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Evaluation of anti-inflammatory activity and analgesic effect of Aloe vera leaf extract in rats

Authors:
  • Shrimati Indira Gandhi College, Tiruchirappalli

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Clinical evaluation of analgesic and anti-inflammatory drugs envisages the development of side effects that makes efficacy of a drug arguable. Alternatively, indigenous drug with fewer side effects is the major thrust area of research in the management of pain and inflammation. In the present study aqueous extract of whole leaf of Aloe vera at various concentrations was investigated for its anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities in albino wistar rats. Carrageenan and formaldehyde-induced rat paw oedema was used to evaluate the anti-inflammatory activity and tail flick, hot plate and acetic acid tests were used to assess the analgesic activity of A. vera leaf aqueous extracts. Whole leaf aqueous extracts at various concentrations (100, 200, 400, and 600 mg/kg of bw) significantly reduced formation of oedema induced by carrageenan and formaldehyde and granuloma formation in a dose dependent manner. Further, acetic acid-induced writhing model exhibited significant analgesic effect characterized by reduction in writhes. Whole leaf aqueous extract showed dose-dependent increase in tolerance to thermal stimulus comparable to indomethacin. No mortality was observed during the acute toxicity test at a dosage of 600mg/kg. Thus whole leaf aqueous extract of Aloe vera can be exploited as non toxic drug for the treatment and clinical management of inflammation and pain.
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... Aloe vera belongs to the Asphodelaceae family, which grows in warm and dry environment (Devaraj et al., 2011). Aloe vera has various biological properties including antioxidant (Benedı́ et al., 2004) and anti-inflammation (Langmead et al., 2007) activities and has been shown to reduce the pro-inflammatory cytokines transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα), interleukin 6 (IL-6) and IL-β (Yun et al., 2009). ...
... 3. Vehicle: brain injury was induced, and animals received an equal volume of vehicle (distilled water) intraperitoneally (IP). 4. Low dose Aloe vera (LA): animals in this group received 200 mg/kg of aqueous Aloe vera extract only once (30 min after TBI) IP (Devaraj et al., 2011) 5. High dose Aloe vera (HA): rats in this group were injected with 400 mg/kg of aqueous Aloe vera extract only once (30 min after TBI) IP (Devaraj et al., 2011). Each of the above groups was divided into two subgroups of 7 rats. ...
... 3. Vehicle: brain injury was induced, and animals received an equal volume of vehicle (distilled water) intraperitoneally (IP). 4. Low dose Aloe vera (LA): animals in this group received 200 mg/kg of aqueous Aloe vera extract only once (30 min after TBI) IP (Devaraj et al., 2011) 5. High dose Aloe vera (HA): rats in this group were injected with 400 mg/kg of aqueous Aloe vera extract only once (30 min after TBI) IP (Devaraj et al., 2011). Each of the above groups was divided into two subgroups of 7 rats. ...
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Objective: Based on anti-inflammatory effects of Aloe vera, the effect of aqueous extract of this plant on brain edema and changes in some pro-inflammatory cytokines was investigated after traumatic brain injury (TBI). Materials and methods: In this study, adult male Wistar rats were divided into 5 groups: Sham, TBI, vehicle (Veh), and low dose (LA) and high dose (HA) Aloe vera. The vehicle and aqueous extract of Aloe vera were injected intraperitoneally 30 min after induction of diffuse TBI by Marmarou's method. Brain edema (brain water content), and transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα), interleukin 6 (IL-6) and IL-1β levels in serum and brain were measured 24 hr after TBI induction. Results: Increased brain edema by TBI was reduced by both LA and HA (p<0.01 and p<0.05, respectively). IL-6 increased in the brain of TBI group compared to sham, and which was inhibited by both Aloe vera doses compared to Veh (p<0.001). The differences in the IL-6 serum levels among Veh, LA and HA groups were not significant. Increases in serum and brain IL-1β levels were reduced only in the HA group (p<0.001). Although only in the brain, TNF-α level increased after trauma, but both LA and HA inhibited it in a dose-dependent manner (p<0.01 and p<0.05, respectively) . The amount of TGF-β in the brain was reduced by both doses of the extract (p<0.001). Conclusion: These results indicated that Aloe vera has a neuroprotective effect induced by reducing brain edema. The probable mechanism particularly for HA is decreasing levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as TGF-β, TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-1β.
