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This research highlights José María Yturralde's most significant involvement and contributions to early computer art from 1968 to 1973. Yturralde collaborated with artists and scientists to expand and redefine his understanding of shapes, and explored ways that the mainframe computer could be used as a tool for complementing his art practices. He is known for developing a mathematical model with which he was able to create a highly sophisticated program where Penrose geometries could be recombined algorithmically. However, there is limited evidence and access to the code of the actual software. The authors' goal is to further understand Yturralde's contribution by developing a re-significance of his model, which they have accomplished through a modern interpretation of manuscripts.
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© 2015 Esteban Gara Bravo, Jorge A. García | Leonardo, Vol. 48, No. 4, p. 366-374, 2015
Yturralde: Impossible Figure Generator
Esteban García Bravo, Jorge A. García
This research highlights José María Yturralde’s most significant involvement and contributions to early
computer art from 1968 to 1973. Yturralde collaborated with artists and scientists to expand and redefine
his understanding of shapes, and explored ways that the mainframe computer could be used as a tool
for complementing his art practices. He is known for developing a mathematical model with which he
was able to create a highly sophisticated program where Penrose geometries could be recombined
algorithmically. However, there is limited evidence and access to the code of the actual software. The
authors' goal is to further understand Yturralde’s contribution by developing a re-significance of his
model, which they have accomplished through a modern interpretation of manuscripts.
is paper revisits the art of José María Yturralde, an artist who was an early adopter of
computational methods used to produce aesthetic forms. Yturralde’s departure from
constructivist and optical tendencies as a painter led him to explore the use of mathematical
models to visualize multi-dimensional gures.
Yturralde’s experience in painting, developed through a life-long career, is largely recognized
internationally for its characteristic representations of enigmatic visual designs enhanced with
color (Figure 1). Perhaps one of his most signicant contributions was made during his
participation in a seminal moment of
computer art. In 1968, following the
computer’s arrival in Spain, a series of
academic seminars began at the Centro de
lculo de la Universidad de Madrid
(CCUM) [1]. From 1968 to 1973, Yturralde and
other key artists explored the use of
mainframe computers as tools for creating art
at CCUM. is interdisciplinary eort was
accomplished through an academic seminar
experience called Generación Automática de
Formas Plásticas (GAFP): Automatic
Generation of Plastic Forms.
Our motivation for this study was to
understand Yturralde’s desire to incorporate
computers and work with scientists to
complement his artistic intent. We were
particularly interested in a project developed
through the GAFP seminar that Yturralde
completed in collaboration with computer
scientist Isidro Ramos Salavert and architect
Esteban García Bravo
Artist and Educator
Purdue University
Department of Computer Graphics Technology
West Lafayette, IN
Jorge A. García
PhD Student
Purdue University
Department of Computer Graphics Technology
West Lafayette, IN
Figure 1. Figura Imposible, 25” x 33”, 1972. Screenprint on
cardboard. © 1972 José María Yturralde.
do i:10.1162 /LEON_a _ 01090
Guillermo Searle. e result of this collaboration
was a computer program that recombined
Penrose geometries algorithmically. While the
software description is documented in a series of
manuscripts and artifacts from various authors,
there are few remains of the actual program
(Figure 2). ere is also no way in which to
access the full code through modern computers
and programming languages, leaving limited
proof of its existence and little room for further
For this paper, we interviewed Yturralde about
his arrival in the eld of computer art as well as
the process involved in the creation of the
impossible gure generator. Additionally, we
gathered a sample of secondary sources including dissertations, articles, newsletters, news-
clippings and screen prints in which the project is directly referenced. e majority of these
documents were translated from Spanish for this investigation. Our goal is to share our mutual
inspiration from Yturralde’s art with a larger community of scholars, media archaeologists,
artists, designers, scientists and mathematicians.
