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The objective of this study was to systematically review the psychometric properties of the measures used in assessing the psychosocial well-being status of children and adolescents. This review updates and expands on the previous review of the literature on child well-being in order to assess all available studies from 2000 to 2013 on the measurement properties of all available well-being assessment instruments that aim to measure the construct of well-being in childhood and adolescence. Overall, 182 measures designed for measuring child and adolescent well-being were found. These measures vary in length and structure from one item scales to multidimensional questionnaires with 70 items and more. Most of the instruments measure positive indicators of well-being (e.g., life satisfaction, quality of life, self-esteem, etc.), others measure deficit indicators (e.g., anxiety, depression, stress, etc.), and a few instruments measure both positive and deficit indicators. In addition, there are some instruments with undefined modality of well-being. Thus, our study has revealed an ongoing theoretical shift from a deficit approach to well-being to a strengths-based approach. The results also indicate that the reliability information is reported for the majority of the instruments. The most frequently used reliability measure for all these instruments is the Cronbach's alpha internal consistency coefficient. The reports of validity are available for approximately one-third of the instruments. Measures of well-being in adolescence are dominant, however, some instruments are suitable for the measurement of well-being and its indicators in childhood, and some reach the period of emerging adulthood (19-21 years). Most of the studies were conducted in North America and Europe with only a few of them being cross-cultural.
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Social Inquiry into Well-being, 2015, Vol. 1, No. 1(1), p. 40-75
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http://siiw.mruni.eu
2015, Vol. 1, No. 1(1)
DOI:10.13165/SIIW-15-1-1-05
Social Inquiry into Well-being
E-ISSN 2351-6682
Systematic Review of the Measurement Properties of Questionnaires for
the Measurement of the Well-Being of Children and Adolescents
Rita Žukauskienėa, Goda Kaniušonytėa, Inga Truskauskaitė-Kunevičienėa, Oksana Malinauskienėa
aMykolas Romeris University, Faculty of Social Technologies
Institute of Psychology, Lithuania, Faculty of Social Technologies, Institute of Psychology, Ateities Str. 20, LT-08303
Vilnius, Lithuania, Tel. (8 5) 271 46 20
* Corresponding author email address: rzukausk@mruni.eu
Abstract
The objective of this study was to systematically review the psychometric properties of the measures used in assessing the psychosocial
well-being status of children and adolescents. This review updates and expands on the previous review of the literature on child well-being
in order to assess all available studies from 2000 to 2013 on the measurement properties of all available well-being assessment instruments
that aim to measure the construct of well-being in childhood and adolescence. Overall, 182 measures designed for measuring child and
adolescent well-being were found. These measures vary in length and structure from one item scales to multidimensional questionnaires with
70 items and more. Most of the instruments measure positive indicators of well-being (e.g., life satisfaction, quality of life, self-esteem, etc.),
others measure deficit indicators (e.g., anxiety, depression, stress, etc.), and a few instruments measure both positive and deficit indicators.
In addition, there are some instruments with undefined modality of well-being. Thus, our study has revealed an ongoing theoretical shift from
a deficit approach to well-being to a strengths-based approach. The results also indicate that the reliability information is reported for the
majority of the instruments. The most frequently used reliability measure for all these instruments is the Cronbach’s alpha internal consistency
coefficient. The reports of validity are available for approximately one-third of the instruments. Measures of well-being in adolescence are
dominant, however, some instruments are suitable for the measurement of well-being and its indicators in childhood, and some reach the
period of emerging adulthood (19-21 years). Most of the studies were conducted in North America and Europe with only a few of them being
cross-cultural.
Keywords: Well-Being, Psychometric properties, Children, Adolescents
Acknowledgements
This research is funded by the European Social Fund under the Global Grant measure (POSIDEV, Nr. VP1-3.1-SMM-07-
K-02-008).
1. Systematic Review of the Measurement Properties of
Questionnaires for the Measurement of the Well-
Being of Children and Adolescents
The notion of well-being dates back to 1948 when the
constitution of the World Health Organization (WHO)
defined health as "a state of complete physical, mental, and
social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or
infirmity." More recently, there has been a growing interest
in the definition and measurement of child well-being which
is reflected in the large number of studies carried out across
the world (Ben-Arieh & Frønes, 2011; Benson & Scales,
2009; Diener & Seligman, 2004; Frønes, 2007; Pollard and
Lee, 2003; Soutter, Gilmore, & O’Steen, 2011). However,
inconsistent use of definitions of well-being and the variety
Social Inquiry into Well-being, 2015, Vol. 1, No. 1(1), p. 40-75
41
of its indicators and measures have created a confusing and
contradictory research base. Despite many decades of
research on well-being, there is still little consensus on how
it should be measured.
In a systematic review, Tsang, Wong and Lo (2012)
identified emerging themes of the constructs of psychosocial
well-being and named them Deficit-oriented constructs and
Strengths-based constructs. For many decades, the
measurement of child well-being has focused on children
with emotional and behavioral problems, disorders, and
disabilities rather than attempting to measure a continuum of
well-being for all children. Well-being mainly has been
conceptualized as the absence of negative or undesirable
behaviors (Benson, 2003; Bornstein, Davidson, Keyse,
Moore, & The Center for Child Well-Being, 2003; Moore &
Halle, 2001). This “deficit-oriented approach” involves the
use of items that were rationally selected from the measures
of clinical diagnoses or problematic symptoms, such as
anxiety and depression that predate current conceptual
models of psychosocial well-being (Chorpita, Daleiden,
Moffitt, Yim, & Umemoto, 2000). However, Ben-Arieh et al.
(2001) indicate that focusing on negative indicators skews
our collective view of well-being, which is more than just
the absence of negatives.
Within the last decade, however, this trend has begun to
change. Researchers and practitioners began to question the
deficit-based approach and move toward a more ecological
framework for understanding child well-being
(Bronfenbrenner, 1992) or a framework that builds on the
concept of children in society (Bennet, 2004), or on the
child’s own current perspective and experience (Ben-Arieh,
2006). Rather than focusing on individual weaknesses or
mental health problems, proponents of the “strengths-based”
approach (Ben-Arieh & Goerge, 2001; Pollard & Lee, 2003)
prefer to conceptualize child well-being as a positive
continuous variable. Thus, strengths-based assessment is
defined as the measurement of those emotional and
behavioral skills, competencies, and characteristics that
“create a sense of personal accomplishment; contribute to
satisfying relationships with family members, peers, and
adults; enhance one’s ability to deal with adversity and
stress; and promote one’s personal, social, and academic
development” (Epstein & Sharma, 1998, p.3).
Ryan and Deci´s (2001) review two broad psychological
traditions that have historically been employed to explore
well-being. The hedonic view equates well-being with
happiness and is often operationalized as the balance
between positive and negative affect (Ryan & Deci, 2001;
Ryff, 1989), being traditionally associated with the concept
of subjective well-being (SWB) (e.g., Diener, 1984). Park
(2004) pointed out that “SWB serves not only as a key
indicator of positive development but also as a broad
enabling factor that promotes and maintains optimal mental
health” (p. 27).
Eudaimonic well-being is defined as an individual’s being
fully functioning and self-realized (Ryan & Deci, 2001). The
eudaimonic perspective assesses how well people live in
relation to their true selves (Waterman, 1993) and involves a
purpose in life and self-acceptance (Ryan & Deci, 2001;
Ryff, 1989), quality of life (e.g., Keyes 2005; Vella-
Brodrick, Park, & Peterson, 2009), motives and goals (Deci
& Ryan, 2008; Peterson, Park, & Seligman, 2005; Ryff &
Singer, 2008), and positive youth development (PYD)
(Benson & Scales, 2009; Eccles & Gootman, 2002). The
positive youth development (PYD) approach (Larson, 2000;
Lerner & Benson 2004) is explicitly strengths-based,
focusing on cultivating children’s assets, positive
relationships, beliefs, morals, behaviors, and capacities with
the aim of giving children the resources they need to grow
successfully across the life course (Damon, 2004; Lippman,
Moore, & McIntosh, 2011). Positive youth development
framework has been conceptualized in a number of ways by
several theoretical frameworks (for a review, see Lerner,
Phelps, Forman, & Bowers, 2009). Indicators of thriving,
positive development, or well-being are often treated as
synonyms (Moore, Lippman, & Brown, 2004). Therefore,
well-being understood from this perspective is often labelled
as psychological well-being (PWB) (Extremera, Salguero, &
Fernández-Berrocal, 2011).
Soutter, O’Steen, and Gilmore (2012) conceptualize well-
being as a multi-dimensional, complex phenomenon,
evidenced by the diversity of terms used to discuss and
measure it. In addition, some scholars have pointed to the
multidimensionality of well-being and believe that
instruments should encompass both hedonic and eudaimonic
well-being (Compton, Smith, Cornish, & Qualls, 1996;
McGregor & Little, 1998; Ryan & Deci, 2001). However,
there is no standard or widely accepted measure of either
hedonic or eudaimonic well-being.
2. Present Study
2.1 Aims and objectives
As the construct of psychosocial well-being is multi-
component, studies on the measurement of well-being can
be arduous. The need for effective instruments for assessing
child and adolescent well-being is constantly increasing
(Ben-Arieh & Frønes, 2011), therefore, it is essential to
systematically investigate the reliability and validity of
assessment measures for psychosocial well-being. Similarly,
Dodge, Daly, Huyton, and Sanders (2012) indicated that “as
interest in the measurement of wellbeing grows, there is a
greater necessity to be clear about what is being measured
and how the resulting data should be interpreted, in order to
undertake a fair and valid assessment” (Dodge et al 2012, p.
222).
The objective of this study was to systematically review
the psychometric properties of the measures used in
assessing the psychosocial well-being status of children and
adolescents.
A systematic review of the literature on child well-being
in English spanning from 1991 to 1999 (Pollard & Lee,
2003) assessed the domains, definitions, indicators and
measurements of child well-being present in the literature.