... Aqueous leaf extracts of A. vera at doses of 200, 400, and 600 mg/kg and A. ferox at doses 500, 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg did not cause any toxic effects or mortality in all the treated animals [58][59][60]. Likewise, no toxic effects were observed when male Wistar rats were treated with an ethanolic extract of A. vera roots at doses of 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg [61]. ...
... In addition, Aloe vera possesses anti-inflammatory activity [42,60,[95][96][97][98][99][100] which helps in preventing the release of pro-inflammatory markers that cause inflammation which induces acute respiratory distress, the leading cause of mortality in COVID patients. Aloe vera also possesses immunomodulatory property [101][102][103][104], which strengthens the immune system of the host hence curbing the spread of the infection. ...
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Background: Aloe vera and Aloe ferox have over the years been among the most sought-after Aloe species in the treatment of ailments worldwide. This review provides categorized literature on the phytochemical and scientifically proven toxicological profiles of A. vera and A. ferox to facilitate their exploitation in therapy. Main body of the abstract: Original full-text research articles were searched in PubMed, ScienceDirect, Research gate, Google Scholar, and Wiley Online Library using specific phrases. Phenolic acids, flavonoids, tannins, and anthraquinones were the main phytochemical classes present in all the two Aloe species. Most of the phytochemical investigations and toxicity studies have been done on the leaves. Aloe vera and Aloe ferox contain unique phytoconstituents including anthraquinones, flavonoids, tannins, sterols, alkaloids, and volatile oils. Aloe vera hydroalcoholic leaf extract showed a toxic effect on Kabir chicks at the highest doses. The methanolic, aqueous, and supercritical carbon dioxide extracts of A. vera leaf gel were associated with no toxic effects. The aqueous leaf extract of A. ferox is well tolerated for short-term management of ailments but long-term administration may be associated with organ toxicity. Long-term administration of the preparations from A. vera leaves and roots was associated with toxic effects. Short conclusion: This review provides beneficial information about the phytochemistry and toxicity of A. vera and A. ferox and their potential in the treatment of COVID-19 which up to date has no definite cure. Clinical trials need to be carried out to clearly understand the toxic effects of these species.
... The synergistic effects of these several compounds provide biological activities that can cure severe diseases such as cancer, liver problems, skin diseases, and acquired immune deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) [59,60] . The presence of vitamin C, B1, B2, B6, and folic acid in the flesh of aloe vera assists in the reduction of pain by stimulating the immune system and the level of Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), therefore decreasing the inflammation reaction [61] . This creature is also known to contain steroidal and alkaloid substances that carry antioxidative properties, exerting potency to cure cancer. ...
Article
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Ultrasound procedures are widely used in assessing and diagnosing a wide variety of medical conditions. For example, in ultrasound imaging, which is utilized for mapping or identifying internal aspects of the patient's body such as fetus, tendons, muscles, and other organs, etc. It is also used for treating skin conditions such as reducing wrinkles, supporting tissue healing, analysis, and improving the extensibility of connective tissues. Medical ultrasound imaging has advantages over magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), such as portability, real-time imaging, reasonable cost, and its harmless effect. Ultrasound gel is used as a coupling medium in all ultrasound procedures to replace air between the patient's skin and the transducer, as ultrasound waves have trouble in traveling through air. But the availability and cost of commercial ultrasound gel are its major limitations. This review article describes the properties and applications of ultrasound gel and some materials that could be used in the formulation of an ultrasound gel. Generally, an ultrasound gel could be prepared by mixing these seven ingredients: vehicle, thickening agent, anti-inflammatory agent, skin conditioning agent, chelating agent, preservative, and neutralizer.
... Body weights of the animals were checked before treatment and then on 1 st , 7 th and 14 th day of the treatment. Consumption of water and food was also recorded on the same days and measured with that of the control group [21]. ...