Media Archaeology and the Re-Signicance of Media Art
A possible starting point for the study of early computer-mediated works could be Erkki
Huhtamo and Jussi Parikka’s concept of “Media Archaeology.” Media archaeology is a branch of
historically oriented media studies” [3] that “rummages textual, visual, and auditory archives as
well as collections of artifacts, emphasizing both the discursive and the material manifestations
of culture” [4]. Andres Burbano has furthered the study of media archaeology through his work
“Re-signicance of Media Technology.” According to Burbano, the re-signication of media
technology encompasses studying the media artifacts as well as inspecting the researcher’s own
attempt to recreate and update technologies of the past [5]. We explore Burbano’s model as a
methodology to gain a deeper understanding of Yturralde’s contribution.
rough this research we aim to reconstruct an algorithm devised by the team Yturralde-
Ramos-Searle at the GAFP. Additionally, this paper illustrates the historical context from which
the algorithm emerged. In an interdisciplinary manner similar to the one at CCUM, the authors
of this paper collaborated, bridging art and mathematics. We have created a modern-day
impossible gure generator that will allow new generations to access and understand the
computational methods used for the development of this early framework. With a historical
mindset, we documented and preserved Yturralde’s original materials through a contemporary
interpretation of this model. A similar attempt at reinterpreting art through modern code is the
Software Structures project by Casey Reas, in which the wall drawings by Sol LeWitt were
visualized using the Processing language [6]. In contrast, we are reconstructing the algorithm
that was used in the process, rather than recreating images that resemble the nished artworks.
Before Computer Art
José María Yturralde was an emerging artist in Valencia, Spain, around 1964. In the late 1950s,
that area fostered an active interest in geometric abstraction. Many avant-gardes explored a
constructivist aesthetic, one of them being the Arte Normativo movement from Valencia. e
Figure 2. A possible output of the impossible figure
generator found in Castos Alés’ dissertation [2].
© 1971 José María Yturralde.
Yturralde: Impossible Figure Generator | García Bravo, García
approach of the Arte Normativo artists was comparable to the concurrent Minimalist (or early
conceptualist) tendencies that occurred in the United States, where paintings and sculptures
were created based on strict sets of rules. e intention was to reduce the expressionist values in
favor of a more rationalized composition [7]. Vicente Aguilera Cerni, who was a key member of
the Arte Normativo group, later collaborated with Yturralde and others to found the new Antes
del Arte group in 1967.
In addition to normative characteristics, Antes del Arte (Before the Art) embraced perceptualism
in order to democratize the artistic experience. Antes de Arte believed also in the fusion of
science and the arts [8]. In a recent interview, Yturralde recalled his participation in this group:
“We wanted to nd the geometrical, the mathematical and the intellectual basis of our work and
we wanted to do it in a systematic way” [9]. Both Valencian avant-gardes were very inuential for
Yturralde, who started to use computers as part of a process to rationalize form.
In 1966, IBM donated a 7090 computer to the Universidad de Madrid. is was Spains rst-ever
mainframe computer. e 7090 had been recently decommissioned by CERN, a center for the
study of elemental particles in Switzerland. Although this computer was donated, it was not
signicantly older or less powerful than those that were at MIT and other research institutions
around the world at that time [10]. e university had to build a new building in which to host
this computer and founded the Centro de Cálculo de la Universidad de Madrid (CCUM), a
center for research in computing. To accelerate research, the director Florentino Briones and
sub-director Ernesto García Camarero formed interdisciplinary groups through an initiative of
public meetings called seminars [11]. Yturralde recalls:
In respect to the computer, nobody knew what to do with it. I had an acquaintance
with one of the scientists [at CCUM] who was also related to the world of art. We
decided to create a group called Automatic Generation of Plastic Forms, and we
initiated that seminar. We started to embrace musicians, architects, a painter, and, of
course, scientists. [12]
e seminars took the form of regular meetings. e rst Automatic Generation of Plastic Forms
(GAFP) meeting occurred in December 1968 [13]. Yturralde and Vicente Aguilera Cerni came
from Valencia to Madrid to participate and meet with the interdisciplinary group. In an
interview, Yturralde states, “We talked about the importance that working with computers could
have. We also talked about how artists and scientists should work closely together. is is an idea
that has never left me” [14].
At the meetings, open discussions led to dierent types of eorts and collaborations. Some
sessions included planning activities for events and writing articles for the Boletín CCUM, a
newsletter-type publication with reections and even computer code prototypes for artists.