Our review updates and expands on this review to assess all
available studies from 2000 to 2013 on the measurement
properties of all available well-being assessment instruments
that aim to measure the construct of well-being in childhood
and adolescence. In this updated and expanded review, we
focus on one of the key questions from the original study by
Pollard and Lee (2003), but, in addition, we expand our
Social Inquiry into Well-being, 2015, Vol. 1, No. 1(1), p. 40-75
42
conception of well-being to include positive youth
development. In the results section of this paper, we include
only those studies that have been published after Pollard and
Lee’s (2003) review; we did not systematically re-abstract
studies from their review or reassess their quality.
Similarly to Pollard and Lee’s (2003) review, we used a
three-phase methodology: a key term search (in the
Abstract), a title screen review, and a content screen review.
One significant deviation in the current review is the
inclusion of a larger number of databases in order to conduct
as comprehensive systematic analysis as possible and to
include the term “positive youth development”.
3. Design and Methods
3.1 Search strategy
In our systematic search, we observed the guidelines and
criteria for systematic reviews described by the Centre for
Reviews and Dissemination (2008) and the Preferred
Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses
(PRISMA) Statement (Moher, Liberati, Tetzlaff, Altman, &
Group, 2009).
The search was limited to references published from 2000
onwards, as this review updates and expands Pollard and
Lee’s (2003) review of 1992-1999 in order to analyze the
current state of child and adolescent well-being. The search
carried out for the updated review covered nine online
databases: PsychArticles, Scopus, Science Direct, Thomson
Reuters, SocINDEX with Full Text, ERIC, MEDLINE, and
Education Research Complete. The online search was
completed on October 30, 2013.
The terms used in the literature search (with their
synonyms and closely related words) were the following:
“well-being” combined with “indicator” and “child” or
“adolescent“. The online databases were searched for the
selected key words using the algorithm presented in Figure
1. The search terms were applied to all databases (modified
to meet the requirements of each database due to different
field restrictions).
Figure 1.
Search strategy algorithm.
Well!being/ quality life/ positive development/ life satisfaction/ happiness/ wellness AND (Indicator* OR asset* OR
marker* OR construct* OR strength*) AND (child* OR adolescen* OR student* OR youth OR undergraduate*)
A summary of the key terms and the search results is
presented in Table 1. The searches were not limited to a
single study design or a single country of origin of
publications. However, the results were limited to English
publications available online prior to October, 2013. The
search generated 7973 citations, of which 2778 was
automatically discarded as duplicates.
Table 1.
Database Search Results
Database
Psych
Articles
Science
direct
Scope
Thompson
Reuters
ERIC
MED-
LINE
Education
Research
Complete
SocINDEX
with Full Text
Total
Citations of key terms, per database
42
238
300
913
66
221
271
274
2325
5
294
374
795
102
154
42
97
1863
11
68
277
360
82
77
104
91
1070
2
28
97
162
39
77
46
24
475
13
294
603
614
211
106
117
85
2043
1
21
24
24
56
19
34
18
197
74
943
1675
2868
556
654
614
589
7973
Note. Duplicate articles arising from the same article appearing in multiple databases are included in the total number.
Besides the literature search, we developed a coding
scheme to assess and evaluate the relevant information
concerning the definitions, indicators and the quality of the
instruments. The coding scheme included such subsections
as general information (e.g., authors, type of publication,
country), details of the study (e.g., method of data
collection), the definition of well-being, well-being
indicators, details of the instrument (e.g., name, language,
information source, sample, etc.), and information about
instrument reliability. The four raters involved were the
Social Inquiry into Well-being, 2015, Vol. 1, No. 1(1), p. 40-75
43
authors of this review (except for the title and the abstract
screen for which there was an additional rater involved).
3.2 Study selection
First, the relevance of the studies was determined by
screening the titles and abstracts. To ensure the inter-rater
reliability, every rater evaluated the same selection of 1200
titles and the remaining abstracts (23 % of all the titles).
After training, the observed Kappa was .785 for the title
screen review and .619 for the abstract screen review. As a
rule of thumb, values of Kappa from 0.40 to 0.59 are
considered moderate, 0.60 to 0.79 substantial, and 0.80
outstanding (Landis & Koch, 1977).
Five raters independently screened the 5195 (1039 each)
citations obtained from the computerized database searches.
The articles were sorted into relevant and non-relevant sets
based on a title screen review. After screening the titles, the
total number of relevant citations was 1215. The abstracts of
these citations were further reviewed. As a result, 727
citations were excluded. The eligibility criteria for inclusion
are presented in Table 2 and for exclusion in Table 3.
Table 2
Articles inclusion criteria in title screen stage
I unit
II unit
III unit
Well-being
Wellness
Quality of life
Life satisfaction
Satisfaction with life
Self-esteem
Happiness
Positive development
Spirituality
Competencies
Assets
Strengths
Child (or synonym)
Adolescent (or synonym)
Student (or synonym)
Undergraduate (or synonym)
Indicators
Predictors
Determinants
Correlates
Measure
Instrument (or synonym, including
psychometric properties)
Note. Duplicate articles arising from the same article appearing in multiple databases are included in the total number.
Table 3
Content Screen Exclusion Criteria
Focus is a clinical condition
The sample does not include a general or community population
Focus is well-being of parents
Sample has mean age of greater than 18 years; if the sample included children and adolescents, there is no specific analysis
of them as a subgroup
Focus is fetal or neonatal well-being
Purpose is debate of ethical issue
Focus is mortality issue
No references are cited
Research is qualitative or experimental
No measurement are used
Purpose is systematic review or meta-analysis
Focus is intervention
Articles language is not English
3.3 Coding of publications and instruments
During the first rater training, three studies were
randomly selected and rated by the four authors. This step
revealed some weaknesses and misunderstandings of the
coding scheme and the exclusion criteria, resulting in a first
revision. The full list of the exclusion criteria for the content
screen review is presented in Annex 1.
In the second step, 80 further studies of the 488 included
were randomly selected and rated by all the authors to test
the quality of the revised coding scheme. Inter-rater
reliability was assessed by computing the agreement
percentage for all variables; the values (in all cases?) fell
between 86 % and 100 %. The remaining 408 publications
were equally distributed among the four authors to be coded
individually. After the article review and the coding
procedure, 250 citations were excluded due to a number of
reasons (see Figure 2). The total number of 238 publications
was included in the final review.
Social Inquiry into Well-being, 2015, Vol. 1, No. 1(1), p. 40-75
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Figure 2.
Systematic review articles selection strategy.
4. Results
Overall, 186 measures of child and adolescent well-being
were found. These measures vary in length and
structurefrom one item scales to multidimensional
questionnaires with more than 70 items. Most of the
instruments included in this review do not use directly the
concept of well-being. The concepts measured cover a
variety of well-being indicators and synonyms broadly used
in the well-being literature (Lippman, Moore, & McIntosh,
2011; Pollard & Lee, 2003). Most of the instruments (70 %)
measure positive indicators of well-being (e.g., life
satisfaction, quality of life, self-esteem, etc.), others (20 %)
measure deficit indicators (e.g., anxiety, depression, stress,
etc.), a few instruments (8 %) measure both positive and
deficit indicators, and there is a handful of instruments (2 %)
with undefined modality of well-being. Thus, the study
reveals an ongoing theoretical shift from deficit well-being
approach to strengths-based approach. However, the
indicators measured range from narrow aspects of well-
being to a single broad concept that defines the overall well-
being. Many researchers still report that they measure well-
being, in many cases succeeding tocapture a single aspect of
well-being, as observed in Pollard and Lee’s (2003) review.
Reliability information is reported for the majority of the
instruments (78.6 %).The reliability measure used for all
these instruments is the Cronbach’s alpha internal
consistency coefficient and for 6.3 % of the instruments
additionally test-retest reliability is reported. It is
problematic that we were unable to find any reliability
statistics reported for about one fifth of the instruments.
Another issue is the reliability approach used in most of the
studies. Although a more practical alternative for measuring
reliability (such as an omega coefficient) was suggested
decades ago (McDonnalds, 1970) and the supremacy of this
alternative for multidimensional instruments was widely
acknowledged (Dunn, Baguley, Brunsden, 2013; Lucke,
2005), we did not find a single study that used any other
statistics than a Cronbach’s alpha or a tests-retest rho
coefficient.
We found reports of validity for 34.1 % (N = 62) of the
instruments. Out of those 62, the construct validity data was
reported in 56.5 % (N = 36) of the instruments, discriminant
validity in 38.7 % (N = 24), convergent and/or divergent
validity in 33.9 % (N = 21), concurrent validity in 17.7 % (N
= 11), content validity in 12,9 % (N = 8), criterion and
predictive validity in 9.7 % (N = 6), face validity in 6.5 %
(N = 4), structure validity in 3.2 % (N = 2), and incremental
validity in 1.6 % (N = 1) of the instruments. The validity
information reported for 21 % (N = 13) of these instruments
did not include the type of validity. We found two or three
types of validity in half of the instruments with the provided
information on the validity criteria (in 23 out of 49); only
one type in one third of the instruments (in 16 out of 49);
four or five types of validity in one fifth of the instruments
(in 9 out of 49). For one instrument as many as seven validity
types were reported. Regrettably, for the majority of the
instruments (65.9 %) there was no validity statistics
reported. Measurement validity is important in identifying
Social Inquiry into Well-being, 2015, Vol. 1, No. 1(1), p. 40-75
45
quality research as it ensures that the same construct is
measured across the studies. Therefore, future research on
child and adolescent well-being should put emphasis on the
choice of valid measures and the reports of validity statistics.
We found 173 instruments (out of 186) suitable for the
measurement of well-being and its indicators in adolescence
(11-18 years) and 78 instruments in the childhood (3-10
years). Notably, 36 of the instruments for measuring child
and/or adolescent well-being reach the period of emerging
adulthood (19-21 years) and 12 instruments are suitable for
measuring well-being from birth. Thus, these results suggest
that adolescent’s well-being studies are more popular than
children’s well-being studies.
It is noteworthy that most of the studies were conducted
in North America (45.9 %), 31 % in Europe, 11.9 % in Asia,
9.3 % in Australia, 1.4 % in Africa, and 0.5 % in South
America. Only 4.3 % of the studies were cross-cultural.
Although studies from North America (the USA and
Canada) remain dominant, it is promising that more than half
of the studies represent more diverse cultural backgrounds.