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Objectives: This study was aimed to evaluate the toxicity profile of hydrogels of plant-derived mucilage from Aloe vera and Artemisia vulgaris used for various drug delivery applications, yet no such toxicity study has been reported for the toxicity evaluation of 3D structures. New Drug carrier should be harmless for drug delivery applications. Methods: Acute and sub-acute (repeated dose) oral toxicity studies were conducted following OECD 407 and 425 guidelines. In vitro toxicity through hemolysis and MTT assay were checked against RBC's and human macrophages respectively. Results: The hemolysis and MTT assay showed good compatibility of hydrogels with blood components. Mutagenicity testing showed no genotoxic effects of hydrogels. In vivo toxicity evaluation was done in female albino rats and rabbits. General behavior, adverse effects, clinical signs and symptoms, and mortality were recorded for 14 days post-treatment which showed no significant (p < 005) abnormality. Hematological and biochemical parameters including LFTs and RFTs appeared to be normal with slight variations in the treated groups. Normal architecture of kidney, liver, heart, and intestine was evident upon histopathological analyses. Conclusion: Hence, the results suggested that the 3D structure of Aloe vera and Artemisia vulgaris based hydrogels is safe upon ingestion and can be used for drug delivery science being cheap, natural and biocompatible.
... Numerous dose ranks of A. vera were prepared by reconstituting the extract at concentration of 1% (w/v). [24] T. indica Linn. ...
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Background: Terminalia chebula Reitz., Aloe vera Linn., and Tamarindus indica Linn. are used in the treatment of different kinds of ailments. Their comparative toxicity profile is very important because all three drugs also affect on vital organ. Aims and Objectives: The foremost objective of the current study was relative evaluation of acute and subacute toxicity of the plant extracts of T. chebula Reitz., A. vera L., and T. indica L. in rats. Materials and Methods: Acute toxicity was conducted by the taking limit dose of 5000 mg/kg body weight. Utterance was completed and recorded for 24 h 1 time daily up to 14 days. Rats were supervised for mortality and behavioral changes 1 time daily throughout all days of study. Meant for subacute study, diverse group of animals was treated for all the three plant extracts at three distinct dose levels at 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg of freshly prepared extracts, respectively, every 24 h orally for 28 days. Control group only administered distilled water and normal feed. At the last moment of the study, biochemical parameters, hematological investigation, and histopathological examination of organs such as liver and kidney were examined. The relative analyses of histopathological investigation were done for all the three plant extracts in comparison to controls. Results: Not at all significant different (P > 0.05) or histopathological changes were detected in terms of hematological, biochemical parameters, and histopathological changes with respect to the control. None of any mortality and behavioral changes were noted. Conclusions: Overall, analysis of the results concluded that medium-term oral administration of all three plant extracts does not show toxicity for 28-day treatment.
... Aloeresin, an anti-inflammatory chemical found in the plant, is also present. In addition, it also contains carboxypeptidase and bradykinase, which are anti-inflammatory and anti-swelling enzymes [23]. ...
... Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) such as aspirin, diclo-fenac, ibuprofen, indomethacin and naproxen are used to relieve pain and inflammation by targeting mainly the COX-2 enzyme [6]. However, none of them are devoid of side effects [7]. For example, the long-term use of NSAIDs has been associated with gastric ulcers, bleeding and nephrotoxicity [2]. ...
Article
Background Natural products have been a rich source of compounds for drug discovery. Usually, compounds obtained from natural sources have little or no side effects, thus searching for new lead compounds from traditionally used plant species is still a rational strategy. Introduction Natural products serve as a useful repository of compounds for new drugs; however, their use has been decreasing, in part because of technical barriers to screening natural products in high-throughput assays against molecular targets. To address this unmet demand, we have developed and validated a high throughput in silico machine learning screening method to identify potential compounds from natural sources. Methods In the current study, three machine learning approaches, including Support Vector Machine (SVM), Random Forest (RF) and Gradient Boosting Machine (GBM) have been applied to develop the classification model. The model was generated using the cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitors reported in the ChEMBL database. The developed model was validated by evaluating the accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, Matthews correlation coefficient and Cohen’s kappa statistic of the test set. The molecular docking study was conducted on AutoDock vina and the results were analyzed in PyMOL. Results The accuracy of the model for SVM, RF and GBM was found to be 75.40 %, 74.97 % and 74.60 %, respectively which indicates the good performance of the developed model. Further, the model has demonstrated good sensitivity (61.25 % - 68.60 %) and excellent specificity (77.72 %- 81.41 %). Application of the model on the NuBBE database, a repository of natural compounds, led us to identify a natural compound, enhydrin possessing analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities. The ML methods and the molecular docking study suggest that enhydrin likely demonstrates its analgesic and anti-inflammatory actions by inhibiting COX-2. Conclusion Our developed and validated in silico high throughput ML screening methods may assist in identifying drug-like compounds from natural sources.