From 1969 to 1973 there were constant exhibitions organized by the CCUM, which grew
exponentially greater in size and reach. e outreach plan was very successful in raising the
awareness of computer art to the general public, making it also visible to an international
community of computer artists. In 1972, the CCUM organized the largest exhibit of computer
art ever done in Spain, which included some of the most important computer artists from
Europe, America and Japan, in addition to the GAFP participants. e exhibit, entitled
“Impulsos: arte y ordenador,” brought together about 90 artworks by diverse pioneers of the
eld, such as Kenneth Knowlton, Charles Csuri, Frieder Nake, Michael Noll, and Manfred
Mohr, to name a few. During the month-long exhibit, there was a conference cycle that invited
García Bravo, García | Yturralde: Impossible Figure Generator
keynote speakers to discuss the role of computers in art. One of the fathers of computing,
Konrad Zuse, gave a lecture on 28 February 1972 [15].
is experience led to a crossover of Spanish artists in subsequent installments of international
exhibits of computer art such as Tendencije 5 in Zagreb, Croatia [16]. After the 1972 exhibit, the
GAFP group began a slow process of dissolution, with various generations of members and
rotating participants. By the time Tendencije 5 opened in 1973, the GAFP seminar had
According to some, the GAFP seminar experience was overwhelming and there was a gradual
loss of interest amongst the participants. In the early days of mainframe computers, display
terminals were uncommon and, therefore, the programmatic visualizations could only be seen
when they were plotted. is was frustrating for many artists because they could not get
immediate visual results (if any), while other times having extenuating deliberations about
computers. Creating programs was a painstaking process that included many steps, from the
formulation of a problem, to its translation into computer code, to the perforation of cards to
nally be able to run the program. Manuel Barbadillo recalled that the whole process could take
about three months [17]. Barbadillo left the group around 1971 because he felt that he could
make greater progress in his art by working without computers [18]. In contrast, Yturralde’s
memory of this time was very positive and exciting. He remembers getting a lot of support from
the CCUM and IBM [19]. He also participated continuously throughout the duration of the
seminars, from 1968 to 1973.
Resistance to Computers in Art
e exhibitions received a lot of publicity, however not all the responses were positive. e art
critics of the time did not embrace the practice of computer-aided art. According to Yturralde:
“e art press messed around with us, they wrote very negative reviews,” and critics “were
sublevated against the idea of any attempt at rationalizing art” [20]. In the early stages of
computer art, artists felt alienated by the idea of using computers.
Yturralde points out that this period was a time of social and cultural transformations [21]. He
recalled the student and worker movements of Paris in May 1968, the hippie movement, and the
nal years of General Francisco Franco Bahamonde’s dictatorship. It was a polarizing moment
for a new generation that was fed up with Franco’s more than repressive regime. For some
reason, computers were in Spain a symbol of this brutal regime, and comparisons were drawn
between machine and state. Early computer artists received harsh criticism for using computers
as a tool for their creative practice and were called “Cyber-Fascists” during the 1972 conference
[22]. e role of computers in art was often criticized in the arts scene as a form of escapism for
not being engaged directly with the immediate social and political problems [23]. For those who
opted to work with computers, these unfair claims had little to do with the reality of working
with a computer. ere was an intricate creative process needed to decompose the artistic process
in a number of steps and constraints.
Impossible Figure Generator
Yturralde’s interest in understanding the underlying structure of impossible gures led him to
join eorts with Isidro Ramos Salavert and Guillermo Searle. Impossible gures have been a
long-standing theme of research, dating back to the golden age of Islamic mathematics around
the ninth century. ese traditional patterns continue to inspire artists, designers and
Yturralde: Impossible Figure Generator | García Bravo, García
In the West, the design of an “impossible triangle” became popularly known as the Penrose
triangle after its publication in a scholarly journal in 1958 [24]. Although the original design of
the impossible triangle, by Oscar Reutersrd, dates back to 1934, Penrose and Penrose’s article
references M.C. Escher’s steps series from the 1950s instead of Reutersvärds as a point of
departure for their study. José María Yturralde takes a similar starting point, inspired by Escher
[25]. He collaborated with a team to produce a program that was designed to compute all the
possible combinations of Penrose shapes of three, four and ve sides. Yturralde recalls that the
plotting process was slow, and that they spent full nights looking at how those “strange-type”
[26] pens plotted the images. Hundreds of designs were generated algorithmically.
Yturralde studied the plotted shapes and chose the ones that seemed more appealing to him.
After the computer designs were on paper, he was able to reproduce them at his studio in the
form of paintings on wood, screen prints and lithographs [27]. ere was also an additional
system that determined the color mixtures of each plane, which he later made manually, as there
were no color printers at the time.