However, cross-cultural studies should be encouraged more.
5. Strengths, Limitations, and Further Suggestions
Both strengths and shortcomings of this review should be
considered. The main strength of this review is the extent of
the conducted literature analysis that covers a substantial
number of studies selected from a wide range of databases
in the field of psychology.
The comparison of the well-being measurement
instruments will allow finding more quality instruments
easier for the researchers in the field. The choice of the
instruments will be based not only on availability, but also
on validity and reliability information and this will lead to
more quality studies of children and adolescent’s well-being.
In addition, smaller pool of quality instruments will lead to
higher comparability of studies conducted and definitions
used.
This review also offers full range of directly measured
well-being indicators. This is a good way of bringing in front
less popular but nevertheless important instruments,
measuring wider range of well-being indicators. In addition,
this allows covering broader range of different aspects of
well-being in scientific studies.
The primary limitation concerns publication bias due to
excluding gray literature, unpublished studies, and non-
English publications.
An important course for future research leading to the
deeper theoretical value and implications would be a further
analysis of the domains and indicators of well-being, as the
understanding of child and adolescent well-being remains
equivocal.
6. Conclusion
We conducted a systematic review on instruments
designed for measuring child and adolescent well-being. In
all 238 relevant studies, limited to publications that were
published from 2000 to October 30, 2013, were extracted. In
total 182 measures of well-being (and its indicators) were
found.
This review highlighted great interest in child and
adolescent well-being and documented considerable
progress in assessing this phenomenon from different
perspectives. However, the variety of available instruments
indicates not only the advancement in the field but also the
lack of consensus regarding the indicators of well-being and
its synonyms. However, that many researchers agree that a
particular measure of well-being should be used is arguably
less important than the need to critically examine the quality
of the instruments used. Choosing the right research
instrument requires taking into account the reliability and
validity of measures to ensure research quality. We hope that
this review will prove helpful in this process.
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Annex 1
Well-being Instruments, Indicators of Well-being, age of studies participants, validity and reliability criteria, and Country of Origin,
Reference & Sample information
Measurement
Indicators of Well -being
Age
Validity
Reliability
Country/Reference (N(F%))
Psychological Well-Being Scale
(PWBS; Ryff, 1989; Ryff &
Keyes 1995)
Self-acceptance, Positive
relations with others,
Autonomy, Environmental
mastery, Purpose in life,
Personal growth
12-19
CV
DC
CS
α = .76-.95
USA / Seaton, Neblett, Upton,
Hammond, & Sellers, 2011 (572
(65)); Vrangalova & Savin-
Williams, 2011 (484 (48));
Bundick, 2011 (201 (49));
Italy, Belarus / Sirigatti, 2013
(1114 (81));
Korea / Jin & Moon, 2006 (299
(28));
The questions on future
orientation, adapted from the Ryff
Well-being Scale (Ryff & Keyes,
1995; Jose, Ryan & Pryor, 2012)
Future orientation
10-15
α = .78
New Zeland / Jose, Ryan &
Pryor, 2012 (2174 (52));
Youth well-being index (Erbstein
et al., 2013)
Health, Education, Social
relationships, Community
context
12-17
α = .85-.97
USA / Erbstein, Hartzog, &
Geraghty, 2013 (N/A (N/A));
P.G.I. General Well-Being Scale
(Verma et al., 1983)
Physical, Mood, Anxiety,
Self/Others
12-16
α = .86
Scotland, UK / Karatzias et al.,
2006 (425 (54,8); Karatzias,
Power, & Swanson, 2001 (425
(54.8));
The well-being inventory of
secondary education (WISE)
(Engels, Aelterman, Deconinck,
Schepens, & Van Petegem, 2000;
Engels, Aelterman, Van Petegem,
Schepens, &
Deconinck, 2004; Engels,
Aelterman, Schepens & Van
Petegem, 2004)
Positive emotional state,
Capacity of adaptation to and
by the school
12-16
α = .80
Belgium / Van Petegem,
Aelterman, Van Keer, &
Rosseel, 2008 (594 (36.4));
The school-age version of the
Personal Well-Being Index (PWI;
Cummins, 1998, 2003)
Subjective / Personal well-
being: happiness in /
satisfaction with: standard of
living, Health, Achieving in
life, Relationships, Safety,
Community connection, Future
security, Spirituality or Religion
7-18
CV
CS
α = .70-.84
Australia / Tomyn, Fuller,
Tyszkiewicz, & Norrish, 2013
(8762 (57.5)); Toner, Haslam,
Robinson, & Williams, 2012
(501 (45.7));
Spain / Vaqué, González, &
Casas, 2012 (371 (46.4)); Casas,
Figuer, Gonzalez, & Malo, 2007
(1618 (53)); Casas, Bello,
Gonzalez, & Aligue, 2013 (5934
(N/A));
Romania, Spain / Casas,
Baltatescu, Bertran, Gonzalez,
& Hatos, 2013 (3532 (51));
UK / Axford & Hobbs, 2011
(5000 (N/A));
The World Health Organization
WHO-5 (WHO-5; World Health
Organization; Bech, Gudex, &
Johansen, 1996; Bech, Olsen,
Kjoller, & Rasmussen, 2003)
Psychological well-being;
Perception of positive affect;
Perception of quality of
functioning
13-17
CS
α = .89
rho = .57
New Zeland / Aminzadeh et al.,
2013 (5508 (47.3));
UK / Clarke et al., 2011 (1650
(50.1));
Mental Health Inventory-5
(Marques, Pais-Ribeiro, & Lopez,
2011)
Experience of psychological
well-being, The absence of
psychological distress
10-15
α = .82
Portugal / Marques, Pais-
Ribeiro, & Lopez, 2011 (367
(53.1));
NI 50 calculation (Chamberlain et
al., 2010)
Emotional well-being
10-15
UK / Farmer & Hanratty, 2012
(3903 (N/A));
55
Students' Life Satisfaction Scale
(SLSS; Huebner, 1991)
Life satisfaction
8-19
CC
CS
CT
CN
PD
CV
DV
DC
α = .80-.89
rho = .53-
.76
USA / Suldo & Huebner, 2004
(1045 (64)); Suldo & Huebner,
2006 (698 (64)); Seligson,
Huebner, & Valois, 2003 (221
(42)); Seligson, Huebner, &
Valois, 2005 (518 (52.8));
Shaffer-Hudkins, Suldo, Loker,
& March, 2010 (401 (60));
Suldo, Shannon, & Huebner,
2004 (1188 (64)); Suldo,
Shannon, & Huebner, 2006 (698
(64)); Suldo, Shaffer, & Riley,
2008 (321 (68)); Gillham et al.,
2011 (149 (51.6)); Chappel,
Suldo, & Ogg, 2012 (183 (64));
McCullough, Huebner, &
Laughlin, 2000 (92 (51)); Bluth
& Blanton, 2013 (67 (58.2));
Norway / Iversen & Holsen
2008 (1153 (N/A)
Portugal / Marques, Pais-
Ribeiro, & Lopez, 2007 (367
(53.1)); Marques et al., 2011
(367 (53.1))
Spain / Casas, Bello, et al., 2013
(5934 (N/A)
UK / Proctor et al., 2011 (319
(52.9));
Satisfaction with Life Scale
(SWLS; Diener, Emmons,
Larsen, & Griffin, 1985; Pavot &
Diener, 1993)
9-20
CV
DC
CS
α = .67-.93
China / Wang et al., 2009 (509
(39)); Leung & Zhang, 2000
(1099 (39.6));
Norway / Moksnes et al., 2013
(1289 (51.2));
USA / Vera et al., 2008 (151
(55)); Vrangalova & Savin-
Williams, 2011 (484 (48)); Froh
et al., 2010 (2198 (N/A));
Bundick, 2011 (201 (49);
Cohen, Greene, Toyinbo, &
Siskowski, 2012 (1281 (44.7));
Dockendorff et al., 2012 (2174
(52));
Canada / Gadermann et al., 2010
(1266 (48));
Taiwan / Lee et al., 2013 (488
(47);
Kosovo, Albania, Italy, Bosnia,
Croatia, Austria / Sujoldzić &
De Lucia, 2007 (1934 (57.3));
Germany / Marsh, Trautwein,
Ludtke, Koller, & Baumert,
2006 (4475 (55)); Hirschi, 2009
(330 (50));
Israel / Weber, Ruch, Littman-
Ovadia, Lavy, & Gai, 2013 (396
(49.7));
New Zeland / Jose et al., 2012
(2174 (52));
Italy / Alessandri, Caprara, &
Tisak, 2012 (298 (55));
Satisfaction with life scale
adapted for children (SWLS-C;
Gadermann et al., 2010) (based
on SWLS; Diener et al., 1985)
9-16
V
α = .83-.93
Canada / Morton et al., 2011
(852 (50)); Guhn et al., 2012
(3026 (48)); Oberle, Schonert-
Reichl, & Zumbo, 2011 (1402
(47));
56
Single-item scale that assessed
life-satisfaction globally
(Andrews &Withey, 1976)
12-14
China / Leung & Zhang, 2000
(1099 (39.6));
Cantril Ladder (Cantril, 1965)
15
Spain, England / Morgan et al.,
2012 (3591 (N/A));
Index of Well-Being / Single-
Item Scale on Overall Life
Satisfaction (OLS; Campbell et
al., 1976)
11-19
α = .88
USA / Seaton, Caldwell, Sellers
& Jackson, 2010 (1170 (51.7));
Romania, Spain / Casas,
Baltatescu, et al., 2013 (3532
(51));
Spain / Casas, Bello, Gonzalez,
& Aligue, 2013 (5934 (N/A));
Casas, Figuer, Gonzalez, &
Malo, 2007 (1618 (53.1));
Croatia / Butkovic, Brkovic, &
Bratko, 2012 (223 (82))
An abbreviated version of Life
satisfaction scale (Warr et al.