... 12 Aloe vera juice is reported to reduce inflammation through the effect of acetylated polysaccharides mannose, acemannan and veracilglucanos B and C. These molecules regulate inflammation by interacting with immune mediators interleukins 6 and 8. 13 Aloe vera has been widely used in traditional practices to treat wounds and burns but there are no definitive studies that show the beneficial effects of Aloe vera in wound healing. In this study, the effect of Glucosamine Sulphate and Aloe vera juice on MSC cells growing on ECM protein coated wells was studied by subjecting the cells to varying concentrations of the agents over seven days. ...
Article
Use of stem cells for treating degenerative diseases like osteoarthritis has been gaining popularity. Glucosamine Sulphate is a nutritional supplement used for relieving inflammation during Osteoarthritis. Aloe vera juice is a widely consumed drink used in traditional practices to help reduce inflammation. In this experiment, the effect of Glucosamine Sulphate and Aloe vera on 2D and 3D proliferation of MSC cells was studied. Initial study to determine a suitable matrix for growing MSC cells was performed by growing the cells on 5mg/ml and 10mg/ml collagen and fibronectin coated wells for seven days. Cells adhered the least on fibronectin 10ug/ml and cells proliferated the highest on fibronectin at 10ug/ml, thus establishing fibronectin 10ug/ml as the matrix for the study. The effect of Glucosamine Sulphate on 2D proliferation of MSC cells growing on 10ug/ml fibronectin matrix was studied by exposing the cells to 0mg/ml, 0.1mg/ml, 0.5mg/ml and 1 mg/ml of Glucosamine Sulphate for seven days. The cells adhered the least on 0.5mg/ml and proliferated the highest on 0.5mg/ml as well (p<0.05). The effect of Aloe vera on MSC cells grown on fibronectin at 10ug/ml was studied by using concentrations of 0%, 2%, 5% and 10% Aloe vera juice for seven days. It was found that cell proliferation radically decreased in all conditions after Day 4 and the least proliferation was observed at 10%. 3D proliferation of MSC cells in a fibrin construct was studied with 0.1 mg/ml of Glucosamine Sulphate and 2% and 5% Aloe vera juice. It was observed that 5% Aloe vera juice allowed highest proliferation of cells, followed by 0.1 mg/ml Glucosamine Sulphate and 2% Aloe vera. This indicated that further analysis with 2% and 5% Aloe vera along with 0.1mg/ml as threshold could help identify an optimum dose range for uptake of Glucosamine Sulphate with Aloe vera juice to enhance relief from inflammation during osteoarthritis
... However, only part of the gel is used, while the skin of the leaves becomes waste (Aryanti et a., 2013). The active ingredients that have been identified in the extract of the bark of the leaves of Aloe barbadensis Miller include saponins, sterols, acemannan, and anthraquinones which are toxic to bacterial cells (Marimuthu et al., 2012;Benzidia et al., 2018;Devaraj et al., 2011). Through this research, hopefully that the incidence of S. aureus resistance can be overcome with antibiofilm as an alternative therapy that can reduce the prevalence of infection. ...
Article
Background & objective According to the clinical practice guideline of the Traditional Thai Medicine hospital, the therapeutic procedure of knee osteoarthritis (KOA) has been improved. The purpose of this study was aimed to assess the effectiveness of the procedure for the relief of knee pain in KOA patients. Methods A multi-center, open-label, pre-post clinical trial was performed in 39 patients with KOA. Patients were treated with seven points of knee acupressure for 14 min. along with 30 min. of herbal knee poultice (Zingiber cassumunar, Gloriosa superba, Aloe vera, and Cinnamomum camphora). The clinical assessments including WOMAC score, visual analog scale (VAS) for pain as well as knee physical examination were carried out to compare between day 0 and day 3 after the treatment. Results A total of 36 patients were analyzed at the end of the study. The result revealed that WOMAC and VAS significantly reduced (p < 0.05) after three times of the treatment with the KOA guideline when compared with day 0. Moreover, the physical examination of the knee was improved. Based on the criteria of the International Contact Dermatitis Research Group (ICDRG), there was no skin irritation observed in all patients. Conclusion This study proved that the KOA guideline from Traditional Thai Medicine hospital could potentially be applied to relieve pain in KOA.