Re-Signicance of the Model
Yturralde’s manuscripts about this project [28] serve as the foundation for the re-signicance of
the Impossible Figure Generator. However, our approach to Yturralde’s gures uses ideas from
analytic geometry and graph theory. A graph is a sketch where we represent the elements of some
set V (known as the vertex) as circles, and represent a binary relationship by arrows between
those circles [29].
One particular kind of graph is called
the cycle. A cycle follows the principle
that if the arrows of the graph are
followed beginning at one vertex,
eventually the end vertex will be the
same as the beginning vertex: all
arrows will have been used, and all
vertices will have been visited exactly
once. In Figure 3, we see an example of
cycles with three, four and ve
vertices. We can generate Yturralde’s
impossible gures if we start with
cycles and at each vertex of the cycle
we assign a label of one of four letters
(A, B, C, D). Indeed, this labeled cycle
has all of the information needed in
order to generate an impossible gure,
so we can think of this cycle as
another representation of the same
object. is representation is
particularly useful for working with a
computer. Figures 3 and 5 illustrate
examples of the labeled cycles.
Figure 3. Labeled cycles of regular figures. © 2015 Esteban García Bravo
and Jorge Garcia.
Figure 4. Example of the 4 variable vertices and the 4 types of shearing.
© 2015 Esteban García Bravo and Jorge Garcia.
Figure 5. Example of the geometric process in 3 steps. © 2015 Esteban
García Bravo and Jorge Garcia.
García Bravo, García | Yturralde: Impossible Figure Generator
Given a labeled cycle, we can assign coordinates in a plane to each of its points. For convenience
we will adhere to the terminology used in Yturralde’s manuscripts published by CCUM [30]. So,
for a reason that will become apparent, we shall call the vertices variables and we shall call the
edges invariables. Every variable in a cycle will always have two distinct neighbors [31]. For
simplicity, we will add the restriction that the variable and its two neighbors cannot lie along the
same line [32]. If we think of the variables as circles of radius r, then for every line we can create
another two parallel lines at distance r from the given lineone above it and one below it. ese
three lines are the invariables. Now, at every variable we have two invariables converging.
Because these two sets of intersecting lines are not parallel, the invariables have 3 x 3 = 9
intersection points, shown in red in Figures 4 and 5b. at is, every variable denes nine points
due to its two invariables. We dene a way to connect the points on the variables, depending on
their labels, as the four cases shown in Figure 4. ese cases are not arbitrary; they arise as the
four possible ways to shear a cube to its four corners [33].
Finally, in order to generate the impossible
gure we connect the variables and the
invariables as we see in the complete process
illustrated in Figure 5. Now that we have a
procedure to go from the labeled cycle to the
impossible gure, in order to reproduce the
results of the program made by Yturralde,
Ramos and Searle, we must generate all
possible labeled cycles of size three, four and
ve. is enumeration generates not only the
impossible gures but also the possible gures
with the given size. As explained in Yturralde’s
manuscripts, with this model, there can be 4
gure combinations, where V is the number of
vertices of each shape. Yturralde observed that
the algorithm could generate repeated, or even
possible,” geometries, which he discarded by
only focusing on the new and impossible
designs [34].
Our implementation was made in Processing 2.0. Using this language makes the model more
easily available to a wider audience of programmers with diverse levels of expertise. Processing’s
philosophy of bridging the gap between artists and programmers aligns with the original mission
of the GAFP seminar. Additionally, we implemented a Processing code through a JavaScript
interface to make it readily available for interaction and download at
(Figure 6).
In the future, we plan to be able to change the positions and the radii of the invariables to be
able to generate forms beyond the ones generated by Yturralde. Additionally, a deeper analysis of
the braids generated by the gures can lead to the automatic shading of those gures. e value
of this is not only aesthetic, but can also lead us to further insight about the connection between
the gures and their underlying labeled cycles. With these additions, we could allow users to
experience Yturralde’s studio practice, which included the fragmentation and coloring of the
impossible shapes originally rendered by the software (Figure 7). However, the focus of this
paper is to document the original software developed in the GAFP seminar.
Figure 6. An iteration of our software implementation displaying 4
impossible shapes—available at <>.
© 2015 Esteban García Bravo and Jorge Garcia.