1979)
14-16
α = .73
Australia / Delfabbro,
Winefield, & Winefield, 2013
(2552 (58.2))
Multidimensional Students’ Life
Satisfaction Scale (MSLSS;
Huebner, 1991; 1994 ; 2001;
Pavot et al., 1991)
Life satisfactions (family,
friends, school, self, living
environment)
12-19
CV
DC
CC
α = .68-.92
Turkey / Irmak & Kuruuzum,
2009 (959 (50));
USA / Antaramian & Huebner,
2009 (84 (63)); Seligson et al.,
2003 (221 (42)); Briggs,
Gilligan, Staton, & Barron, 2010
(159 (50.3));
Serbia / Jovanovic & Brdaric,
2012 (408 (61.2)); Jovanovic &
Zuljevic, 2013 (408 (61.2));
Canada / Lagacé-Séguin &
D'Entremont, 2010 (98 (66));
Sweden / Ojala, 2012 (293
(48));
The Brief Multidimensional
Students’ Life Satisfaction Scale
(BMSLSS; Seligson et al., 2003;
Huebner et al., 2004)
8-18
CV
CS
CC
DC
CT
α = .68-.89
rho = .82
Turkey / Kaya & Siyez, 2008
(421 (54.6)); Siyez & Kaya,
2008 (394 (47.9));
USA / Valois, Zullig, Huebner,
& Drane, 2004a (4758 (53.2));
Valois, Zullig, Huebner, &
Drane, 2004b (4758 (53.2));
Valois, Paxton, Zullig, &
Huebner, 2006 (2138 (50.8));
Valois, Zullig, Huebner, &
Drane, 2009 (3477 (51.3));
Zullig, Valois, Huebner, &
Drane, 2005a (5021 (52.7));
Zullig, Valois, Huebner, &
Drane, 2005b (4917 (52.6));
Zullig, Valois, Huebner, &
Drane, 2001 (5032 (52.7));
Paxton, Valois, Huebner, &
Drane, 2006 (2482 (49.2));
Seligson et al., 2005 (518
(52.8)); Seligson et al., 2003
(221 (42)); Earhart et al., 2009
(89 (N/A)); Froh, Yurkewicz, &
Kashdan, 2009 (145 (44));
Kenya / Abubakar et al., 2013
(145 (44));
Turkey /
Abbreviatd six-item
Multidimensional Students’ Life
Satisfaction Scale (AMSLSS;
Seligson et al., 2003)
15-18
V
α = .85
USA / Valois, Zullig, Huebner,
Kammermann, & Drane , 2002
(4758 (53.2));
Items on satisfaction with
different aspects of life (Drukker
et al., 2003)
Friends, Neighborhood, School,
Teacher, Home, Leisure
activities and Relationship with
parents
10-12
Netherlands / Drukker et al.,
2003 (563 (50.9));
57
The Ego Resiliency Scale (ER89;
Block & Kremen, 1996)
Psychological resilience
16-20
α = .73-.74
Italy / Alessandri et al., 2012
(298 (55));
Psychological resilience 4 item
scale (Bartko & Eccles, 2003)
16-17
α = .73
USA / Bartko & Eccles, 2003
(1004 (50));
Resiliency Inventory Subscale
(Noam & Goldstein 1998; Oberle
et al. 2010; Song 2003).
Optimism, Self-efficacy
9-14
Optimis
m: CS
α = .65-.79
Canada / Gadermann et al., 2010
(1266 (48)); Guhn et al., 2012
(3026 (48));
The Life Orientation Test
(Scheier et al., 1994)
15-20
α = .73-.83
Italy / Alessandri et al., 2012
(298 (55));
Serbia / Jovanovic & Zuljevic,
2013 (408 (61.2))
The Self-Description
Questionnaire for preadolescents
(SDQ I; Marsh, 1988)
Self-concept, Depression
9-14
V
α = .70-.87
Canada / Gadermann et al., 2010
(1266 (48)); Guhn et al., 2012
(3026 (48));
Interpersonal Reactivity Index
(IRI; Davis, 1980)
Emphatic concern, Perspective
taking
9-14
α = .85-.79
Canada / Gadermann et al., 2010
(1266 (48));
The Chinese Interpersonal
Reactivity Index (C-IRI; Siu,
2003) (Based on Davis, 1996)
Empathy, Fantasy and Personal
Distress
11-17
α = .70-.75
Hong Kong / Siu & Shek, 2005
(1462 (59.1));
Orientation to Life Questionnaire
(Antonovsky, 1987)
Sense of Coherence
13-16
α = .84
Norway / Moksnes et al., 2013
(1289 (51.2));
The Satisfaction With School Life
questionnaire (Jin & Moon, 2006)
Satisfaction with school life
16-18
α = .90
Korea / Jin, & Moon, 2006 (299
(28));
My Life as a Student (Soresi &
Nota, 2003)
13-18
α = .64-.88
Italy / Soresi et al., 2012 (762
(52.5)); Nota et al., 2011 (1422
(70));
Quality of School Life Scale
(Sari, 2007)
Quality of school life
10-13
CS
α = .69-.83
Turkey / Sari, 2012 (578 (NA));
The Quality of School Life
Questionnaire (QSL; Ainley &
Bourke, 1992)
8-11
V
α = .71-.87
Australia / Jimmieson et al.,
2010 (3057 (52.7));
Chinese version of the original
Australian Quality of school life
questionnaire (validated by Pang,
1999)
10-16
CS
CV
DV
CC
DC
α = .80-.91
China / Kong, 2008 (19477
(50.1));
The Quality of School Life scale
(Karatzias et al., 2001)
7-15
FC
CC
α = .62-.91
Scotland, UK / Karatzias et al.,
2001 (425 (55.8));
The Woodcock-Johnson III Tests
of Cognitive Abilities (Woodcock
et al. 2001)
Academic achievement
0-17
USA / Casanueva, Dolan,
Smith, Ringeisen, & Dowd,
2012 (5873 (49.2));
Enjoyment of education
attitudinal scale (Pell & Jarvis,
2001)
Enjoyment of education
11-17
α = .78
UK / Miller, Connolly, &
Maguire, 2013 (1081 (47.2));
Strengths and Difficulties
Questionnaire (SDQ; Goodman,
1997, 2001)
Emotional symptoms, Conduct
problems, Hyperactivity, Peer
problems, Prosocial behavior
0-20
DC
α = .56-81
Australia / Mathers et al., 2009
(1662 (48.9); Nicholson, Lucas,
Berthelsen, & Wake, 2012
(5000 (48.8));
Scotland ,UK / Lauder et al.,
2010 (1787 (52.7));
UK / Ussher, Owen, Cook, &
Whincup, 2007) (2623 (47.2));
Maynard & Harding, 2010a
(4349 (N/A)); Maynard &
Harding, 2010b (4349 (N/A));
Maynard, Harding, & Minnis,
2007 (6632 (N/A)); Astell-Burt,
Maynard, Lenguerrand, &
Harding, 2012 (4782 (32,7);
Deighton et al., 2013 (9881
(50.2)); Griggs, Tan, Buchanan,
Attar-Schwartz, & Flouri, 2010)
(1569 (N/A));
58
Ireland / McAuley & Layte,
2012 (8568 (N/A));
Belgium / Ghysels & Van
Vlasselaer, 2008 (3254 (N/A));
Center for Epidemiological
Studies Depression Scale (CES-
D; Radloff, 1977).
Depression
9 - 19
V
α = .68-.92
USA / Gestsdottir, Bowers, Eye,
Napolitano, Lerner, 2010 (2357
(63)); Russell, Crockett, Shen,
& Lee, 2008 (1170 (51.7));
Lerner et al., 2005 (1117
(52.8)); Seaton et al., 2010
(2198 (N/A)); Froh et al., 2010
(1512 (55)); Musick & Meier,
2012 (17977 (N/A));
Canada / Rose-Krasnor et al.,
2006 (7430 (50)); Good &
Willoughby, 2010 (6578 (51));
Germany / Walper, 2009 (358
(54.5));
Sweden / Ojala, 2012 (293
(48));
Beck Youth Depression Inventory
(Beck, Beck, & Jolly, 2001)
11-18
α = .90
Canada / McLean, Breen, &
Fournier, 2010 (146 (0));
Korean beck depression inventory
(KBDI; Lee & Song 1991) (Beck
depression inventory; Beck 1967)
15-19
V
α = .91
Korea / Kim, Choi, Kim, &
Park, 2009 (374 (0));
Self-Rating Scale of Depression
(Birleson, 1981)
12-16
α = .72
USA / Cooper & McLoyd, 2011
(190 (45));
Reynolds Adolescent Depression
Scale-2nd Edition (RADS-2:
Reynolds, 2002).
13-15
α = .92
USA / Gillham et al., 2011 (149
(51.6));
Children’s depression inventory
(CDI; Kovacs, 1992)
Depression (negative mood,
interpersonal problems,
ineffectiveness, anhedonia,
negative self-esteem)
0-18
α = .86-.92
USA / Patrick et al., 2002 (116
(N/A)); Rudolph, Caldwell, &
Conley, 2005 (153 (54.9));
Wigderson & Lynch, 2013 (388
(47.9)); Casanueva et al., 2012
(5873 (49.2)); Bartko & Eccles,
2003 (1004 (50));
Canada / Lagacé-Séguin &
D'Entremont, 2010 (98 (66));
Depressive Mood Scale (Kandel,
& Davies, 1982)
Depressive mood
12-20
α = .81-.82
USA / Loth, Mond, Wall, &
Neumark-Sztainer, 2011 (2516
(55));
Korean test anxiety inventory
(KTAI; Hwang 1997) (Test
anxiety inventory (Spielberger et
al., 1980)
Anxiety
15-19
α = .92
Korea / Kim et al., 2009 (374
(0));
Revised Child Manifest
Anxiety Scale (RCMAS;
Reynolds & Richmond, 1978)
10-13
α = .86
USA / Rudolph et al., 2005 (153
(54.9));
Social Anxiety Scale for
Adolescents (SASA; La Greca
& Lopez, 1998)
Social anxiety
13-18
α = .93-.94
Canada / Rose-Krasnor et al.,
2006 (7430 (50)); Willoughby et
al., 2007 (7430 (50)); Good &
Willoughby, 2010 (6578 (51));
USA / Wigderson & Lynch,
2013 (388 (47.9));
The Mental Health Continuum-
Short Form (MHC-SF, Keyes,
2006; Keyes et al., 2008)
Mental health
13-16
CS
α = .88
rho = .65
UK / Clarke et al., 2011 (1650
(50.1));
59
South Africa / Guse &
Vermaak, 2011 (1169 (50.9));
Behavior Problems Index (BPI;
Peterson & Zill, 1986)
Mental health: Depression /
Hyperactivity, Anxiety /
Depression
10-15
α = .67-.77
USA / McLeod & Owens, 2004
(547 (N/A); Cohen et al., 2012
(1281 (44.8));
Kessler Psychological Distress
Scale (K10;Kessler, Andrews, &
Colpe, 2002; Andrews, & Slade,
2001)
Psychological distress
(anxiety/depression),
13-19
Australia / Mathers et al., 2009
(1662 (48.9));
Perceived Stress scale (PSS;
Cohen et al. 1983).