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Margaritaria discoidea is a medicinal plant used for the treatment of various body pains in Central, Eastern and Southern Africa. The aqueous extract of its stem bark was investigated for its anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities in animal models. The extract at 50, 100 and 200mg/kg body weight reduced significantly the formation of oedema induced by carrageenan and histamine. In the acetic acid-induced writhing model, the extract had a good analgesic effect characterized by a reduction in the number of writhes when compared to the control. Similarly, the extract caused dose-dependent decrease of licking time and licking frequency in rats injected with 2.5% formalin. These results were also comparable to those of indomethacin, the reference drug used in this study. Acute toxicity test showed that the plant may be safe for pharmacological uses. This study has provided some justification for the folkloric use of the plant in several communities for conditions such as stomachache, pain and inflammations. Rev. Biol. Trop. 57 (4): 1193-1200. Epub 2009 December 01.
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The aqueous extract of the stem bark of Acacia karroo Hayne was investigated for its anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities in animal models. The extract at 100 and 200 mg/kg reduced significantly the formation of oedema induced by carrageenan and histamine. In the acetic acid-induced writhing model, the extract showed a good analgesic effect characterized by a significant reduction in the number of writhes with two doses (100 and 200 mg/kg) used when compared to the untreated control group. In the tail immersion test, the extract at the doses used (100 and 200 mg/kg) increased reaction time to pain after 30 min. of oral administration of the extract. Indomethacin at 10 mg/kg served as reference drug in all these tests. The results gave a scientific basis to the traditional uses of Acacia karroo mainly for wound poultices, eye treatments and cold remedies.
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Pharmacological activities of leaf gel and pulp of Aloe ferox have been extensively evaluated. However, there is scanty information on the pharmacological activities of the whole leaf of A. ferox. Carrageenan, histamine and formaldehyde-induced rat paw oedema were conducted to evaluate anti-inflammatory activity of A. ferox whole leaf aqueous extract. Tail flick, formalin and acetic acid tests were conducted to assess the analgesic activity of the plant. A. ferox exhibited highest anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities in the highest dose (400 mg/kg) tested. This dose level exerted highest anti-inflammatory activity; 78.2 and 89.3% for carrageenan and formaldehyde-induced rat paw oedema, respectively. The analgesic activity was 57.1 and 67.3% for the 400 mg/kg dose in phase 1 and 2, respectively of formalin test and 88.2% in acetic acid test. A. ferox reduced inflammation and relieved pain in rats at the highest dose level studied. This supports the extensive use of the plant as an antihelmintic reducing the inflammation and pain that might have been caused by gastro-intestinal parasite infections.
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A highly potent cardiotonic substance, calcium isocitrate, was isolated from Aloe saponaria, using solvent partition, nonionic porous resin, and gel permeation chromatographies. Cardiac stimulant activity of synthesized stereoisomers of calcium isocitrate was demonstrated in isolated guinea pig atria.
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Antiinflammatory effects of phenolic compounds from Emblica officinalis were evaluated in carrageenan and cotton pellet induced acute and chronic inflammatory animal model. Fractions of E. officinalis containing free (FPEO) and bounded (BPEO) phenolic compounds were assessed by HPLC technique. The free and bound phenolic compounds were studied for their acute and chronic antiinflammatory activity at dose level of 20 and 40 mg/kg. The carrageenan induced acute inflammation was assessed by measuring rat paw volume at different time of intervals. Further, cotton pellet induced chronic inflammation was assessed by granulomatous tissue mass estimation along with the estimation of tissue biomarker changes (i.e. lipid peroxidation, reduced glutathione, myeloperoxidase and plasma extravasation). The results indicated that in both acute and chronic inflammation, FPEO and BPEO show reduction in the inflammation, but significant effects was observed only at high doses of both fractions which was comparable to diclofenac treated group. In conclusion, phenolic compounds of E. officinalis may serve as potential herbal candidate for amelioration of acute and chronic inflammation due to their modulatory action of free radicals.
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edited by K. Hostettmann, A. Marston, M. Maillard and M. Hamburger