Yturralde: Impossible Figure Generator | García Bravo, García
After the Impossible
e impossible gures and Yturralde’s relationship with mathematicians opened ground for new
ideas. Subsequent to his participation in the GAFP seminar, Yturralde took a deeper interest in
n-dimensional gures and not just impossible gures. In a 2014 interview, Yturralde recalled his
transition after the seminar experience:
I was, and still am, very interested in the idea of multidimensionality. e fact that, for
example, there could be a 12th dimension. I am fascinated to be able to advance within
the world of art supported by science. e recognition and knowledge of other
dimensions interested me. at was the reason why I went to MIT, to establish contact
with geometers who helped me understand a little better those geometries that had
more dimensions [35].
In 1975, Yturralde was a visiting scholar at the Center for Advanced Visual Studies (CAVS) at
MIT. is experience allowed him to collaborate with scientists as well as with other artists such
as György Képes and Otto Piene. During this time, he became familiar with hyper-polyhedra,
lasers and natural power sources. e hyper-polyhedra research evolved in a series of ying
structures (Figure 8) called Estructuras Volantes, featured in the 1978 Venice Biennale, the Sky
Art exhibit of 1982, and Ars Electronica in 1983. Yturralde has been an emeritus professor of
painting at the Universitat Politecnica de Valencia at the Facultad de Bellas Artes since 1979. His
contributions have transcended both ne art and new media circles, and are illustrated in an
outstanding exhibit record [36]. Yturralde’s relevance in Spain has led to comprehensive exhibits,
such as his rst retrospective at the Instituto Valenciano de Arte Moderno (IVAM) in 1999 [37].
Figure 7. Figura Imposible, 25” x 33”, 1972. Screenprint on
cardboard. © 1972 José María Yturralde.
Figure 8. Estructura Volante, 80” x 80” x 80”. Balsa wood,
nylon and Japanese paper. A flying structure from the
cube series flying over the Saler beach in Valencia.
© 1977 José María Yturralde.
García Bravo, García | Yturralde: Impossible Figure Generator
Yturralde was able to utilize the computer as an opportunity to visualize impossible gures
through the design of his Impossible Figure Generator. It was in this way that he joined a wave
of artists who began to understand the potential of the computer as a tool to join art and science.
rough his work, he demonstrates his inspiration in mathematics, but also represents the subtle
language of art through a concrete aesthetic. is study is a comprehensive glimpse into a pivotal
point in Yturralde’s career. rough the re-creation and implementation of Yturralde’s lost
program, we have sought to not only enable an outlet for modern experimentation of impossible
gures, but also to provide a historical analysis of Yturralde’s time period to re-signify the
original methods that allowed him to expand his visual knowledge of enigmatic shapes.
References and Notes
1. Now called Universidad Complutense de Madrid.
2. E. Castaños As, Los Orígenes del arte Cibernético en España, Doctoral Dissertation (Alicante :
Biblioteca Virtual Miguel de Cervantes, 2000) p. 165.
3. E. Huhtamo and J. Parikka, eds., Media Archaeology: Approaches, Applications, and Implications
(University of California, Berkeley, 2011) p. 1.
4. Ibid., p. 3.
5. Burbano, A. Inventions at the Borders of History: Re-Signicance of Media Technologies from Latin
America, Doctoral Dissertation (University of California Santa Barbara, 2013) p. 35.
6. C. Reas, “Software Structures” (2004), retrieved 10 April 2015, <
7. P. Barreiro López, La abstracción geométrica en España (1957-1969) (Madrid: CCSIC, 2009) pp. 66-67.
8. V. Aguilera Cerni, retrieved 10 April 2015, <>.
9. J.M. Yturralde, Interview [Sound Recording] (3 March 2014).
10. Ibid.
11. Castaños As [2], pp. 86-87.
12. Yturralde [9].
13. Castaños As [2], p. 96.
14. Yturralde [9].
15. Castaños As [2], p. 119.
16. M. Rosen, A Little-Known Story about a Movement, a Magazine, and the Computer’s Arrival in Art,
(MIT Press, 2011).
17. Castaños As [2], p. 100.
18. Ibid., p. 118.
19. Yturralde [9].
20. Ibid.
21. Ibid.
22. Castaños Ales [2], p. 132.
23. Yturralde [9].
24. Penrose L, Penrose R. “Impossible objects: A special type of visual illusion,British Journal of
Psychology 1958;49(1):3133.