Perceived stress
14-18
CN
PD
CC
CS
USA / Bluth & Blanton, 2013
(67 (58.2));
Six items from the Social Stress
Version of the Response to Stress
Questionnaire (RSQ; Connor-
Smith et al., 2000)
Coping (voluntary engaged and
voluntary disengaged)
10-14
V
α = .68
USA / Cohen et al., 2012 (1281
(44.8));
The Seattle Personality
Questionnaire (Kusche et al.
1988; Rains 2003).
Depressive symptoms (sadness)
9 - 10
α = .69
Canada / Guhn et al., 2012
(3026 (48));
Depression Anxiety and Stress
Scale (DASS-21; Lovibond &
Lovibond, 1995)
Negative affective states
(depression, anxiety, stress)
15-19
α = .82-.87
Serbia / Jovanovic & Brdaric,
2012 (408 (61.2)); Jovanovic &
Zuljevic, 2013 (408 (61.2));
Positive and Negative Affect
Schedule (PANAS; Watson,
Clark, & Tellegen, 1988)
Positive affect, Negative affect
9 - 20
CV
DC
α = .78-.88
USA / Burrow, O'Dell, & Hill,
2010 (318 (N/A); McCullough
et al., 2000 (92 (51)); Bluth &
Blanton, 2013 (67 (58.2));
Burrow & Hill, 2011 (107 (51));
Germany / Marsh et al., 2006
(4475 (55));
UK / Proctor et al., 2011 (319
(52.9));
Italy / Alessandri et al., 2012
(298 (55));
Positive and Negative Affect
Schedule for Children (PANAS-
C; Laurentet al., 1999)
7 - 16
CV
DC
α = .72-.94
USA / Seligson et al., 2005 (518
(52.8)); Seligson et al., 2003
(221 (42)); Shaffer-Hudkins et
al., 2010 (401 (60)); Vera et al.,
2008 (151 (55)); Froh et al.,
2010 (2198 (N/A))
The Serbian Inventory of Affect
based on the Positive and
Negative Affect Schedule-X
(SIAB-PANAS; Novovic &
Mihic, 2008)
15-19
α = .77-.90
Serbia / Jovanovic & Brdaric,
2012 (408 (61,2); Jovanovic &
Zuljevic, 2013 (408 (61.2));
The Affect Balance Scale (ABS;
Bradburn, 1969)
13-18
α = .61-.68
Israel / Weber et al., 2013 (396
(49.7));
22 affect adjectives (Froh,
Yurkewicz, & Kashdan, 2009)
10-14
α = .79-.82
USA / Froh et al., 2009 (145
(44));
Positive and Negative Affect
ScheduleExpanded Form
(PANASX; Watson & Clark,
1994).
Positive affect, negative affect
(fear, sadness, hostility,
joviality)
14-18
DC
CT
α = .82-.95
Australia / Ciarrochi, Leeson, &
Heaven, 2009 (841 (48.8));
Profile of Mood States (POMS;
Lorr & McNair, 1971).
Negative mood; Positive mood
14-16
α = .77
USA / Flook, 2011 (783 (52)) ;
A modified version of the
Positive and Negative Affect
Schedule (Ebbeck & Weiss,
1998; Watson, Clark, & Tellegan,
1988)
Positive affect
10-17
α = .87
USA / Kipp & Weiss, 2013 (303
(100));
The 7-item negative mood scale
(Tiggemann & Winefield; 1984)
Negative mood
14-16
α = .79
Australia / Delfabbro et al.,
2013 (2552 (58.2));
Time Use and Planning Scale
(Lin et al., 2007)
Time use / Time management
13 -
14
CS
α =.84-.89
Taiwan / Lee et al., 2013 (488
(47));
The self-control scale
(Gottfredson & Hirschi, 1990)
Self-control
13-14
CS
α = .69-.83
Taiwan / Lee et al., 2013 (488
(47));
60
The Chinese Social Problem -
Solving Inventory Revised Short
Form (C-SPSI-R; D’Zurilla et al.,
1996)
Social problem-solving
11-17
DC
CS
α = .80
Hong Kong/ Siu & Shek, 2005
(1462 (59.1));
The Piers-Harris 2 (PH2; Holder
& Coleman 2008)
Happiness and satisfaction,
physical appearance and
attributes, popularity, freedom
from anxiety
9-12
α = .72-.91
Australia / O'Rourke & Cooper,
2010 (312 (56.4));
The Subjective Happiness Scale
(SHS; Lyubomirsky & Lepper,
1999)
Happiness
9-19
CS
CV
DC
α = .67-.83
Nethererlands / De Bruin,
Zijlstra, Van de Weijer-
Bergsma, & Bögels, 2011 (717
(48.7); China / Kashdan &
Yuen, 2007 (484 (56.6); Canada
/ Holder & Klassen, 2010 (320
(51); Australia / O'Rourke &
Cooper, 2010 (312 (56.4); USA
/ Froh et al., 2010 (2198 (N/A);
Burrow & Hill, 2011 (107 (51));
Fordyce Emotions Questionnaire
(FEQ: Fordyce, 1988).
13-15
α = .60
USA / Gillham et al., 2011 (149
(51.6));
Faces Scale (Abdel-Khalek 2006;
Harry 1976; Stull 1988).
9-12
V
Canada / Holder & Klassen,
2010 (320 (51));
Australia / O'Rourke & Cooper,
2010 (312 (56.4));
Oxford Happiness Questionnaire,
Short Form (Hills & Argyle,
2002)
9-12
α = .58
Canada / Holder & Klassen,
2010 (320 (51));
Oxford Happiness Inventory
(OHI; Argyle, 2001)
Happiness (satisfaction with life
scale, mastery and self-
fulfillment, social cheerfulness,
vigor, social interest)
14-19
CS
α = .65-.90
Italy / Meleddu, Guicciardi,
Scalas, & Fadda, 2012 (782
(56));
Happiness Scale (Robson, 2009)
Happiness with school work,
appearance, family, friends, and
life as a whole
11-16
α = .71
Canada / Robson, 2009 (15585
(N/A));
Authentic Happiness Inventory
(AHI, Peterson, 2005)
Happiness: (pleasure (positive
emotion), engagement,
meaning)
15-18
α = .93
Australia / Toner et al., 2012
(501 (45.7));
Piers-Harris Children’s Self-
Concept Scale 2 ed. (Piers &
Hertzberg, 2002)
Self-concept
9-11
α = .72-.88
Australia / O'Rourke & Cooper,
2010 (312 (56.4);
Ireland / McAuley & Layte,
2012 (8568 (N/A));
Friendship Scale (Lin et al., 2007)
Friendship
13-14
Taiwan / Lee et al., 2013 (488
(47));
Peer Support Scale (Armsden &
Greenberger, 1987)
Peer support
14-17
α = .97
USA / Gestsdottir et al., 2010
(2357 (63));
4 items from Peer Support Scale
(PSS; Armsden & Greenberger,
1987)
Relationships with friends
10-12
α = .54-.89
USA / Lerner et al., 2005 (1117
(52.8));
The family and friends sub-scales
of Social Support Appraisals
scale (SSA; Vaux et al. 1986)
Social support
13-15
Spain / Casas, Figuer, Gonzalez,
Malo, Alsinet, et al., 2007 (3252
(52.3));
Nine items drawn from the
Quality of Friendships
Questionnaire (QDA; Capaldi &
Patterson, 1989)
Perceived quality of
interpersonal relationships
16-20
α = .73-.81
Italy / Alessandri et al., 2012
(298 (55));
Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale,
(Rosenberg, 1965)
Self-esteem
8-20
CC
DC
PD
CS
α = .68-.91
China / Kashdan & Yuen, 2007
(484 (56.6));
USA / Van den Berg et al., 2010
(4746 (49.7)); Seaton et al.,
2010 (1170 (51.7)); Wigderson
& Lynch, 2013 (388 (47.9));
Froh et al., 2010 (2198 (N/A));
Loth et al., 2011 (2516 (55));
Seaton et al.,, 2010 (1170
(51.7)); Adler-Baeder et al.,
2010 (1512 (60.3)); Cooper &
McLoyd, 2011 (190 (45));
61
Seaton et al., 2010 (1170
(51.7));
Canada / Rose-Krasnor et al.,
2006 (7430 (50)); Willoughby et
al., 2007 (7430 (51)); Good &
Willoughby, 2010 (6578 (51));
McLean et al., 2010 (146 (0));
Robson, 2009 (15587 (N/A));
Australia / Stoyles et al., 2012
(118 (57.6)); Delfabbro et al.,
2013 (2552 (58.2));
Germany / Walper, 2009 (358
(54.5));
Croatia / Butkovic et al., 2012
(223 (82));
UK / Proctor et al., 2011 (319
(52.9));
Italy / Alessandri et al., 2012
(298 (55));
Serbia / Jovanovic & Zuljevic,
2013 (408 (61.2));
Spain / Casas, Figuer, Gonzalez,
Malo, Alsinet, et al., 2007 (3252
(52.3));
Korean self-esteem inventory
(Jeon, 1974) (Based on
Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale;
Rosenberg, 1965)
15-19
α = .78
Korea / Kim et al., 2009 (374
(0));
Texas Social Behaviour Inventory
(TSBI-Form A; Helmreich &
Stapp, 1974).
