samples exposed to biofield after 20 days showed increase in size as well as rounded corners. Thermal analysis indicated an increase in melting temperature by 9.9% in samples treated after 57 days along with a much reduced change in weight. X-ray diffraction of the powder samples indicated both increase and decrease in crystallite size, unit cell volume and molecular weight of samples exposed to biofield after 28, 104, 124 and 139 days. These results indicate that the catalytic nature of vanadium pentoxide can be controlled by exposing to bio field and using after a specific number of days after exposure.
Article
Aluminium powders are used in a wide range from propelling rockets to improving personal hygiene. More popular industrial applications include manufacture of silver metallic pigments, paints, inks, plastics, packaging, textiles and aerospace industry. As thick film pastes used in the manufacture of silicon solar cells, and as reducing agent and sources of heat, used in alumina thermic and exothermic applications. In the present investigation, Aluminium powders were exposed to non-contact Biofield treatment. Both the exposed and unexposed powders were later characterized by various techniques. The average particle size, after a slight initial decrease was found to increase after 80 days of treatment substantially, which suggested the operation of competing mechanisms fracture and sintering (micro welding). The BET surface area monotonically decreased which was consistent with increase in particle size. SEM photographs showed that samples exposed to Biofield after 38 days showed growth in particle size and particles joined at inter and intra particle boundaries. X-ray diffraction of the powder samples indicated both increase and decrease in crystallite size, unit cell volume, change in nuclear charge per unit volume of atom and atomic weight of samples exposed to Biofield even after 106 days. These results indicated that properties of Aluminium powders could be changed even up to atomic level by exposure to Biofield.
Article
By calorimetric study of the collagen-water systems with 10-100% content of protein in the temperature range 20÷90°C we have measured the proper heat capacity of protein in native and denatured state. It is shown that S-like dependence of heat capacity on the water content for both native and denatured samples is caused by glass transition. At temperatures above the glass transition in moist collagen or above the denaturation of native collagen the translational mobility of segments in protein molecules appears. This mobility is most probably the cause of the increments in the temperature dependence of heat capacity. According to our results, for the denatured collagen the value of heat capacity in solution exceeds that for dry samples at least by the magnitude of heat capacity increment at glass transition.