25. Castaños As [2], p. 164.
26. Yturralde [9].
27. J.M. Yturralde, “Ejemplo de una aplicación metodológica continuando un trabajo sobre estructuras
geométricas,” in [Art Catalog] Ordenadores en el arte (Centro de Cálculo de la Universidad de Madrid,
1969), pp. 41-45.
28. Ibid.
Yturralde: Impossible Figure Generator | García Bravo, García
29. is is not a complete description and we are actually using directed graphs. For the interested reader
a formal description of graphs as mathematical entities can be seen in any book about graph theory. A
good example is: Introductory Graph eory by Gary Chartrand. Dover Publications, 1984.
30. Yturralde [27]. We reproduced the same geometric process described on Yturralde’s texts and sketches.
31. One neighbor points to the Variable and the neighbor that the Variable points to.
32. is is a very common restriction in Computational Geometry, where they like to say that the
variables are in “general position.
33. e cases C and D look suspiciously symmetric. However, they are not the same case, since we are
dealing with directed graphs.
34. Yturralde [27].
35. Yturralde [9].
36. A chronology is posted on Yturralde’s website: <>. is
website served as point of contact to access documentation originally published in the CCUM
newsletters. e space in this article is too short to document Yturralde’s accomplishments.
37. O. Alonso Molina. “Preciso como una gota de agua,La Razón (18 December 1999).
García Bravo, García | Yturralde: Impossible Figure Generator
ResearchGate has not been able to resolve any citations for this publication.
This book documents a short but intense artistic experiment that took place in Yugoslavia fifty years ago but has been influential far beyond that time and place: the “little-known story” of the advent of computers in art. It was through the activities of the New Tendencies movement, begun in Zagreb in 1961, and its supporting institution the Galerija suvremene umjetnosti that the “thinking machine” was adopted as an artistic tool and medium. Pursuing the idea of “art as visual research,” the New Tendencies movement proceeded along a path that led from Concrete and Constructivist art, Op art, and Kinetic art to computer-generated graphics, film, and sculpture. With their exhibitions and conferences and the 1968 launch of the multilingual, groundbreaking magazine Bit International, the New Tendencies transformed Zagreb—already one of the most vibrant artistic centers in Yugoslavia—into an international meeting place where artists, engineers, and scientists from both sides of the Iron Curtain gathered around the then-new technology. For a brief moment in time, Zagreb was the epicenter of explorations of the aesthetic, scientific, and political potential of the computer. This volume documents that exhilarating period. It includes new essays by Jerko Denegri, Darko Fritz, Margit Rosen, and Peter Weibel; many texts that were first published in New Tendencies exhibition catalogs and Bit International magazine; and historic documents. More than 650 black-and-white and color illustrations testify to the astonishing diversity of the exhibited artworks and introduce the movement's protagonists. Many of the historic photographs, translations, and documents are published here for the first time. Taken together, the images and texts offer the long overdue history of the New Tendencies experiment and its impact on the art of the twentieth century.
Los Orígenes del arte Cibernético en España
  • Castaños Alés
E. Castaños Alés, Los Orígenes del arte Cibernético en España, Doctoral Dissertation (Alicante : Biblioteca Virtual Miguel de Cervantes, 2000) p. 165.
Inventions at the Borders of History: Re-Significance of Media Technologies from Latin America, Doctoral Dissertation
  • A Burbano
Burbano, A. Inventions at the Borders of History: Re-Significance of Media Technologies from Latin America, Doctoral Dissertation (University of California Santa Barbara, 2013) p. 35.
Preciso como una gota de agua
  • Alonso Molina
Alonso Molina. " Preciso como una gota de agua, " La Razón (18 December 1999).
Ejemplo de una aplicación metodológica continuando un trabajo sobre estructuras geométricas
  • J M Yturralde
J.M. Yturralde, "Ejemplo de una aplicación metodológica continuando un trabajo sobre estructuras geométricas," in [Art Catalog] Ordenadores en el arte (Centro de Cálculo de la Universidad de Madrid, 1969), pp. 41-45.
  • J M Yturralde
J.M. Yturralde, Interview [Sound Recording] (3 March 2014).
Doctoral Dissertation
  • A Burbano
M. Rosen A Little-Known Story about a Movement a Magazine and the Computer's Arrival in Art
  • M Rosen