15-21
α = .85
Australia / Donchi & Moore,
2004 (336 (66));
Hare Self-esteem Scale (HSES;
Hare, 1985)
Self-esteem (general and area-
specific: school, peer and home)
12-15
α = .75
Scotland, UK / Karatzias et al.,
2001 (425 (55.8)); Karatzias, et
al., 2006 (425 (54.8));
3 Questions about personal
attitudes/resources related to self-
esteem (Källestål, Dahlgren, &
Stenlund, 2006)
Self-esteem (satisfaction with
body/looks, Subjective
evaluation of performance at
school and of potential teachers
evaluation of the school work)
12-16
Sweden / Källestål, Dahlgren, &
Stenlund, 2006 (3370 (N/A));
Body Shape Satisfaction Scale
(Pingitore et al., 1997)
Body satisfaction
12-20
α = .92-.93
USA / Loth et al., 2011 (2516
(55));
Youth’s sense of self
(Silverberg,1991; Yan, Howard,
Beck, Shattuck, & Hallmark-
Kerr, 2010)
Self-worth, Social competency
11-13
α = .79-.84
USA / Yan, Howard, Beck,
Shattuck, & Hallmark-Kerr,
2010 (325 (51.8));
Self-Perception Profile for
Children/Adolescents
(SPPC/SPPA; Harter, 1982, 1983,
1985, 1988)
Academic competence, Social
competence, Physical
competence, Physical
appearance, Conduct or
behavior adequacy, Self-worth.
10-17
α = .63-.81
USA / McLeod & Owens, 2004
(547 (N/A)); Kipp & Weiss,
2013 (303 (100)); Gestsdottir et
al., 2010 (2357 (63)); Lerner et
al., 2005 (1117 (52.8)); Li et al.,
2010 (1710 (51.9));
UK / Miller et al., 2013 (1081
(47.2));
Portugal / Marques et al., 2011
(367 (53.1));
Self-Efficacy Scale (Furstenberg,
Cook, Eccles, Elder, & Sameroff,
1999)
Self-efficacy
9-10
USA / Fletcher, Hunter, &
Eanes, 2006 (404 (51));
The Personal Mastery Scale
(Pearlin & Schooler; 1978)
Personal mastery
12-16
Spain / Casas, Figuer, Gonzalez,
Malo, Alsinet, et al., 2007 (3252
(52.3));
Generalized self-efficacy (GSE)
and internality of control beliefs
(Scales & Leffert, 1999).
Sense of power (control over
"Things that happen to me")
12-16
α = .79-.84
Germany / Hirschi, 2009 (330
(50));
One item for Youth perceptions
of control (Diehl, Howse, &
Trivette, 2011)
Perceptions of control
10-17
USA / Diehl, Howse, &
Trivette, 2011 (54 (53.7));
62
Brief Infant-Toddler Social and
Emotional Assessment (BITSEA)
Competence Scale (Briggs-
Gowan, et al., 2004)
Socio-emotional competence
0-7
α = .64
Australia / Nicholson et al.,
2012 (5000 (48.8));
Teacher Assessment of Social
Behavior
(TASB; Cassidy & Asher, 1992)
Social competence
9-13
α = .72-.77
USA / Rudolph et al., 2005 (153
(54.9));
Six characteristics of the child
positive social experiences of
other people (Lahikainen et al.,
2008)
Social network characteristics
11-12
Estonia / Lahikainen, Tolonen,
& Kraav, 2008 (392 (N/A));
Psychosocial Inventory of Ego
Strength (PIES; (Markstrom,
Sabino, Turner, & Berman, 1997)
Erikson’s eight ego strengths
15-17
α = .60-.94
USA / Markstrom & Marshall,
2007 (502 (60)); Markstrom, Li,
Blackshire, & Wilfong, 2005
(517 (60.3));
Communication and Symbolic
Behaviour Scale (CSBS(P);
Briggs-Gowan, et al., 2004)
Communication, vocabulary,
Emergent literacy skills
0-7
α = .89
Australia / Nicholsonet al., 2012
(5000 (48.8);
The Preschool Language Scale-3
(PLS-3, Zimmerman et al. 1992).
Language development
0-17
USA / Casanueva et al., 2012
(5873 (49.2));
Korean Juvenile Delinquency
Trait Scale (Kim 1994)
Delinquency
15-19
α = .65
Korea / Kim et al., 2009 (374
(0));
Delinquent activities in the past
12 months (following Pearce &
Haynie, 2004)
13-18
α = .72-.80
USA / Musick & Meier, 2012
(17977 (N/A));
Delinquent Attitude Scale (DAS;
Widmer and Weiss 2000)
Delinquent attitude
12-16
α = .84
USA / Phillips, 2012 (278 (52));
Deviant Behavior Scale-
Taiwanese Adolescent Version
(Hsu, 1996)
Deviant behavior
13-14
Taiwan / Lee et al., 2013 (488
(47));
Middle Years
Development Instrument (MDI;
Schonert-Reichl et al., 2013)
Social and emotional
development, Physical health
and well-being, Connectedness,
School experiences, After-
school time
9-11
CV
DV
α = .65-.87
Canada / Schonert-Reichl et al.,
2013 (2000 (49));
The Strengths Assessment
Inventory: SAI-Y (Rawana &
Brownlee 2010).
Strengths
9-19
V
α = .60-.95
Canada / Brazeau, Teatero,
Rawana, Brownlee, &
Blanchette, 2012 (572 (52.3));
The Parenting Style Inventory
(PSI-II; Darling & Toyokawa
1997)
Demandingness,
Responsiveness, Autonomy-
granting
7-18
UK / Axford & Hobbs, 2011
(5000 (N/A));
Child’ s Report of Parenting
Behaviors Inventory (CRPBI;
Schludermann & Schludermann,
1970)
Ecological assets (parental
warmth: acceptance, nurturance,
support, and a feeling of being
loved and wanted by the parent)
10-12
α = .94-.96
USA / Lerner et al., 2005 (1117
(52.8));
Parental Monitoring Scale (PMS;
Small & Kerns, 1993)
Ecological asset: Parental
monitoring
10-12
α = .89
USA / Lerner et al., 2005 (1117
(52.8));
Conflict Behavior Checklist
(CBQ-20) (Foster & Robin, 1989)
Family well-being
11-17
Hong Kong / Siu & Shek, 2005
(1462 (59));
Chinese Family Assessment
Instrument (C-FAI; Shek, 2002)
11-17
DC
α = .90
rho = .84
Hong Kong / Siu & Shek, 2005
(1462 (59));
The Wellness Evaluation of
Lifestyle Inventory (WEL; Myers
et al., 2000)
Wellness
11-15
V
USA / Briggs et al., 2010 (159
(50.3));
The revised SSSC (Spiritual
Sensitivity Scale for Children
(SSSC; Stoyles, 2012)
Spirituality
8-11
α = .79
Australia / Stoyles et al., 2012
(118 (57,6));
Children’s Hope Scale (CHS;
Snyder et al., 1991; 1997)
Hope (pathways: the sense of
being able to generate
successful plans and to meet
goals; agency: the successful
determination one has to
achieve goals)
8-19
IC
CC
DC
α = .60-.81
Australia / Stoyles et al., 2012
(118 (57.6));
South Africa / Guse &
Vermaak, 2011 (1169 (50.9));
USA / Earhart et al., 2009 (89
(N/A)); Burrow & Hill, 2011
(107 (51)); Burrow et al., 2010
(318 (N/A));
63
Serbia / Jovanovic & Brdaric,
2012 (408 (61.2));
Portugal / Marques et al., 2011
(367 (53.1);
Hopeful future expectations scale
(Schmid, Phelps, & Lerner, 2011)
Hopeful future expectations
11-17
α = .94-.95
USA / Schmid et al, 2011 (1311
(61)); Lerner et al., 2012 (7071
(59.9));
Thinking About the Future
(Lerner et al., 2005)
Future expectations
10-12
USA / Lerner et al., 2005 (1117
(52.8));
Hopelessness Scale
for Children (HSC; Kazdin et al.
1983)
Hopelessness
12-16
CC
α = .82
USA / Phillips, 2012 (278 (52))
;
The Things I’ve Seen and Heard
scale (TISH; Richters & Martinez
1992)
Children’s exposure to violence
in the home and community,
perceived safety
7-18
UK / Axford & Hobbs, 2011
(5000 (N/A));
The Revised Personal Lifestyle
Questionnaire (nutrition subscale)
(PLQ; Mahon et al. 2002)
Nutrition
7-18
CS
UK / Axford & Hobbs, 2011
(5000 (N/A));
The Children’s Eating Attitude
Test (ChEAT; Maloney,
McGuire, & Daniels, 1988;
Smolak & Levine, 1994)
Disordered eating
10-17
α = .82
USA / Kipp & Weiss, 2013 (303
(100));
Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL;
Achenbach & Rescorla, 2000).
Aggressive behavior,
Problem behavior.
0-17
V
USA / Howard, Martin, Berlin,
& Brooks-Gunn, 2011
(2080(N/A)); Bartko & Eccles,
2003 (1004 (50)); Fletcher et al.,
2006 (404 (51)); Casanueva et
al., 2012 (5873 (49.2))
Me & My School (M&MS;
Deighton et al., 2012)
Emotional difficulties;
Behavioral difficulties
8-12
SC
α = .72-.80
UK / Deighton et al., 2013
(9881 (50.2));
Vineland Adaptive Behavior
Scale (VABS) ScreenerDaily
Living Skills domain (Sparrow et
al. 1993)
Behavioral/ Emotional
functioning (adaptive behavior)
0-17
USA / Casanueva et al., 2012
(5873 (49.2));
Trauma Symptom Checklist for
Children (Briere, 1996)
Behavioral/ emotional
functioning (trauma)
0-17
USA / Casanueva et al., 2012
(5873 (49.2));
The Problem Behaviors Scale
(PBS; Farrell et al., 2000)
Negative indicator of
adjustment (problem behavior)
15-19
α = .88-.89
USA / Prelow, Bowman, &
Weaver, 2007 (316 (35.4));
Kaufman
Brief Intelligence Test (K-BIT;
Kaufman & Kaufman, 2004)
Cognitive development
0-17
USA / Casanueva et al., 2012
(5873 (49.2);
Battelle Developmental
Inventory, 2nd Edition (BDI-2;
Newborg, 2005)
Early cognitive development
0-17
USA / Casanueva et al., 2012
(5873 (49,2);
Thriving Orientation Survey
(Benson & Scales, 2009)
Purpose
15
α = .76
USA / Schwartz, Chan, Rhodes,
& Scales, 2013 (1860 (49));
Life Engagement Test (LET;
Scheier et al., 2006)
Purpose in life
15-19
α = .73
Serbia / Jovanovic & Brdaric,
2012 (408 (61.2));
Youth Purpose scale (Bundick et
al. 2006)
Purpose (purpose via
exploration, commitment)
14-18
V
α = .85-.88
USA / Burrow et al., 2010 (318
(N/A));
De Jong Gierveld Loneliness
Scale (DJGLS; De Jong Gierveld
& Kamphuis, 1985)
Loneliness (social and
emotional)
15-19
α = .77
Serbia / Jovanovic & Brdaric,
2012, 2013 (408 (61.2));
The Social alienation scale
(Dodder & Astle, 1980)
Social alienation
14-16
α = .60
Australia / Delfabbro et al.,
2013 (2552 (58.2));
Social Skills Rating System
(Gresham & Elliot, 1990; Rock &
Pollack, 2002)
Sadness/Loneliness
5
α = .61-.75
USA / Artis, 2007 (10511 (42));
Fears scale (Lahikainen et al.
2007)
Imagination-related fears, Fear
of danger and death, of
separation and darkness, of
minor injuries and animals, of
11-12
Estonia / Lahikainen et al., 2008
(392 (N/A));
64
behavior of significant adults
and peers, Fearfulness
11 items of children’s worries
(Lahikainen et al., 2008)
Worries related to family
relationships, peer relationships
and to parent’s health
11-12
Estonia / Lahikainen et al., 2008
(392 (N/A));
The child’s behavior in relation to
exploration and social
relationships 23-item schedule
(Lahikainen et al., 2008)
Behavior orientations
(exploration and resilience,
interest in new things and
people, autonomy,
concentration, and tolerance of
frustration);
11-12
Estonia / Lahikainen et al., 2008
(392 (N/A));
Measure of PYD (Lerner et al.,
2005)
Positive youth development:
Confidence, Competence,
Caring, Connection, Character.
9-17
CC
CV
DV
PD
DC
CS
α = .53-.96
USA / Schmid, et al, 2011 (1311
(61)); Urban et al., 2009 (626
(51.4)); Urban et al., 2010 (545
(50.3)); Zimmerman et al., 2008
(1109 (57.5)); Gestsdottir et al.,
2010 (2357 (63)); Mueller et al.,
2011 (895 (62.7)); Napolitano et
al., 2011 (510 (68.4)); Phelps et
al., 2009 (1967 (55.9)); Bowers
et al., 2012 (710 (68.7));
Gestsdottir & Lerner, 2007
(1659 (54.5)); Schwartz et al.,
2010 (5305 (60.3));
Chinese Positive Youth
Development Scale (CPYDS;
Shek, Siu, & Lee, 2007)
Cognitive-behavioral
competencies, Prosocial
attributes, Positive identity,
General positive youth
development qualities.
11-19
α = .77-.98
China / Shek, 2010 (5054
(N/A)); Shek & Ma, 2010 (5649
(46.7));
The Selection, Optimization, and
Compensation questionnaire
(SOC; Freund & Baltes, 2002)
Intentional self-regulation skills
10-17
α = .12-.71
USA / Schmid et al., 2011 (1311
(61); Bowers et al., 2011 (626
(50.9)); Lerner et al., 2005
(1117 (52.8)); Lerner et al.,
2012 (7071 (59.9)); Bowers et
al., 2011 (626 (50.9));
Mastery Goal Orientation scale
(Anderman, Urdan, & Roeser’s,
2005)
Mastery goal orientation
15
α = .80
USA / Schwartz et al., 2013
(1860 (49));
Monitoring the Future survey
(Johnston, Bachman, &
O’Malley, 2006)
Prosocial values
15
α = .86
USA / Schwartz et al., 2013
(1860 (49));
Self report altruism scale (SRAS;
Rushton, Crisjohn, & Fekken,
1981)
Prosocial behavior
10-18
α = .82
USA / Morrissey & Werner-
Wilson, 2005 (304 (56);
Multi-Group Ethnic Identity
Measure (Phinney, 1992)
Ethnic identity
15
α = .69
USA / Schwartz et al., 2013
(1860 (49));
School engagement (Li & Lerner,
2012 a,b)
School engagement
13-15
USA / Lerner et al., 2012 (7071
(59.9));
Single item from the National
Promises Study (Scales et al.,
2008)
15
USA / Schwartz et al., 2013
(1860 (49));
School Connectedness Scale
(Sánchez, Colón, & Esparza,
2005)
School connectedness (sense of
belonging, school climate and
enjoyment of school)
9-10
USA / Earhart et al., 2009 (89
(N/A));
The measure of school belonging
(Fredricks & Eccles, 2005)
School belonging;
11-18
α = .76-.88
Australia / Blomfield & Barber,
2010 (98 (61));
Single item on future intentions
intention to attend university
(Blomfield & Barber, 2010)
Future intentions
11-18
Australia / Blomfield & Barber,
2010 (98 (61));
Single item on Academic Track -
Tertiary Entrance Examinations
subjects (Blomfield & Barber,
2010)
Academic track;
11-18
Australia / Blomfield & Barber,
2010 (98 (61));
65
Single item on Skipping school
(Blomfield & Barber, 2010)
Skipping school,
11-18
Australia / Blomfield & Barber,
2010 (98 (61));
The measure of alcohol use
(Fredricks & Eccles, 2005)
Alcohol use
11-18
α = .94
Australia / Blomfield & Barber,
2010 (98 (61));
Eisenberg Sympathy Scale (ESS;
Eisenberg et al. 1996)
Sympathy
10-17
V
α = .84-.87
USA / Gestsdottir et al., 2010
(2357 (63)); Lerner et al., 2005
(1117 (52.8));
The Rochester Evaluation of
Asset Development for Youth
Tool (READY; Klein et al., 2006)
Caring adult relationships;
Social skills: self-control,
empathy; communication;
decision-making
10-19
FC
CC
α = .58-.86
USA / Klein et al., 2006 (389
(36));
The EQi:YV-Brief (highly
abbreviated version of The
Emotional Quotient Inventory,
Youth Version, EQi:YV; Bar-On
& Parker’s, 2000)
Trait emotional intelligence
(intrapersonal, interpersonal,
stress management,
adaptability)
10-17
CS
α = .60-.84
Canada / Keefer, Holden, &
Parker, 2013 (773 (50.9));
The Developmental Assets
Profile (DAP; Search Institute
Mineapolis, 2005)
External assets: support,
Empowerment, Boundaries,
Constructive use of time;
Internal assets: Commitment to
Learning, Positive Values,
Social Competencies, and
Positive identity.
10-18
CV
CS
DC
PD
α = .69-.94
USA, Japan, Lebanon, Albania,
Bangladesh, Philippines /
Scales, 2011 (16718 (61.2));
Bangladesh / Scales et al., 2013
(548 (100));
Canada / Strachan, Côte, &
Deakin, 2009 (123 (74.8));
Youth assets scale, adapted from
the Search Institutes’ develop-
mental asset framework (Scales &
Leffert, 1999)
10-17
α = .75
USA / Diehl et al., 2011 (54
(53.7));
Youth assets (Dunn et al., 2011)
Assets: Future Aspiration,
Internal Control, Empathy,
Parental expectation, Parental
support, Self-confidence,
Positive peer influence, Peer
help
14-18
α = .70-.83
USA / Dunn, 2011 (834 (51));
Profiles of Student Life
Attitudes and Behaviors Survey
(PSL-AB; (Benson, Leffert,
Scales, & Blyth, 1998)
Developmental assets, Thriving
behaviors, Character,
Confidence, Connection,
10-17
α = .70-.82
USA / Lerner et al., 2005 (1117
(52.8)); Gestsdottir et al., 2010
(2357 (63)); Bowers et al., 2011
(626 (50.9));
Teen Assessment Project Survey
Question Bank (TAP; Small &
Rodgers, 1995)
Assets: Barriers to participation,
Health-related behavior
10-12
α = .76
USA / Lerner et al., 2005 (1117
(52.8));
Target-Based Expectations Scale
(TBES; Buchanan & Hughes,
2004)
Internal assets: Prosocial,
Difficult, Alienated
10-12
α = .89
USA / Lerner et al., 2005 (1117
(52.8));
Personal Strengths Inventory
(PSI; Liau, Chow, Tan, & Senf,
2011
Personal strengths (emotional
awareness, emotional
regulation, goal setting,
empathy, and social
competence)
11-16
CS
CV
α = .70-.89
Singapore / Liau, Chow, Tan, &
Senf, 2011 (1008 (52.5));
Social Responsibility Scale (SRS;
Greenberger & Bond, 1984)
Contribution to community and
society
10-12
α = .37
USA / Lerner et al., 2005 (1117
(52.8));
The Chinese Vengeance Scale (C-
VS; Stuckless & Goranson, 1992)
Emotional quality of life
11-17
α = .90
rho = .90
Hong Kong / Siu & Shek, 2005
(1462 (59));
Youth quality of life instrument-
research version (YQOL-R;
Patrick et al., 2002) (Based on
Edwards et al., 2002)
Satisfaction with physical,
psychological, social, and
functional aspects of life
12-18
CN
CS
DC
α = .81-.94
USA / Patrick et al., 2002 (116
(N/A));
The Quality of Life Profile
Adolescent Version (QOLPAV;
Raphael et al. 1996)
Physical, psychological and
spiritual being, Physical, social
and community belonging,
13-18
Taiwan / Chen & Lin, 2013
(1392 (45.8));
66
Practical, leisure and growth
becoming
The World Health Organization
Quality of Life scale (WHOQOL;
World Health Organization,
1995)
Physical domain, Psychological
domain, Social relationships
domain, Environment domain.
16
α = .79
Bosnia / Pranjić et al., 2007
(356 (54));
World Health Organization
Quality of Life scale (WHOQOL-
100; Fidaner, Elbi, Fidaner, Eser,
& Eser, 1999)
Turkey / Cilga, 2010 (243
(50.2));
World Health Organization
Quality of Life scale (WHOQOL-
BREF; World Health
Organization, 1996, 1998)
10-19
CS
DC
CN
α = .68-.83
Taiwan / Chen et al., 2006 (365
(49.6));
India / Agnihotri et al., 2010
(515 (48.2));
Australia / Correa-Velez,
Gifford, & Barnett, 2010 (97
(49));
Quality of life questionaire
(Jirojanakul & Skevington, 2000)
(Based on The World Health
Organization Quality of Life
Assessment, WHOQOL-100
(WHOQOL; World Health
Organization, 1995).
5-8
FC
CC
α = .89
Thailand / Jirojanakul et al.,
2003 (498 (57));
The Pediatric Quality of Life
Inventory (PedsQL; Varniet al.,
2001)
Health related QOL: Physical
functioning, Emotional
functioning, Social functioning,
Pre-school/School functioning
4-5
8-19
CV
CS
DC
CN
α = .65-.91
USA / Young et al., 2013 (219
(56.4)); Lavigne et al., 2012
(233 (56.2));
Serbia / Stevanovic, 2013 (237
(54.9)); Stevanovic et al., 2011
(238 (55));
Taiwan / Lin et al., 2012 (479
(46.3));
Norway / Reinfjell et al., 2006
(425 (56));
Australia / Cook et al., 2008
(332 (N/A));
Finnland / Laaksonen et al.,
2007 (1097 (52));
Nethererlands / De Bruin et al.,
2011 (717 (48.7));
Generic self-administered
measure for adolescents (Vécu et
Santé Perçue des Adolescents )
(VSP-A; Simeoni et al., 2000;
Sapin, Simeoni, El Khammar,
Antoniotti & Auquier, 2005)
Overall Health related
QOL/well-being: Vitality,
Psychological well-being,
Relationship with friends,
parents, teachers, medical staff,
Leisure activities, Physical
well-being, School
performance, Body image
10-18
CS
DC
CN
CV
α = .74-.91
Spain / Serra-Sutton et al., 2009
(555 (50.8));
France / Simeoni et al., 2000
(2941 (52.3); Sapin, Simeoni, El
Khammar, Antoniotti, &
Auquier, 2005 (1758 (52.5));
KINDL (Bullinger, 1994;
Ravens-Sieberer, & Bullinger,
1998)
Health related QOL: Physical
well-being, Emotional well-
being, Self-esteem, Family,
Friends, and School/everyday
functioning
8 -18
α = .80-.87
rho = .88
Taiwan / Lin, Luh, Cheng,
Yang, & Ma, 2013 (443 (52.8));
KINDL-R (Ravens-Sieberer &
Bullinger, 1998; Ravens-Sieberer,
2003)
11-18
CS
CV
DC
α = .53-.86
Spain / Serra-Sutton et al., 2009
(555 (50.8));
Germany / Erhart et al., 2009
(6813 (48.7));
Norway / Helseth & Lund, 2005
(239 (53.6));
USA / Patrick et al., 2002 (116
(N/A));
Kid-KINDL (Ravens-Sieberer &
Bullinger, 1998)
8 - 12
CS
CV
α = .40-.87
Serbia / Stevanovic, 2009 (303
(47.2);
Singapore / Wee et al., 2007
(328 (67));
Taiwan / Lin et al., 2013 (443
(52.8));
67
Kiddo-KINDL (Ravens-Sieberer
& Bullinger, 1998)
12-16
CV
CS
DC
α = .31-.84
Serbia / Stevanovic, 2009 (261
(56.3));
Singapore / Wee et al., 2007
(328 (67));
Taiwan / Lee et al., 2008 (1675
(46.8));
KIDSCREEN 52 / 27 / 10
(Ravens-Sieberer et al., 2001,
2005)
52: Physical-, Psychological
well-being, Moods and
emotions, Self-perception,
Autonomy, Parent relations and
home life, Social support and
Peers, School environment,
Social acceptance (bullying),
Financial resources.
27: Physical- Psychological
well-being, Autonomy and
Parent relations, Social support
and Peers, School environment
10: General HRQoL
8-18
CS
CT
CV
52:
α = .60-.88
27:
α = .61-.74
rho = .59
10:
α = .78-.82
rho = .67 -
.70
UK / Clarke et al., 2011 (1650
(50.1)); Miller et al., 2013 (1081
(47.2)); Axford & Hobbs, 2011
(5000 (N/A));
Austria, Czech Republic,
France, Germany, Greece,
Hungary, Ireland, Poland, Spain,
Sweden, Switzerland, the
Netherlands, UK / Ravens-
Sieberer et al., 2007 (22827
(52.5)); Ravens-Sieberer et al.,
2010 (22830 (52));
Norway/ Haraldstad,
Christophersen, Eide, Nativg, &
Helseth, 2011 (1066 (54));
South Africa / Taliep &
Florence, 2012 (565 (61.6));
Austria, France, Germany,
Spain, Switzerland, Germany,
Spain, France, Netherlands,
Austria, UK, Switzerland,
Hungary, Czech Republic,
Poland / Ottova et al., 2012
(13041 (52.6));
Austria, Switzerland, Germany,
Spain, France, United Kingdom,
the Netherlands / Robitail et al.,
2006 (3988 (51.9)), Von Rueden
et al., 2006 (1897 (52));
Spain / Villalonga-Olives et al.,
2010 (423 (51.8)); Rajmil et al.,
2013 (418 (48.1));
Australia / Mathers et al., 2009
(1662 (48.9)); Stevens &
Ratcliffe, 2012 (630 (45.3));
Healthy days / Health Related
Quality of Life Scale (CDC-
HRQOLS; Hennessy et al., 1994;
Centre for Disease Control, 2000)
Health related QoL
13-18
α = .70
USA / Valois et al., 2004a (4758
(53.2)); Zullig et al., 2005b
(4917 (52.6));
The Child Health Utility 9D
(CHU9D; Stevens, 2009; 2010)
Health related QoL: Moods /
emotions, School Work /
Homework, Sleep, Daily
routine, Ability to join in
activities
11-17
FC
CS
CV
Australia / Stevens & Ratcliffe,
2012 (634 (45.3)); Ratcliffe et
al., 2012 (710 (47));
The SF-10 for Children™
(Landgraf et al., 1996; Turner-
Bowker et al., 2003)
Health related QoL: Physical
and mental perceptions, Health
risks, Functional status,
Socioeconomic status
7-18
USA / Zhang et al., 2008 (279
(53));
Scotland ,UK / Lauder et al.,
2010 (1787 (52.7));
The Child Health Questionnaire
(CHQ; Landgraf et al., 1996,
1999; Raat et al., 2002; Wulffraat
et al., 2001)
Health related QoL: General
health, Mental health, Self-
esteem, Behavior
10-16
CN
CS
α = .75-.90
rho = .82
Netherlands / Drukker et al.,
2003 (563 (50.9));
USA / Shaffer-Hudkins et al.,
2010 (401 (60));
Australia / Waters, Stewart-
Brown, & Fitzpatrick, 2003
(2096 (50)); Waters, Salmon,
68
Note: CC - concurrent validity, CS - construct validity, CT - criterion validity, CN - content validity, PD - predictive validity, CV - convergent
validity, DV - divergent validity, DC - discriminant validity, FC - face validity, IC - incremental validity, SC - structural validity, V - the
type of validity was not indicated; α - internal consistency reliability coefficient; rho - test-retest reliability coefficient; N/A information is
not available.
Wake, Wright, & Hesketh, 2001
(2361 (47));
The Infant Toddler Quality of
Life Questionnaire (ITQOL;
Abetz, 1994; Klassen et al., 2002)
Health related QoL: Infant
concepts; Parent concepts
3-4
α = .80-.96
Canada / Klassen et al., 2003
(N/A (N/A));
Preschool Children Quality of
Life questionnaire (TAPQOL;
Fekkes et al., 2000; Bunge et al.,
2005)
Health related QoL: Physical,
Ssocial, Cognitive, and
Emotional functioning
0-3
CS
SC
α > .70
Spain / Rajmil et al., 2011 (228
(46.1));
4 items for HRQoL indicators
(Centers for Disease Control and
Prevention, 2000; Moriarty et al.,
2005; Moriarty et al., 2003)
Health-Related Quality of Life
12-17
CN
CS
CT
PD
USA / Dube et al., 2013 (4848
(49.6));
Seven items describing
psychosomatic indicators of
subjective well-being (Lahikainen
et al., 2008)
Psychosomatic symptoms
11-13
Estonia / Lahikainen et al., 2008
(392 (N/A));
Giessener Complaint
Questionnaire for Children and
Adolescents (Brähler, 1992)
Somatic complaints
9-19
α = .74
Germany / Walper, 2009 (358
(54.5));
General Health Questionnaire
(GHQ12; Goldberg & Williams
1988)
Mental health
8-17
α = .77-.80
UK / Phillips, Hagan, Bodfield,
Woodthorpe, & Grimsley, 2008
(43 (51));
Kenya / Abubakar et al., 2013
(145 (44));
Australia / Delfabbro et al.,
2013 (2522 (58.8));
Duke Health Profile (DHP; Arene
et al., 1998)
Physical health, Mental health,
Social health, General health,
Perceived health, Self-esteem,
Anxiety, Depression, Pain,
Disability
12-19
CS
α = .80-.92
Vietnam / Vo et al., 2005a
(1408 (50.1)); Vo et al., 2005b
(1408 (50.1));
The ISF:8 and the ISF:16
(Jokovic et al., 2006) (Short
forms of Child Perceptions
Questionnaire (CPQ; Jokovic et
al., 2002; 2004)
Child oral health Quality of life
(COHQoL): Oral symptoms,
Functional limitations,
Emotional wellbeing, Social
wellbeing, School interaction,
Recreation activities
11-14
CT
CS
DC
α =.70-.84.
Brazil / Torres et al., 2009 (136
(58.8));
69
Annex 2
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